boi103lab

Experiment 1: Following Chromosomal DNA Movement through Meiosis In this experiment, you will model the movement of the chromosomes through meiosis I and II to create gametes. Materials 6 Long Pipe Cleaners 4 Beads *Scissors *You must provide. Procedure: Part 1: Modeling Meiosis without Crossing Over As prophase I begins, the replicated chromosomes coil and condense… Build a pair of replicated, homologous chromosomes (Figure 3). One pipe cleaners should be used to create each individual sister chromatid (2 pipe cleaners per chromosome pair). One bead represents each centromere. To do this… Figure 3: Pipe cleaner set-up. The red pipe cleaners represent one pair of sister chromatids and the orange pipe cleaners represent a second pair of sister chromatids. The red and orange pair are homologous. Start with two pipe cleaners of the same color to create your first sister chromatid pair. Hold the pipe cleaners next to each other and string the pipe cleaners through one bead. Slide the bead halfway down the pipe cleaners. Then, pull bottom ends of the pipe cleaners away from each other to create an “X” shape. Repeat this process using the other two matching pipe cleaners to create the second sister chromatid pair. Cut the two remaining pipe cleaners in half. Repeat step 1 using the two pipe cleaner halves of the same color to create homologous chromosomes (Figure 4). Pair up the homologous chromosome pairs created in Step 1 and 2. DO NOT SIMULATE CROSSING OVER IN THIS TRIAL. You will simulate crossing over in Part 2. Configure the chromosomes as they would appear in each of the stages of meiotic division (prophase I and II, metaphase I and II, anaphase I and II, telophase I and II, and cytokinesis). Diagram the corresponding images for each stage in the sections titled “Trial 1 – Meiotic Division Beads Diagram.” Be sure to indicate the number of chromosomes present in each cell for each phase. Figure 4: Second set of replicated chromosomes. Part 1 – Meiotic Division Beads Diagram Prophase I Metaphase I Anaphase I Telophase I Prophase II Metaphase II Anaphase II Telophase II Cytokinesis Disassemble the beads used in Part 1. You will need to recycle these beads for a second meiosis trial in Steps 8 – 13. Part 2: Modeling Meiosis with Crossing Over Build a pair of replicated, homologous chromosomes. One pipe cleaners should be used to create each individual sister chromatid (two pipe cleaners per chromosome pair). One bead represents each centromere. To do this… Start with two long pipe cleaners of the same color to create your first sister chromatid pair. Hold the pipe cleaners next to each other and string the pipe cleaners through one bead. Slide the bead halfway down the pipe cleaners. Then, pull bottom ends of the pipe cleaners away from each other to create an “X” shape. Repeat this process using the two remaining long pipe cleaners to create the second sister chromatid pair. Assemble a second pair of replicated sister chromatids, this time using the pipe cleaners you cut in Part 1. Use the two pipe cleaner halves of the same color for each homologous chromosome.Pair up the homologous chromosomes created in Step 8 and 9. SIMULATE CROSSING OVER. To do this, bring two chromatids from the two homologous pairs of sister chromatids together (creating the chiasma) and use your scissors to cut the pipe cleaners at the chiasma. Exchange and connect the pipe cleaner pieces by twisting the ends of the pieces around the different colored pipe cleaner. This will result in chromatids of the same original length, there will now be new combinations of chromatid colors (Figure 5). Do this for both sets of homologous chromosomes. Configure the chromosomes as they would appear in each of the stages of meiotic division (prophase I and II, metaphase I and II, anaphase I and II, telophase I and II, and cytokinesis). Diagram the corresponding images for each stage in the section titled “Trial 2 – Meiotic Division Beads Diagram.” Be sure to indicate the number of chromosomes present in each cell for each phase. Also, indicate how the crossing over affected the genetic content in the gametes from Part 1 versus Part 2. Figure 5: Replicated chromosomes after crossing over. Part 2 – Meiotic Division Beads Diagram: Prophase I Metaphase I Anaphase I Telophase I Prophase II