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Answer the following questions applying the knowledge learned from Chapter 7,8,9 and Chapter 13.NOTE: each question must be at least 150 words.
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Assignment 2
Q1. What are the three ways to address people’s resistance to change?
Q2. Explain what studies have shown about the relationship between planning and
performance.
Q3. Describe what is a competitive advantage and give an example.
Q4. What is the difference between a work group and a work team.
MANAGING
CHANGE AND
INNOVATION
7
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7-1
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
Compare and contrast views on the change process.
2. Classify types of organizational change.
3. Explain how to manage resistance to change.
1.
• Know how to be change ready by overcoming your resistance
to change.
Discuss contemporary issues in managing change.
4.
•
5.
Develop your skill in change management so you can serve
as a catalyst for change.
Describe techniques for stimulating innovation.
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7-2
TWO VIEWS OF THE CHANGE PROCESS
• The Calm Waters Metaphor
– Lewin’s description of the change process as a break in the
organization’s equilibrium state.
• Unfreezing the status quo
• Cha nging to a new state
• Refreezing to make the change permanent
• White-Water Rapids Metaphor
– The lack of environmental stability and predictability requires
that managers and organizations continually adapt (manage
change actively) to survive.
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7-3
EXHIBIT 7-1
EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL FORCES FOR
CHANGE
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7-4
EXHIBIT 7-2
THE THREE-STEP CHANGE PROCESS
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7-5
WHAT IS ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE?
?Org a niz a tional Cha nge – any alterations
in the people, structure, or technology of
an organization.
• Change Agents – persons who act as
catalysts and assume the responsibility for
managing the change process.
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7-6
TYPES OF CHANGE
• Structure
– Changing an organization’s structural components or its structural
design
• Technology
– Adopting new equipment, tools, or operating methods that displace
old skills and require new ones
• Automation – replacing certain tasks done by people with
machines
• Computerization
• People
– Changing attitudes, expectations, perceptions, and behaviors of the
workforce
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7-7
EXHIBIT 7-3
THREE TYPES OF CHANGE
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7-8
CH A NGING P E OP L E
• Organizational Development (OD) –
techniques or programs to change people
and the nature and quality of interpersonal
work relationships.
• Globa l OD – OD techniques that work for
U.S. organizations may be inappropriate in
other countries and cultures.
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7-9
EXHIBIT 7-4
POPULAR OD TECHNIQUES
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7-10
WHY DO PEOPLE RESIST CHANGE?
• The ambiguity and uncertainty that change
introduces
• The comfort of old habits
• A concern over personal loss of status, money,
authority, friendships, and personal convenience
• The perception that change is incompatible with
the goals and interest of the organization
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7-11
TECHNIQUES FOR REDUCING
RESISTANCE TO CHANGE
• Education and communication
• Participation
• Facilitation and support
• Negotiation
• Manipulation and co-optation
• Coercion
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7-12
EXHIBIT 7-5
TECHNIQUES FOR REDUCING RESISTANCE TO
CHANGE
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7-13
CHANGING ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE
• Cultures are naturally resistant to change.
• Conditions that facilitate cultural change:
– The occurrence of a dramatic crisis
– Leadership changing hands
– A young, flexible, and small organization
– A weak organizational culture
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7-14
EMPLOYEE STRESS
• Stress – the adverse reaction people have
to excessive pressure placed on them from
extraordinary demands, constraints, or
opportunities.
– S tressors – factors that cause stress.
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7-15
WHAT CAUSES STRESS?
• Role Conflicts – work expectations that
are hard to satisfy.
• Role Overloa d – having more work to
accomplish than time permits.
• Role A m big uity – when role expectations
are not clearly understood.
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7-16
WHAT CAUSES STRESS? (CONT.)
•
•
•
Interpersonal Demands – pressures
created by other employees.
Organization structure – excessive rules
and an employee’s lack of opportunity to
participate in decisions.
Organizational leadership – the
supervisory style of the organization’s
managers.
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7-17
PERSONAL FACTORS THAT CAN CREATE
STRESS
• Type A Personality – people who have
a chronic sense of urgency and an
excessive competitive drive.
• Type B personality – people who are
relaxed and easygoing and accept
change easily.
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7-18
EXHIBIT 7-7
SYMPTOMS OF STRESS
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7-19
HOW CAN STRESS BE REDUCED?
• Job-related factors begin with employee
selection.

A realistic job preview during the selection
process can minimize stress by reducing
ambiguity over job expectations.
– Performance planning program such as MBO
(management by objectives) will clarify job
responsibilities, provide clear performance
goals, and reduce ambiguity.
