Business Facility Vulnerability Assessment

Evaluate a business facility using the Department of Justice Vulnerability Assessment.Access the “DOJ Vulnerability Assessment” activity (specifically PDF pages 13–14 of 89; or hard copy pages 2-6 and 2-7) located in the M.U.S.E. for this phase.Evaluate the perimeter security and entry security of any business facility of your choosing. Describe what level (I-V) of security corresponds to this facility.Discuss the circumstances in which you would propose elevating perimeter and entry security for the same facility to the next level, and what this upgrade would involve. If necessary, access the “Military Manual – US Army” link in the M.U.S.E. as well. Reference the rationale for modifying security levels as noted in Appendix K of this manual.In text citation, APA formatDeliverable Length: 1–3 pagesResources Link and attachments (Military Manual) FM 3.19.30. – Physical Security https://archive.org/details/FM_3-19.30_Physical_Se…
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U.S. Department of Justice
• Vulnerability Assessment
of Federal Facilities
June
28,
,I
°
~
1995
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” ~ –
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…_._..-.~~
U.S. Department of Justice
United States Marshals Service
VULNERABILITY A S S E S S M E N T
OF
FEDERAL FACILITIES
Participating Agencies:
United States Department of Justice
United States Marshals Service
Federal Bureau of Investigation
General Services Administration
United States D e p a r t m e n t of Defense
United States Secret Service
United States D e p a r t m e n t of State
Social Security Administration
Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts
June 28, 1995
Vulnerability Assessment
Contents
i
U.S. D e p a r t m e n t of Justice
United States Marshals Service
Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
i
Introduction
1.1
The Development of Recommended Minimum Security Standards . . . . . . . . . .
1.2
The Survey of Existing Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3
Conclusions and Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2
3
1-1
1-2
1-3
Recommended Minimum Security Standards and Application to Security Levels of
Federal Facilities
2.1
Recommended Minimum Security Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1.1 Perimeter Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1.2 Entry Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1.3 Interior Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1.4 Security Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2
Security Levels for Federal Facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.1 Level I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.2 Level II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.3 Level III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.4 Level IV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.5 Level V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3
Application of Recommended Minimum Security Standards to Security Levels
Federal Facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Survey of Existing Security Conditions
3.1
Study Sample . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2
How the Survey Was Conducted . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3
Findings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
………………….
3.3.1 Typical Level I Facilities
3.3.2 Typical Level II Facilities
3.3.3 Typical Level III Facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.4 Typical Level IV Facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.5 Typical Level V Facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4
Cost Implications
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Vulnerability Assessment
U.S. Department of Justice
United States Marshals Service
4
Contents
ii
Conclusions and Recommendations
4-1
4.1 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.1 Comparison of Typical Facilities and Proposed New Minimum Standards 4-1
4.1.2 Reasons for the Current Security Situation in Federal Facilities . . . . . . . .
4-1
4.2 Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-3
4.2.1 Where Feasible, Bring Each Federal Facility up to The Minimum Standards
Recommended For Its Security Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-3
4.2.2 Establish Building Security Committees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-3
4.2.3 Reemphasize GSA’s Primary Responsibility for Implementing Federal
Facility Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-4
4.2.4 Upgrade the Federal Protective Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-4
4.2.5 Create An Interagency Security Committee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-5
4.2.6 Funding Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-7
4.2.7 Additional Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-7
4.3 Next Steps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-7
Appendix
Vulnerability Assessment Task Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A
Details of Recommended Security Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
B
Classification Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C
Sample of Profile . . . . . . . . . .
: ……………………………………
D
Compilation of Results of Survey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
…………………….
E
Cost Matrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
F
Role of GSA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
G
Federal Agencies with Independent Real Property Authority . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
H
A-1
B-1
C-1
D- 1
E-1
F-1
G-1
H-1
Vulnerability Assessment
U.S. Department of Justice
United States Marshals Service
Introduction
1-1
Introduction
The day after the April 19, 1995, bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma
City, the President directed the Department of Justice to assess the vulnerability of federal office
buildings in the United States, particularly to acts of terrorism and other forms of violence.
Because of its expertise in court security, the United States Marshals Service (USMS)
coordinated this study.
Prior to the study, there were no government-wide standards for security at federal facilities, and
no central data base of the security currently in place in such facilities. A national review of the
kind called for by the President on April 20 had never before been undertaken. Given the
urgency of the task — a report was to be made in sixty days — the study proceeded along two
tracks at the same time: (1) the development of recommended minimum security standards in
light of the changed environment of heightened risk; and (2) the surveying of existing security
conditions.
The USMS assembled two working groups to accomplish these tasks, a Standards Committee and
a Profile Committee.
