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Argument Analysis #3 Prompt
Descartes, Meditations on First Philosophy
CPhi 200
In the Sixth Meditation, Descartes argues for the real distinction between mind and body.
Explain what ‘real distinction’ in general means. Then, clearly state the argument in the
following passage (page 140) from the Sixth Meditation.
Descartes:
I know that if I have a vivid and clear thought of something, God could have
created it in a way that exactly corresponds to my thought. So the fact that I can
vividly and clearly think of one thing apart from another assures me that the two
things are distinct from one another—·that is, that they are two·—since they can
be separated by God. Never mind how they could be separated; that does not
affect the judgment that they are distinct. ·So my mind is a distinct thing from
my body. Furthermore, my mind is me, for the following reason·. I know that I
exist and that nothing else belongs to my nature or essence except that I am a
thinking thing; from this it follows that my essence consists solely in my being a
thinking thing, even though there may be a body that is very closely joined to
me. I have a vivid and clear idea of •myself as something that thinks and isn’t
extended, and one of •body as something that is extended and does not think.
So it is certain that •I am really distinct from •my body and can exist without it.
Specifications
Argument Analyses should be 1 to 1.5 pages long. To get credit, you must use relevant
quotations from the course reader. Include a page number for each quotation, and provide a
list of works cited.
Grading Standards
* Up to 40 points based on the following criteria: Student’s argument analysis…
1. accurately explains Descartes’ concept of real distinction,
2. lays out the argument and demonstrates understanding of the passage,
3. uses 2-4 properly cited, relevant quotations from the passage,
4. uses standard English, proper formatting, etc. (1-inch margins, 12-point Times New
Roman font, double spacing, in-text citations, MLA-style works cited entry, etc.)
How to Cite Works from a Course Reader
* MLA format, first parenthetical note: Author, Title, page. Example: Aquinas, Summa
Theologiae, E10.
See Hacker and Sommers, pp. 390-91 for variations.
For second and following notes, you need not repeat the author’s name or book title.
* MLA format, works cited entry: Author. Title. [In Original book title]. Translators/Editors.
Original publisher: City of publication, year. Reprinted in CPhi 200 Course Packet. CUI, 2017. Ex.:
Aquinas. Summa Theologiae. Translated by the Fathers of the English Dominican Province.
London: 1920. Reprinted in CPhi 200 Course Packet. CUI, 2017.
* MLA format, first parenthetical note: Author, Title, page. Ex.: Anselm, Proslogion, D4.
See Hacker and Sommers, pp. 390-91 for variations.
For second and following notes, you need not repeat the author’s name or book title.
* MLA format, works cited entry: Author. Title. [In Original book title]. Translators/Editors.
Original publisher: City of publication, year. Reprinted in CPhi 200 Course Packet. CUI, 2017. Ex.:
Anselm. Proslogion. In The Many-Faced Argument, edited by J. Hick and A. McGill. MacMillan,
1967. Reprinted in CPhi 200 Course Packet. CUI, 2017.
CPHi 200 Course Packet
Concordia University Irvine
Edition 2017
Contents
Augustine. On the Immortality of the Soul
1
Augustine. Against the Epistle of Manichæus
2
Augustine. City of God
Book XIII . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Book XIV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5
5
20
Augustine. On the Morals of the Catholic Church
31
Thomas Aquinas. Summa Contra Gentiles
Book II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Book III (1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
52
52
72
Thomas Aquinas. Summa Theologiae
89
René Descartes. Meditations on First Philosophy
First Meditation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Second Meditation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Third Meditation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fourth Meditation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fifth Meditation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sixth Meditation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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106
106
109
115
126
132
137
Thomas Hobbes. Leviathan
147
Books 1-6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
Books 7-13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
David Hume. Treatise of Human Nature
207
Book I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
Book II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
Book III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
David Hume. An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals
266
Immanuel Kant. Critique of Pure Reason
273
Book I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273
Book II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291
Augustine (354-430)
On the Immortality of the Soul
This reading is available in Whitney J. Oates, ed., Basic Writings of Augustine, volum 1 (New York: Random House, 1948), pp.
