Briefly discuss the role “Services” play in the Windows 10

Length: 300-500 wordsThe references should be in APA 6th references.Briefly discuss the role “Services” play in the Windows 10 environment (It is recommended that students research this topic using wider reading resources and use some figures/diagrams to portray their discussions. Referencing should be accurately documented using APA 6th edition)I have attached the chapter about services below, you should combine the information in the book and get more information on the internet as references.This is the book reference: Knittel & McFedries (2016). Windows 10 In Depth (1st Edition), Que Publishing, ISBN 978-0789754745
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1. Open the Local Group Policy Editor.
2. Navigate to the User Configuration, Administrative Templates, Windows Components, Microsoft
Management Console branch.
3. Double-click the Restrict Users to the Explicitly Permitted List of Snap-ins policy.
4. Activate the Enabled option.
5. Click OK.
6. Navigate to the User Configuration, Administrative Templates, Windows Components, Microsoft
Management Console, Restricted/Permitted Snap-ins branch.
7. Double-click a snap-in that you want users to access.
8. Activate the Enabled option.
9. Click OK.
10. Repeat steps 7–9 for each snap-in that you want users to access.
Controlling Services
Windows 10 comes with a long list of programs called services that operate behind the scenes and
perform essential tasks either on their own or in support of other programs or Windows features.
These services are background routines that enable the system to perform tasks such as logging on
to the network, managing disks, collecting performance data, and writing event logs. Windows 10
comes with more than 160 installed services.
You won’t have to interact with services very often, but when they do come up, you’ll be glad to
have this section’s tools in your Windows 10 toolbox. For example, although services usually operate
behind the scenes, you might need to pause, stop, and start services, as well as configure how services load at startup. The following sections show you the various methods you can use to perform
these service tasks.
Controlling Services with the Services Snap-in
The standard interface for the Windows 10 services is the Services snap-in, which you can load by
using any of the following techniques:
• Click in the taskbar’s Search box or display the Run dialog box, type services.msc, and press
Enter.
• In Control Panel, select Small Icons or Large Icons in the View list, click Administrative Tools,
and then click Services.
• Press Windows Logo+X (or right-click the Start button), click Computer Management, and then
select the Services and Applications, Services branch.
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The Services snap-in that appears displays a list of the installed services. For each service, it displays the name of the service and a brief description, the current status of the service (Running,
Paused, or blank for a stopped service), the service’s startup type (such as Automatic or Manual),
and the name of the system account the service uses to log on at startup. When you select a service,
the Extended tab of the taskpad view shows the service name and description and offers links to
control the service status (such as Start, Stop, or Restart). Figure 23.18 shows an example.
Stop Service
Start Service
Pause Service
To change the status of a service, select it and then use one of
the following techniques:
•
Figure 23.18
You can use the
Services snap-in
to control the
Windows 10
services.
Restart Service
To start a stopped service, either click the Start link in the
taskpad or click the Start Service toolbar button.
• To stop a running service, either click the Stop link in the taskpad or click the Stop Service toolbar button.
• To pause a running service, either click the Pause link in the
taskpad or click the Start Service toolbar button. (Note that
only a few services support the Pause task.)
• To resume a paused service, either click the Restart link in the
taskpad or click the Restart Service toolbar button.
note
If a service is started but has
no Stop link and the Stop
toolbar button is disabled,
this means the service is
essential to Windows 10 and
can’t be stopped. Examples
of essential services include
DCOM Server Process
Launcher, Group Policy
Client, Plug and Play, Remote
Procedure Call (RPC), and
Security Accounts Manager.
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23
caution
It’s possible that a service might be dependent on one or more other services, and if those services aren’t
running, the dependent service will not work properly. If you stop a service that has dependent services,
Windows 10 also stops the dependents. However, when you restart the main service, Windows 10 might
not start the dependent services as well. You need to start those services by hand. To see which services
depend on a particular service, double-click that service to open its property sheet, and then display the
Dependencies tab. Dependent services are shown in the list titled The Following System Components
Depend on This Service.
To change the way a service starts when you boot Windows 10, follow these steps:
1. Double-click the service you want to work with to open its property sheet. Figure 23.19 shows an
example.
Figure 23.19
You use a service’s property sheet to control its
startup type.
2. In the General tab, use the Startup Type list to select one of the
following types:
•
Automatic—The service starts automatically when Windows
10 boots. The service is started before the logon screen
appears.
• Automatic (Delayed Start)—The service starts automatically
note
If the Startup Type list is disabled, this means the service
is essential to Windows 10
and must be started automatically when the system boots.
when Windows 10 boots, but not until you log on.
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VI
• Manual—The service does not start when Windows 10
boots. You must start the service yourself.
• Disabled—The service does not start when Windows 10
boots, and you can’t start the service manually.
3. Click OK.
Controlling Services at the
Command Prompt
tip
If you make changes to service startup types and you
find your system is unstable
or causing problems, the
best thing to do is return
each service to its default
startup type.
If you regularly stop and start certain services, loading the Services snap-in and manually stopping
and then restarting each service can be time-consuming. A better method is to take advantage of
the NET STOP and NET START command-line tools, which enable you to stop and start any service
that isn’t disabled. If a service can be paused and restarted, you can also use the NET PAUSE and
NET CONTINUE commands to control the service. Each of these commands uses the same syntax:
NET
NET
NET
NET
STOP Service
START Service
PAUSE Service
CONTINUE Service
Service is the name of the service you want to control. Use the
same value that appears in the Name column of the Services
snap-in. If the name contains a space, surround the name with
quotation marks.
Here are some examples:
net
net
net
net
start Fax
stop “Disk Defragmenter”
pause “Windows Audio”
continue “Windows Time”
tip
To see a list of the currently
running services, open a
command-line session and
enter the command net
start without the Service
parameter.
You can combine multiple commands in a batch file to easily control several services with a single
task.
Controlling Services with a Script
If you want to automate service control but also want to control the startup type, you need to go
beyond the command line and create scripts that manage your services. Windows Management
Instrumentation (WMI) has a class called Win32_Service that represents a Windows service. You
can return an instance of this class to work with a specific service on Windows 10. After you have
the service object, you can query its current status with the State property, determine whether
the service is running with the Started property, and return the service’s startup type with the
StartMode property. You can also change the service state using the StartService, StopService,
PauseService, and ResumeService methods.
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Listing 23.1 presents a script that uses most of these properties and methods.
? To learn how to run scripts, see “Windows Script Host,” p. 704.
Listing 23.1 A WMI Script That Toggles a Service’s State Between Started
and Stopped
Option Explicit
Dim strComputer, strServiceName, intReturn
Dim objWMI, objServices, objService