Metaphase II Anaphase II Telophase II Cytokinesis © 2014 eScience Labs, LLC. All Rights Reserved Experiment 2: The Importance of Cell Cycle Control Some environmental factors can cause genetic mutations which result in a lack of proper cell cycle control (mitosis). When this happens, the possibility for uncontrolled cell growth occurs. In some instances, uncontrolled growth can lead to tumors, which are often associated with cancer, or other biological diseases. In this experiment, you will review some of the karyotypic differences which can be observed when comparing normal, controlled cell growth and abnormal, uncontrolled cell growth. A karyotype is an image of the complete set of diploid chromosomes in a single cell. Materials *Computer Access *Internet Access *You Must Provide Procedure Begin by constructing a hypothesis to explain what differences you might observe when comparing the karyotypes of human cells which experience normal cell cycle control versus cancerous cells (which experience abnormal, or a lack of, cell cycle control). Record your hypothesis in Post-Lab Question 1. Note: Be sure to include what you expect to observe, and why you think you will observe these features. Think about what you know about cancerous cell growth to help construct this informationGo online to find some images of abnormal karyotypes, and normal karyotypes. The best results will come from search terms such as “abnormal karyotype”, “HeLa cells”, “normal karyotype”, “abnormal chromosomes”, etc. Be sure to use dependable resources which have been peer-reviewedIdentify at least five abnormalities in the abnormal images. Then, list and draw each image in the Data section at the end of this experiment. Do these abnormalities agree with your original hypothesis? Hint: It may be helpful to count the number of chromosomes, count the number of pairs, compare the sizes of homologous chromosomes, look for any missing or additional genetic markers/flags, etc. Data © 2013 eScience Labs, LLC. All Rights Reserved
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Experiment 1: Following Chromosomal DNA Movement through Meiosis
In this experiment, you will model the movement of the chromosomes through meiosis I and
II to create gametes.
Materials
6 Long Pipe Cleaners
4 Beads
*Scissors
*You must provide.
Procedure:
Part 1: Modeling Meiosis without Crossing Over
As prophase I begins, the replicated chromosomes coil and condense…
1. Build a pair of replicated, homologous chromosomes (Figure 3). One pipe cleaners
should be used to create each individual sister chromatid (2 pipe cleaners per
chromosome pair). One bead represents each centromere. To do this…
Figure 3: Pipe cleaner set-up. The red
pipe cleaners represent one pair of sister
2.
3.
4.
5.
a. Start with two pipe cleaners of the chromatids and the orange pipe cleaners
same color to create your first
represent a second pair of sister
sister chromatid pair. Hold the
chromatids. The red and orange pair are
pipe cleaners next to each other
homologous.
and string the pipe cleaners
through one bead. Slide the bead halfway down the pipe cleaners. Then, pull
bottom ends of the pipe cleaners away from each other to create an “X” shape.
b. Repeat this process using the other two matching pipe cleaners to create the
second sister chromatid pair.
Cut the two remaining pipe cleaners in half. Repeat step 1 using the two pipe cleaner
halves of the same color to create homologous chromosomes (Figure 4).
Pair up the homologous chromosome pairs created in Step 1 and 2. DO NOT
SIMULATE CROSSING OVER IN THIS TRIAL. You will simulate crossing over in
Part 2.
Configure the chromosomes as they would appear in each of the stages of meiotic
division (prophase I and II, metaphase I and II, anaphase I and II, telophase I and II,
and cytokinesis).
Diagram the corresponding images for each stage in the sections titled “Trial 1 Meiotic Division Beads Diagram.” Be sure to indicate the number of chromosomes
present in each cell for each phase.
Part 1 – Meiotic Division Beads Diagram
Prophase I
Metaphase I
Anaphase I
Telophase I
Prophase II
Metaphase II
Figure 4: Second set of replicated
chromosomes.
Anaphase II
Telophase II
Cytokinesis
6. Disassemble the beads used in Part 1. You will need to recycle these beads for a
second meiosis trial in Steps 8 – 13.
