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hello,can you do my edit my assignment? here is the instructions paper and the paper that needs to be edited can you please pay very close attention to the instruction paper and do the adjustments on the paper?delete what is underlined and on the second paragraph of the first question add what it sayssecond question, delete what is underlined and on the second paragraph add what it says and then match it with the instruction paper
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MULTICULTURAL PHILOSOPHY
PROF. MIRZA
ASSIGNMENT #2: GHAZALI ON KNOWLEDGE
SPRING 2018
Instructions: In response to each of the three questions given in this sheet, give a clear,
well-structured answer. While you should study the material from the books and the
lectures in order to give the best answer you can, each answer that you hand in must be
the result of your own work, reflection, and understanding.
Please review this sheet carefully several times and make sure to ask me questions
about it by email if there is anything you don’t understand.
Format for Each Answer:
Maximum 1 page, typed, double-spaced.
Required font size: 12.
Use only Times New Roman font.
Put your student ID number on each sheet.
Do not put your name on any sheet.
Use standard margins (1.0-1.25”).
Use a separate sheet for each separate answer.
Emailed answers will not be accepted.
Format for Assignment
All sheets are to be stapled together.
Deadline: This assignment is due via in class, Wednesday April 11th.
Grace Period: There will be a grace period till Monday April 16th. No assignments will
be accepted after April 16th, for any reason at all.
Academic Honesty: Any objective, convincing evidence that someone has copied the
writings of others without giving due credit, even to the extent of a single sentence, and
even if some minor changes have been made, will result in an ‘F’ for this assignment, and
an ‘F’ for the course. No exceptions will be made for any reason.
All your assignments will be rigorously cross-checked against each other and
against the textbook, and a random sample will be processed using other methods as well.
None of these rules is subject to any discussion whatsoever.
Working With Others: You are allowed, and encouraged, to discuss these questions
with your classmates. However, the goal of any such discussion must be to understand
the material for yourself, and then to explain the material according to your own
understanding, and in your own words.
Key Theme of Assignment 2: The point of this assignment is to give you a chance to
prove that you understand this material, and that you have thought about the issues
raised by our readings.
So you must first have an understanding of the relevant topics, and then you must
demonstrate that understanding by imagining that in each answer, you are explaining the
material to someone new to the study of Islam and new to the topic of the question.
This will be repeated frequently, because it can’t be stressed enough: you are not
addressing Professor Mirza with these answers, rather you are addressing a hypothetical
beginning student who is new to these topics.
Strategy for Working on These Questions:
For each question, it is recommended that you follow these steps.
(1) Make sure you understand the question as it is stated to the best of your ability,
and make notes on any ideas that you have in response to the question.
(2) Determine what aspects of your lecture notes and what parts of the books are
most relevant to answering the question.
(3) Study carefully the parts of your lecture notes and the parts of your books that you
identified in the second step above, until you are sure you understand them.
(4) Think about how to apply your understanding to the specific question in front of
you.
(5) Make notes about how to explain your answer to a beginner who is new to this
specific topic.
(6) Write a draft of your answer within the space limits already mentioned.
(7) Revise and check your draft to improve it until you are confident that it satisfies
that requirements laid out in the relevant section.
(8) Make sure that your grammar, punctuation, and spelling are all correct, and that
each answer as well as the assignment as a whole satisfies the format
requirements laid out above.
Warning: If you merely try to loosely copy some passage from our books while
changing names and details, you will not only risk getting charged with dishonesty, but
you will most likely get very few points.
WRITING QUESTIONS:
1. Explain clearly and briefly, in your own words, what Ghazali means by “certain
knowledge”. Which of your own beliefs do you think match this definition of
“certain knowledge”? (Hint: you might want to consider your beliefs about the
physical objects around you, your beliefs about what you read in the newspapers,
your beliefs about other people’s intentions, your beliefs about history, your
beliefs about science, and so on.)
2. Explain clearly and briefly, in your own words, what Ghazali means by “sensory
beliefs” and what he means by “necessary beliefs”. Then explain clearly and
briefly, in your own words, the reasoning that leads Ghazali to conclude that his
sensory beliefs do not amount to certain knowledge.
3. Explain clearly and briefly, in your own words, the reasoning that leads Ghazali to
conclude that his necessary beliefs do not amount to certain knowledge.
How Your Assignment Will Be Graded
(1) In this assignment, and every assignment in this course, it is your job to prove
to me that you understand the material. I will assume that you do not
understand what you are talking about until I see clear proof, on the paper in
front of me, that you do.
This is very important: you do not get the benefit of the doubt for this or
any other assignment.
(2) Any pages in excess of the one-page limit for each answer will be ignored,
and only the first page will be graded.
(3) Every answer can receive a maximum of 16 points. You are given 2 points out
of 50 prior to handing in anything.
(4) For any answer you hand in, I will deduct one point for each sufficiently bad
violation of one of the following requirements.
Requirements for Answers:
(a) Make sure that your understanding of the topics you are required to explain is
correct. If you show an inaccurate understanding, you will lose points.
(b) Make sure that every sentence you write is true, justifiable, and clear.
(c) Make sure that you are writing for a beginning level student who is new to the
material, and write so that such a student can understand what is going on.
(Professor Mirza is not your audience here, so do not write to explain things to
him). Lack of clarity will lead to losing points.
(d) Make sure that you answer all parts of each question.