1.1 The Development of Recommended Minimum Security Standards
The Standards Committee consiste d of security specialists and representatives of components of
the U.S. Department of Justice, including the Federal Bureau of Investigation, and of the U.S.
Secret Service, General Services Administration(GSA), State Department, Social Security
Administration, and Department of Defense. The Committee identified and evaluated the various
types of security measures which could be used to counter potential vulnerabilities.
The product of the Standards Committee’s work was a set of minimum standards that can be
applied to various federal facilities. The standards cover the subjects of perimeter, entry, and
interior security, and security planning. They are set out in Section 2.3 and Appendix B below.
Because of the considerable differences among federal facilities and their security needs, the
Standards Committee divided federal holdings into five security levels to determine which
minimum standards are appropriate for which security levels. These categories are based on such
factors as size, number of employees, use, and required access to the public. The categories
Vulnerability Assessment
U.S. Department of Justice
United States Marshals Service
Introduction
1-2
range from Level I (typically, leased space with ten or fewer employees, such as a military
recruiting office in a shopping center or a small post office) to Level V (a building such as the
Pentagon or CIA headquarters with a large number of employees and a critical national security
mission). The security levels are set out in Appendix C. Section 2.3 shows the recommended
minimum security standards applicable to each security level.
1.2 The Survey of Existing Security Conditions
q’he second working group established by the USMS was the Profile Committee. This
Committee’s task was to survey a broad and representative sample of federal facilities t o
determine their existing security situations, and to identify future security enhancements and
costs.
There are approximately two million federal civilian emp~oyec~,’
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….
million are housed in GSA space. Almost 75 percent of these one million employees are housed
in what GSA describes as a “typical single or multi-tenant federal office building.” There are
approximately 1330 such buildings in the continental United States, and these constituted the
survey sample. Typically, such buildings are multi-story facilities housing more than 80
employees. They generally contain a mix of federal agencies, most of which have significant
contact with the public and require fairly easy access.
The remaining federal employees work in facilities not included in the survey sample, which did
not include special use space, such as, laboratories, national parks, nuclear facilities, military
installations, and post offices. It also did not include facilities with very small numbers of federal
employees, facilities in foreign countries, or facilities leased or owned by agencies with
independent real estate authority, such as the Securities and Exchange Commission. It is,
nevertheless, a large and representative sample. Many of these excluded facilities have extensive
security systems already in place because of the nature of their missions, and many of the others
must be addressed independently because of their unique characteristics.
The survey was conducted by USMS Deputies and GSA security specialists, who conducted site
visits at the facilities in the survey to obtain the information called for in a specially-developed
questionnaire. The questionnaire (Appendix D) requested information on a wide variety of
security concerns, including facility construction, security screening, protection of utilities, and
day care presence. Within approximately a 60 day period, site visits were made to, and data
obtained from over 1200 locations. The data obtained have been consolidated into a data base
Vulnerability Assessment
Introduction
1-3
U.S. Department of Justice
United States Marshals Service
that can inform future decisions in this area.
The result of the survey was a set of profiles of typical federal facilities, grouped by categories
corresponding to the five security classification levels set by the Standards Committee.
1.3 Conclusions and Recommendations
Armed with a set of recommended minimum standards, and a profile of typical federal facilities
at different security levels, the Department of Justice is able to make a number of conclusions
and recommendations regarding federal facilities security. These are set out in Section 4 below.
The Department’s principal conclusion is that the typical federal facility at each security level
lacks some of the elements required to meet the new minimum standards proposed in this Study.
The Department’s principal recommendation is that, where feasible, each federal facility should
be brought up to the minimum security standards proposed for its security level.
Because each building’s security requirements, and the feasibility of upgrading existing
conditions to meet the new standards, depend on building-specific facts, we further recommend
that these security issues first be addressed by building-level security committees. The resulting
building-by-building evaluations should then be assessed by GSA, and the necessary
improvements implemented.
A list of priority recommendations, and a proposed time table for their implementation, are set
out in Section 4.3.
Vulnerability Assessment
U.S. Department of Justice
United States Marshals Service
Recommended Minimum Security
Standards and Application to
Security Level of Federal Facilities
2-1
Recommended Minimum Security Standards and Application to Security
Levels of Federal Facilities
The task of the Standards Committee was to establish recommended minimum security
standards, and to apply them to the different security levels into which federal buildings fall. The
Committee was comprised of security professionals from numerous federal agencies with
significant security responsibilities.
2.1 Recommended Minimum Security Standards
Fifty-two (52) standards were developed as a result of these efforts. The standards are set out in
Section 2.3, and are described in detail in Appendix B. They fall into the following categories.