Part 2: Modeling Meiosis with Crossing Over
7. Build a pair of replicated, homologous chromosomes. One pipe cleaners should be
used to create each individual sister chromatid (two pipe cleaners per chromosome
pair). One bead represents each centromere. To do this…
a. Start with two long pipe cleaners of the same color to create your first sister
chromatid pair. Hold the pipe cleaners next to each other and string the pipe
cleaners through one bead. Slide the bead halfway down the pipe cleaners.
Then, pull bottom ends of the pipe cleaners away from each other to create an
“X” shape.
b. Repeat this process using the two remaining long pipe cleaners to create the
second sister chromatid pair.
8. Assemble a second pair of replicated sister chromatids, this time using the pipe
cleaners you cut in Part 1. Use the two pipe cleaner halves of the same color for each
homologous chromosome.
9. Pair up the homologous chromosomes created in Step 8 and 9.
10. SIMULATE CROSSING OVER. To do this, bring two chromatids from the two
homologous pairs of sister chromatids together (creating the chiasma) and use your
scissors to cut the pipe cleaners at the chiasma. Exchange and connect the pipe cleaner
pieces by twisting the ends of the pieces around the different colored pipe cleaner. This
will result in chromatids of the same original length, there will now be new
combinations of chromatid colors (Figure 5). Do this for both sets of homologous
chromosomes.
11. Configure the chromosomes as they would appear in each of the stages of meiotic
division (prophase I and II, metaphase I and II, anaphase I and II, telophase I and II,
and cytokinesis).
12. Diagram the corresponding images for each stage in the section titled “Trial 2 Meiotic Division Beads Diagram.” Be sure to indicate the number of chromosomes
present in each cell for each phase. Also, indicate how the crossing over affected the
genetic content in the gametes from Part 1 versus Part 2.
Part 2 – Meiotic Division Beads Diagram:
Prophase I
Metaphase I
Figure 5: Replicated chromosomes
after crossing over.
Anaphase I
Telophase I
Prophase II
Metaphase II
Anaphase II
Telophase II
Cytokinesis
© 2014 eScience
Labs, LLC.
All Rights Reserved
Experiment 2: The Importance of Cell Cycle Control
Some environmental factors can cause genetic mutations which result in a lack of proper cell
cycle control (mitosis). When this happens, the possibility for uncontrolled cell growth occurs.
In some instances, uncontrolled growth can lead to tumors, which are often associated with
cancer, or other biological diseases.
In this experiment, you will review some of the karyotypic differences which can be observed
when comparing normal, controlled cell growth and abnormal, uncontrolled cell growth. A
karyotype is an image of the complete set of diploid chromosomes in a single cell.
Materials
*Computer Access
*Internet Access
*You Must Provide
Procedure
1. Begin by constructing a hypothesis to explain what differences you might observe
when comparing the karyotypes of human cells which experience normal cell cycle
control versus cancerous cells (which experience abnormal, or a lack of, cell cycle
control). Record your hypothesis in Post-Lab Question 1.
Note: Be sure to include what you expect to observe, and why you think you will
observe these features. Think about what you know about cancerous cell growth to
help construct this information
2. Go online to find some images of abnormal karyotypes, and normal karyotypes. The
best results will come from search terms such as “abnormal karyotype”, “HeLa cells”,
“normal karyotype”, “abnormal chromosomes”, etc. Be sure to use dependable
resources which have been peer-reviewed
3. Identify at least five abnormalities in the abnormal images. Then, list and draw each
image in the Data section at the end of this experiment. Do these abnormalities agree
with your original hypothesis?
Hint: It may be helpful to count the number of chromosomes, count the number of
pairs, compare the sizes of homologous chromosomes, look for any missing or
additional genetic markers/flags, etc.
Data
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
© 2013 eScience
Labs, LLC.
All Rights Reserved
Your Full Name:
UMUC Biology 102/103
Lab 5: Meiosis
INSTRUCTIONS:
•
•
•
•
On your own and without assistance, complete this Lab 5 Answer Sheet electronically
and submit it via the Assignments Folder by the date listed in the Course Schedule
(under Syllabus).
To conduct your laboratory exercises, use the Laboratory Manual located under Course
Content. Read the introduction and the directions for each exercise/experiment carefully
before completing the exercises/experiments and answering the questions.