(e) Make each answer sufficiently clear and detailed that any reasonable and
informed person can see that it correctly answers the question.
If you have any doubts about whether or not you have put in enough detail, be
on the safe side and put in more detail, while still keeping your answer within the
space limits already set.
There is no minimum length, but if your answer is less than a page in length, it
most likely does not have enough detail in it.
(f) Use standard, neutral English in your answer (not slang).
(g) Keep your answers focused and concise: do not waste any words, do not write
introductions, do not put in anything more than what you need to get your point
across.
(h) Each answer should be understandable independently of every other answer.
(i) Use a new paragraph for each new idea.
(j) Use proper spelling throughout each answer.
(k) Use proper punctuation throughout each answer.
(l) Use proper grammar throughout each answer.
Questions: 1
( Ghazali was a remarkable person who holds an esteemed place in Islam, as a man who
lived his life pursuing the truth and receiving some spiritual enlightenment in the process.
Provoked by a problem of intellectual certitude, Ghazali experienced a great crisis which led him
to abandoning his position and professorship at Nizamiya University Baghdad and motivating him
to begin a quest on certainty and knowledge .) Based on Ghazali’s works, certain knowledge can
be viewed as comprehending things as they really are, in a sure manner which leaves no doubts,
illusions or possibilities of errors such that a person is left with no room for such suppositions and
any form of knowledge which does not conform to such conditions cannot be deemed to be certain
because it lacks the quality of being beyond doubt.
I believe that many of my beliefs can actually match the definition of certain knowledge
according to Ghazali. My conviction of certain beliefs, is strong and is immovable even in the face
of opposition that may try to lead such beliefs astray. Some examples include, my belief of the
shapes of various objects around me e.g. a round clock, a rectangular frame, a straight tree etc.
because I believe that such shapes are the way they really are and no convincing otherwise could
change my belief of how I view such shapes. ( ADD MORE DETAILS, MORE BELIEFS LIKE
HISTORY OR PAST MEMORY OR PHYSICS )
(ALSO, ADD THAT SURE KNOWLIDGE CANNOT IMAGINE THE MISTAKES)
Questions: 2
( Based on his questioning of the analogy of reliance people place on their eyes, and his
examination of the notions derived from the evidence of our senses and our sight mostly to
determine if it could be called in question ), sensory belief can be understood as belief which
originates from our sensory experiences, whereby we make use of our senses to discover facts that
are seemingly obvious, which form a basis for developing certain assumptions, which later on
become more complex ideas. Although the beliefs developed from sensory experiences may be
incorrect sometimes, the conception of such thoughts never originate from a vacuum.
Necessary beliefs on the other hand may be deemed as intellectual notions which are based
on fundamentally accepted principles. These beliefs, if you understand them, then they can be true.
Ghazali, in his quest for truth, asked himself some questions regarding sensory experiences
such as whether his absolute confidence in sensory perceptions and on its infallibility are
analogous to the confidence he formerly had, and the reliance people place on their eyes, or was it
true without mixing doubt or illusion? Upon examining notions derived from sensory evidences,
he determined that his confidence was compromised, and sensory belief does not amount to certain
knowledge, as seen in his illustration of how the eye sees a star as a small object, perhaps only the
size of a piece of gold when on the contrary, mathematical calculations prove that it is way bigger
than the earth. ( ADD MORE DEPTH, MORE DETAILS AS IF YOU ARE CONVINCING
A PERSON THAT IS A BIT ARGUMENTATIVE. BE CLEAR)
Questions: 3
Upon concluding that he cannot trust evidence from his senses, he decided to shift his
reliance to intellectual notions which are based on fundamental principles i.e. necessary beliefs.
He looked at notions such as ten being more than three, negation and affirmation not being able to
coexist together and the impossibility of something being created and existing from eternity.
In his examination of necessary beliefs, Ghazali went a step further than when examining
sensory beliefs. Through such examination, necessary belief may be concluded as not amounting
to certain knowledge. When verifying his certainty, Ghazali argues that since necessary beliefs
were behind sensory beliefs and were able to disprove rational belief, how should he know whether
there exists another apprehension that could prove necessary beliefs wrong? He expressed this by
asking who can guarantee trusting the evidence of reason more than the evidence of senses and
further stating that certain testimony was believed until it got contradicted by verdict of reason,
otherwise the testimony could have been believed till that very day.
From that argument, his doubt on necessary beliefs got deepened by his reflection on the
phenomenon of sleep and dreams. He states that a person may perceive a dream as being reality
until they wake up to another reality which is much greater and realer than the dream. He questions
his surety on whether there exists another state that is beyond our awoken state which will prove
the state we are in to be less real. Due to uncertainty on the existence of such a state, he decides he
must also reject necessary beliefs, thus showing his reasoning behind his conclusion that necessary
beliefs do not amount to certain knowledge.
References
“Al-Ghazali: Munkidh Min Al-Dalal (Deliverance From Error).” Ghazali.org. N.p., 2018. Web. 2
Apr. 2018.
“Al-Ghazali: Rejection And Restoration Of Beliefs.” Islamoblog.blogpost.co.ke N.p., 2018. Web.
2 Apr. 2018.
“THE FAITH AND PRACTICE OF AL-GHAZALI.” Ghazali.org. N.p., 2018. Web. 2 Apr. 2018.

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