‘ Get the WMI service

strComputer = “localhost”
Set objWMI = GetObject(“winmgmts:{impersonationLevel=impersonate}!\” & _
strComputer & “rootcimv2”)

‘ Specify the service name

strServiceName = “Remote Registry”

‘ Get the service instance

Set objServices = objWMI.ExecQuery(“SELECT * FROM Win32_Service ” & _
“WHERE DisplayName = ‘” & strServiceName & “‘”)
For Each objService In objServices

‘ Save the service name

strServiceName = objService.DisplayName

‘ Is the service started?

If objService.Started Then

‘ Can it be stopped?

If objService.AcceptStop Then

‘ Attempt to stop the service

intReturn = objService.StopService

‘ Check the return value

If intReturn <> 0 Then

‘ Display the error message

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VI
WScript.Echo “ERROR: The ” & strServiceName & ” service ” & _
“failed to stop. The return code is ” & intReturn
Else

‘ Display the current state

WScript.Echo “The ” & strServiceName & ” service is now ” & _
objService.State
End If
Else

‘ Display the error message

WScript.Echo “ERROR: The ” & strServiceName & ” service ” & _
“cannot be stopped.”
End If
Else

‘ Attempt to start the service

intReturn = objService.StartService

‘ Check the return value

If intReturn <> 0 Then

‘ Display the error message

WScript.Echo “ERROR: The ” & strServiceName & ” service ” & _
“failed to start. The return code is ” & intReturn
Else

‘ Display the current state

WScript.Echo “The ” & strServiceName & ” service is now ” & _
objService.State
End If
End If
Next