Save your Lab 5 Answer Sheet in the following format: LastName_Lab5 (e.g.,
Smith_Lab5).
You should submit your document as a Word (.doc or .docx) or Rich Text Format (.rtf) file
for best compatibility.
© eScience Labs, LLC 2014
Pre-Lab Questions
1. Compare and contrast mitosis and meiosis.
2. What major event occurs during interphase?
Experiment 1: Following Chromosomal DNA Movement
through Meiosis
Data Tables and Post-Lab Assessment
Trial 1 – Meiotic Division Without Crossing Over Pipe Cleaners Diagram:
Take pictures of your pipe cleaners for each phase of meiosis I and II without crossing
over. Include notes with your name, date and meiotic stage on index cards in the
pictures. Please use the lowest resolution possible so that your file does not become too
large to submit.
Insert pictures here:
Prophase I
Metaphase I
© eScience Labs, LLC 2014
Anaphase I
Telophase I
Prophase II
Metaphase II
Anaphase II
Telophase I
Cytokinesis
Trial 2 – Meiotic Division with Crossing Over Pipe Cleaners Diagram:
© eScience Labs, LLC 2014
Take pictures of your pipe cleaners for each phase of meiosis I and II with crossing
over. Include notes with your name, date and meiotic stage on index cards in the
pictures. Please use the lowest resolution possible so that your file does not become
too large to submit.
Insert pictures here:
Prophase I
Metaphase I
Anaphase I
Telophase I
Prophase II
Metaphase II
© eScience Labs, LLC 2014
Anaphase II
Telophase I
Cytokinesis
Post-Lab Questions
1. What is the ploidy of the DNA at the end of meiosis I? What about at the end of meiosis II?
2. How are meiosis I and meiosis II different?
3. Why do you use non-sister chromatids to demonstrate crossing over?
4. What combinations of alleles could result from a crossover between BD and bd
chromosomes?
© eScience Labs, LLC 2014
5. How many chromosomes were present when meiosis I started?
6. How many nuclei are present at the end of meiosis II? How many chromosomes are in
each?
7. Identify two ways that meiosis contributes to genetic recombination.
8. Why is it necessary to reduce the number of chromosomes in gametes, but not in other
cells?
9. Blue whales have 44 chromosomes in every cell. Determine how many chromosomes you
would expect to find in the following:
i. Sperm Cell:
ii. Egg Cell:
iii. Daughter Cell from Mitosis:
iv. Daughter Cell from Meiosis II:
© eScience Labs, LLC 2014
10. Research and find a disease that is caused by chromosomal mutations. When does the
mutation occur? What chromosomes are affected? What are the consequences?
11. Diagram what would happen if sexual reproduction took place for four generations using
diploid (2n) cells.
© eScience Labs, LLC 2014
Experiment 2: The Importance of Cell Cycle Control
For each of the five abnormalities you find online, copy and paste a picture of it (and
be sure to cite the URL for the picture)—you will not be photographing your own
results for this section of lab, because you’re doing your research online for the
questions below.
Data Tables and Post-Lab Assessment
1. [paste in your online picture and cite the URL]
2. [paste in your online picture and cite the URL]
3. [paste in your online picture and cite the URL]
4. [paste in your online picture and cite the URL]
5. [paste in your online picture and cite the URL]
Post-Lab Questions
1. Record your hypothesis from Step 1 in the Procedure section here.
© eScience Labs, LLC 2014
2. What do your results indicate about cell cycle control?
3. Suppose a person developed a mutation in a somatic cell which diminishes the performance
of the body’s natural cell cycle control proteins. This mutation resulted in cancer, but was
effectively treated with a cocktail of cancer-fighting techniques. Is it possible for this person’s
future children to inherit this cancer-causing mutation? Be specific when you explain why or
why not.
4. Why do cells which lack cell cycle control exhibit karyotypes which look physically different
than cells with normal cell cycle.
5. What are HeLa cells? Why are HeLa cells appropriate for this experiment?
© eScience Labs, LLC 2014

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