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7-20
STIMULATING INNOVATION
• Creativity – the ability to combine ideas in
a unique way or to make an unusual
association.
• Innovation – turning the outcomes of the
creative process into useful products,
services, or work methods.
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EXHIBIT 7-9
INNOVATION VARIABLES
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7-22
STRUCTURAL VARIABLES
•
An organic-type structure positively
influences innovation.
• The availability of plentiful resources
provides a key building block for
innovation.
• Frequent communication between
organizational units helps break down
barriers.
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7-23
STRUCTURAL VARIABLES (CONT.)
•
Innovative organizations try to minimize
extreme time pressures on creative
activities.
• Studies show that an employee’s creative
performance was enhanced when an
organization’s structure explicitly supported
creativity.
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CULTURAL VARIABLES
Accept ambiguity – too much emphasis on
objectivity and specificity constrains creativity.
• Tolerate the impractical – what at first seems
impractical might lead to innovative solutions.
• Keep external controls minimal – rules,
regulations, policies, and similar
organizational controls are kept to a minimum.
•
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7-25
CULTURAL VARIABLES (CONT.)
Tolerate risk – employees are encouraged to
experiment without fear of consequences
should they fail.
• Tolerate conflict – diversity of opinions is
encouraged.
• Focus on ends rather than means –
individuals are encouraged to consider
alternative routes toward meeting the goals.
•
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7-26
CULTURAL VARIABLES (CONT.)
Use an open-system focus – managers
closely monitor the environment and respond
to changes as they occur.
• Provide positive feedback – managers provide
positive feedback, encouragement, and
support.
• Exhibit empowering leadership – leaders let
organizational members know that the work
they do is significant.
•
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7-27
HUMAN RESOURCE VARIABLES
• Idea champion – individuals who actively
and enthusiastically support new ideas, build
support, overcome resistance, and ensure
that innovations are implemented.
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7-28
PLANNING WORK
ACTIVITIES
8
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8-1
L E A RNING OB JE CT IV E S
Define the nature and purposes of planning.
Classify the types of goals organizations might
have and the plans they use.
3. Compare and contrast approaches to goal-setting
and planning.
? Know how to set goals personally and create a
useful, functional to-do list.
? Develop your skill at helping your employees set
goals.
1. Discuss contemporary issues in planning.
1.
2.
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8-2
WHAT IS PLANNING?
Planning – defining the organization’s
goals, establishing strategies for achieving
those goals, and developing plans to
integrate and coordinate work activities.
• Formal planning
•
– Specific goals covering a specific time period
– Written and shared with organizational members
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8-3
WHY DO MANAGERS PLAN?
? Four reasons for planning
– Provides direction
– Reduces uncertainty
– Minimizes waste and redundancy
– Sets the standards for controlling
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8-4
GOALS AND PLANS
?Goals (objectives) – desired
outcomes or targets.
• Plans – documents that outline
how goals are going to be met.
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8-5
TYPES OF GOALS
?Financial Goals – related to the expected
internal financial performance of the
organization.
?Strategic Goals – related to the performance
of the firm relative to factors in its external
environment (e.g., competitors).
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8-6
TYPES OF GOALS (CONT.)
? Stated Goa ls – official statements of what an
organization says, and what it wants its various
stakeholders to believe its goals are.
? Rea l g oa ls – goals that an organization actually
pursues, as defined by the actions of its members.
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EXHIBIT 8-1
TYPES OF PLANS
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8-8
TYPES OF PLANS
? Strategic pla ns – plans that apply to the
entire organization and establish the
organization’s overall goals.
? Opera tiona l pla ns – plans that encompass
a particular operational area of the
organization.
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TYPES OF PLANS (CONT.)
? Long-term plans – plans with a time frame
beyond three years.
? S hort-term pla ns – plans covering one year or
less.
? S pecific pla ns – plans that are clearly defined and
leave no room for interpretation.
? Directiona l pla ns – plans that are flexible and set
out general guidelines.
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8-10
TYPES OF PLANS (CONT.)
? Single-use plan – a one-time plan
specifically designed to meet the needs of a
unique situation.
? S ta nding pla ns – ongoing plans that
provide guidance for activities performed
repeatedly.
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8-11
APPROACHES TO SETTING GOALS
? Traditional g oa l-setting – an approach to setting
goals in which top managers set goals that then
flow down through the organization and become
subgoals for each organizational area.
? M ea ns-ends cha in – an integrated network of
goals in which the accomplishment of goals at one
level serves as the means for achieving the goals, or
ends, at the next level.
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8-12
APPROACHES TO SETTING GOALS
(CONT.)