‘ Release the objects

Set objWMI = Nothing
Set objServices = Nothing
Set objService = Nothing
This script gets the WMI service object and uses its ExecQuery method to return an instance of
the Win32_Service class by using the WHERE clause to look for a specific service name. That name
was earlier stored in the strServiceName variable. In the For Each…Next loop, the script first
checks to see whether the service is currently started by checking its Started property:
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23
•
If the Started property returns True, the service is running, so we want to stop it. The script
then checks the service’s AcceptStop property, which returns False for essential Windows 10
services that can’t be stopped. In this case, the script returns an error message. If AcceptStop
returns True, the script attempts to stop the service by running the StopService method.
• If the Started property returns False, the service is stopped, so we want to start it. The script
attempts to start the service by running the StartService method.
The StopService and StartService methods generate the return codes shown in Table 23.2.
Table 23.2 Return Codes Generated by the
StartService
Return Code
Description
0
Success
1
Not supported
2
Access denied
3
Dependent services running
4
Invalid service control
5
Service cannot accept control
6
Service not active
7
Service request timeout
8
Unknown failure
9
Path not found
10
Service already stopped
11
Service database locked
12
Service dependency deleted
13
Service dependency failure
14
Service disabled
15
Service logon failed
16
Service marked for deletion
17
Service no thread
18
Status circular dependency
19
Status — duplicate name
20
Status — invalid name
21
Status — invalid parameter
22
Status — invalid service account
23
Status — service exists
24
Service already paused
and
StopService
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VI
For both the StopService and StartService methods, the script stores the return code in the
intReturn variable and then checks to see whether it’s a number other than 0. If so, the script displays an error message that includes the return code; otherwise, the script displays the new state of
the service (as given by the State property).
Making Windows Shut Down Services Faster
If it seems to take Windows forever to shut down, the culprit might be all those services that it has
running. Windows has to shut down each service one by one before it can shut down the PC. In
each case, Windows waits a certain amount of time for the service to close, and if it hasn’t closed in that time, Windows kills
the service. It’s that waiting for services to shut themselves down
You can also reduce the
that can really bring the shutdown process to its knees.
amount of time that
However, most services shut down as soon as they get the comWindows 10 waits before killmand from Windows. So although it’s polite of Windows to give
ing any running applications
some services a bit of extra time, it’s really wasted time because
at shutdown. In the Registry
in most cases Windows is just going to have to kill those slow
Editor, navigate to the folservices anyway. So in that case, you should configure Windows
lowing key:
10 to tell it to kill services faster. Here’s how:
tip
1. Select Start, type regedit, and then press Enter. The Registry
Editor appears.
2. Navigate to the following key:
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINESYSTEMCurrentControlSetControl
3. Double-click the WaitToKillServiceTimeout setting.
4. Reduce the value to 1000.
HKEY_CURRENT_USERControl
PanelDesktop
Double-click the
WaitToKillAppTimeout
setting. (If you don’t see
this setting, select Edit,
New, String Value, type
WaitToKillAppTimeout,
and click OK.) Change the
value to 5000 and click OK.
5. Click OK.
Resetting a Broken Service
If Windows 10 is acting erratically (or, we should say, if it’s acting more erratically than usual), the
problem could be a service that’s somehow gotten corrupted. How can you tell? The most obvious
clue is an error message that tells you a particular service isn’t running or couldn’t start. You can
also check the Event Viewer for service errors. Finally, if a particular feature of Windows 10 is acting
funny and you know that a service is associated with that feature, you might suspect that service is
causing the trouble.
To fix the problem (hopefully!), you can reset the broken service. The procedure involves the following four general steps:
1. Find out the name of the service that is (or that you suspect is) broken.
2. Delete the service.
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3. Load a backup copy of the system hive into the Registry.
4. Copy the service from the backup hive copy to the service’s actual Registry location.
Here is more detail on each of those four steps.
Determine the Name of the Service
To begin, follow these steps to determine the name of the service:
1. Open the Services snap-in, as described earlier in this chapter.
2. Double-click the service you want to reset.
3. In the General tab, locate the Service Name value.
4. Click OK.
Delete the Service
Next, follow these steps to delete the service:
1. Select Start, type command, right-click Command Prompt in
the results, click Run as Administrator, and then enter your
User Account Control credentials. Windows 10 opens an
Administrator Command Prompt session.
2. Type the following (where service is the service name that
you noted in the previous set of steps):
sc delete service
3. Press Enter. Windows 10 attempts to delete the service.
If the deletion works properly, you see the following message:
[SC] DeleteService SUCCESS
Note that you need the Command Prompt again a bit later, so leave
the session open for now.
note
If the deletion isn’t successful, double-check the service
name. If you’re sure you
have the name right, try
deleting the service using
the Registry Editor instead.
Open the Registry Editor,
navigate to the HKEY_
LOCAL_MACHINESystem
CurrentControlSet
Services key, and then locate
the service. Right-click the service and then click Delete.
Load a Backup Copy of the System Hive
Now follow these steps to load a fresh copy of the system hive:
1. Select Start, type regedit, press Enter, and then enter your User Account Control credentials to
open the Registry Editor.
2. Select the HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE key.
3. Select File, Load Hive to open the Load Hive dialog box.
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