2.1.1 Perimeter Security
Perimeter security standards pertain to the areas outside government control. Depending on the
facility type, the perimeter may include sidewalks, parking lots, the outside walls of the building,
a hallway, or simply an office door.
The elements of perimeter security are:
•
Parking
•
Closed Circuit Television Monitoring
•
Lighting
•
Physical Barriers
Vulnerability Assessment
U.S. Department of Justice
United States Marshals Service
Recommended Minimum Security
Standards and Application to
Security Level of Federal Facilities
2-2
2.1.2 Entry Security
Entry security standards refer to security issues related to the entry of persons and packages into a
facility.
The elements of entry security are:
•
Receiving/Shipping
•
Access Control
•
Entrances/Exits
2.1.3 Interior Security
Interior security standards refer to security issues associated with prevention of criminal or
terrorist activity within the facility. This area concerns secondary levels of control after people or
things have entered the facility.
The elements of interior security are:
•
Employ.ee/Visitor Identification
•
Utilities
•
Occupant Emergency Plans
•
Day Care Centers
2.1.4 Security Planning
Security planning standards refer to recommendations requiring long-term planning and
commitment, as well as security standards addressing broader issues with implications beyond
security at a particular facility.
Vulnerability Assessment
U.S. Department of Justice
United States Marshals Service
Recommended Minimum Security
Standards and Application to
Security Level of Federal Facilities
2-3
The elements of security planning are:
•
Intelligence Sharing
•
Training
•
Tenant Assignment
•
Administrative Procedures
•
Construction/Renovation
2.2 Security Levels for Federal Facilities
Since there are vast differences in types of federal facilities and their security needs, the
Standards Committee divided federal holdings into five security levels. The five security levels
are set out in detail in Appendix C, and are described below.
In this study, the listed security levels have been based primarily on staffing size, number of
employees, use, and the need for public access. Final assignment of a security level to a building,
will be adjusted based on threat intelligence, crime statistics, agency mission, etc.
•
2.2.1 Level I
A Level I facility has 10 or fewer federal employees. In addition, the facility likely has:
•
2,500 or less square feet of office space; and
•
A low volume of public contact or contact with only a small segment of the population.
A typical Level I facility is a small “store front” type operation such as a military recruiting
offlce.
Vulnerability Assessment
U.S. Department of Justice
United States Marshals Service
Recommended Minimum Security
Standards and Application to
Security Level of Federal Facilities
,
2-4
2.2.2 Level II
A Level II facility has between 11 and 150 federal employees. In addition, the facility likely has:
•
From 2,500 square feet to 80,000 square feet;
•
A moderate volume of public contact; and
•
Federal activities that are routine in nature, similar tO commercial activities.
A typical Level II building is the Social Security Administration Office in El Dorado, Colorado.
2.2.3 Level I l l
A Level III facility has between 151 and 450 federal employees. In addition, the facility likely
has:
•
From 80,000 to 150,000 square feet;
•
A moderate/high volume of public contact; and
•
Tenant agencies that may include law enforcement agencies, court/related agencies and
functions, and government records and archives.
A typical Level III building is the Pension Building, a multi-tenant, historical building on 5th
Street Northwest, in Washington, D.C.
2.2.4 Level IV
A Level IV facility has over 450 federal employees. In addition, the facility likely has:
•
More than 150,000 square feet;
•
High-volume public contact; and
Vulnerability Assessment
U.S. Department of Justice
United States Marshals Service
•
Recommended Minimum Security
Standards and Application to
Security Level of Federal Facilities
2-5
Tenant agencies that may include high-risk law enforcement and intelligence agencies, courts,
judicial offices, and highly sensitive government records.
A typical Level IV building is the Department of Justice Building on Constitution Avenue in
Washington, D.C. The Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City also fell into this
category.
2.2.5 Level V
A Level V facility is a building such as the Pentagon or CIA Headquarters that contains mission
functions critical to national security. A Level V facility will be similar to a Level IV facility in
terms of number of employees and square footage. It should have at least the security features of
a Level IV facility.
The missions of Level V facilities require that tenant agencies secure the site according to their
own requirements. The degree to which these requirements dictate security features in excess of
those for a Level IV facility should be set by the individual agency.
2.3 Application of Recommended Minimum Security Standards to Security Levels of
Federal Facilities.
The following chart shows the recommended minimum security standards applicable to each of
the five security levels. A detailed description of each standard is set out in Appendix B.
Recommended Minimum Security
Standards and Application to
Security Level of Federal Facilities
Vulnerability Assessment
U.S. Department of Justice
United States Marshals Service
2-6
R E C O M M E N D E D S T A N D A R D S CHART
LEVEL
PERIMETER
SECURITY
I
II
III
IV
V
•
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•
•
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