?Management by objectives (MBO) – a
process of setting mutually agreed upon goals
and using those goals to evaluate employee
performance.
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8-13
STEPS IN GOAL-SETTING
1. Review the organization’s mission, or purpose.
2. Evaluate available resources.
3. Determine the goals individually or with input from
others.
4. Write down the goals and communicate them to
all who need to know.
5. Review results and whether goals are being met.
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8-14
CONTINGENCY FACTORS IN PLANNING
?Length of future commitments
– Commitment Concept: Current plans
affecting future commitments must be
sufficiently long-term in order to meet those
commitments.
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8-15
EXHIBIT 8-5
PLANNING AND ORGANIZATIONAL LEVEL
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8-16
CONTINGENCY FACTORS IN PLANNING
(CONT.)
?Environmental Uncertainty
– When uncertainty is high, plans should be
specific, but flexible.
– Managers must be prepared to change or
amend plans as they’re implemented.
– At times, they may even have to abandon the
plans.
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8-17
APPROACHES TO PLANNING
?In the traditional approach, planning is done
entirely by top-level managers, often assisted by
a formal planning department.
• Formal planning department – a group of
planning specialists whose sole
responsibility is helping to write
organizational plans.
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8-18
CONTEMPORARY ISSUES IN PLANNING
?How Can Managers Plan Effectively in Dynamic
Environments?
– In an uncertain environment, managers
should develop plans that are specific, but
flexible.
– Managers need to recognize that planning is
an ongoing process.
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8-19
CONTEMPORARY ISSUES IN PLANNING
(CONT.)
• How Can Managers Use Environmental
Scanning?
– Environmental scanning – screening
information to detect emerging trends.
– Competitor intelligence – gathering
information about competitors that allows
managers to anticipate competitors’ actions
rather than merely reacting to them.
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8-20
MANAGING
STRATEGY
9
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9-21
L E A RNING OB JE CT IV E S
1.
Define strategic management and explain why it’s
important.
2.
Explain what managers do during the six steps of the
strategic management process.
Describe the three types of corporate strategies.
4. Describe competitive advantage and the competitive
strategies organizations use to get it.
3.
5.
Discuss current strategic management issues.
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9-22
WHAT IS STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT?
?Strategic management – what managers do
to develop the organization’s strategies.
• Strategies – the plans for how the
organization will do what it’s in business to
do, how it will compete successfully, and how
it will attract and satisfy its customers in order
to achieve its goals.
• Business model – how a company is going
to make money.
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9-23
WHY IS STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT
IMPORTANT?
1. It results in higher organizational
performance.
2. It requires that managers examine and
adapt to business environment
changes.
3. It coordinates diverse organizational
units, helping them focus on
organizational goals.
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THE STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT PROCESS
?Strategic management process – a six-
step process that encompasses strategic
planning, implementation, and evaluation.
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9-25
EXHIBIT 9-1
STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT PROCESS
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9-26
THE STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT PROCESS
(CONT.)
?Step 1: Identifying the organization’s
current mission, goals, and strategies:
– Mission: a statement of the purpose of an
organization.
• The scope of its products and services
– Goals: the foundation for further planning.
• Measurable performance targets
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9-27
THE STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT PROCESS
(CONT.)
?Step 2: Doing an external analysis
– The environmental scanning of specific and
general environments.
• Focuses on identifying opportunities and threats
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THE STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT PROCESS
(CONT.)
?Step 3: Doing an internal analysis
– Assessing organizational resources, capabilities, and
activities:
• Strengths create value for the customer and
strengthen the competitive position of the firm.
• Weaknesses can place the firm at a competitive
disadvantage.
– Steps 2 and 3 combined are called a SWOT analysis.
(Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats)
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SWOT ANALYSIS
?SWOT analysis – an analysis of the
organization’s strengths, weaknesses,
opportunities, and threats.
• Resources – an organization’s assets that
are used to develop, manufacture, and deliver
a product to its customers.
• Capabilities – an organization’s skills and
abilities in doing the work activities needed in
its business.
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STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES
?Strengths- any activities the organization
does well or any unique resources that it has.
• Weaknesses – activities the organization
does not execute well or needed resources
it does not possess.
• Core competencies – the organization’s
major value-creating capabilities that
determine its competitive weapons.
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THE STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT PROCESS
(CONT.)
?Step 4: Formulating strategies
– Develop and evaluate strategic alternatives.
– Select appropriate strategies for all levels in the
organization that provide relative advantage
over competitors.
– Match organizational strengths to environmental
opportunities.
– Correct weaknesses and guard against threats.
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THE S …
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