301-316. (Note that only certain portions of the text are assigned.) The book is on three-hour reserve in the CUI library under
CPhi 200 (Loy/Jordan/Yim). Your instructor will have more information.
1
Augustine (354-430)
Against the Epistle of Manichæus, Called Fundamental
Translated by Richard Stothert. From A Select Library of the Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church, series I,
volume IV, edited by Philip Schaff (Edinburgh: T&T Clark and Grand Rapids, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company)
Chapter 16.—The Soul, Though Mutable, Has No Material Form. It is the same moment, the air that the neighbors have. And even
All Present in Every Part of the Body.
as regards light itself, one part pours through one window, and
another through another; and a greater through the larger, and a
But why speak of truth and wisdom which surpass all the powers smaller through the smaller. Nor, in fact, can there be any bodof the soul, when the nature of the soul itself, which is known to ily substance, whether celestial or terrestrial, whether aerial or
be mutable, still has no kind of material extension in space? For moist, which is not less in part than in whole, or which can poswhatever consists of any kind of gross matter must necessarily sibly have one part in the place of another at the same time; but,
be divisible into parts, having one in one place, and another in having one thing in one place and another in another, its extenanother. Thus, the ?nger is less than the whole hand, and one sion in space is a substance which has distinct limits and parts,
?nger is less than two; and there is one place for this ?nger, and or, so to speak, sections. The nature of the soul, on the other
another for that, and another for the rest of the hand. And this hand, though we leave out of account its power of perceiving
applies not to organized bodies only, but also to the earth, each truth, and consider only its inferior power of giving unity to the
part of which has its own place, so that one cannot be where the body, and of sensation in the body, does not appear to have any
other is. So in moisture, the smaller quantity occupies a smaller material extension in space. For it is all present in each separate
space, and the larger quantity a larger space; and one part is at part of its body when it is all present in any sensation. There is
the bottom of the cup, and another part near the mouth. So not a smaller part in the ?nger, and a larger in the arm, as the
in air, each part has its own place; and it is impossible for the bulk of the ?nger is less than that of the arm; but the quantity evair in this house to have along with itself, in the same house at erywhere is the same, for the whole is present everywhere. For
2
when the ?nger is touched, the whole mind feels, though the
sensation is not through the whole body. No part of the mind
is unconscious of the touch, which proves the presence of the
whole. And yet it is not so present in the ?nger or in the sensation as to abandon the rest of the body, or to gather itself up
into the one place where the sensation occurs. For when it is all
present in the sensation in a ?nger, if another part, say the foot,
be touched, it does not fail to be all present in this sensation too:
so that at the same moment it is all present in different places,
without leaving one in order to be in the other, and without having one part in one, and another in the other; but by this power
showing itself to be all present at the same moment in separate
places. Since it is all present in the sensations of these places, it
proves that it is not bound by the conditions of space.
perceived by some bodily sense), who can conceive rightly where
these images are contained, where they are kept, or where they
are formed? If, indeed, these images were no larger than the
size of our body, it might be said that the mind shapes and retains them in the bodily space which contains itself. But while
the body occupies a small material space, the mind revolves images of vast extent, of heaven and earth, with no want of room,
though they come and go in crowds; so that clearly, the mind is
not diffused through space: for instead of being contained in images of the largest spaces, it rather contains them; not, however,
in any material receptacle, but by a mysterious faculty or power,
by which it can increase or diminish them, can contract them
within narrow limits, or expand them inde?nitely, can arrange or
disarrange them at pleasure, can multiply them or reduce them
to a few or to one.
Chapter 17.—The Memory Contains the Ideas of Places of the Greatest
Size
Chapter 18.—The Understanding Judges of the Truth of Things, and of
Its Own Action
Again, if we consider the mind’s power of remembering not the
objects of the intellect, but material objects, such as we see What, then, must be said of the power of perceiving truth, and
brutes also remembering (for cattle ?nd their way without mis- of making a vigorous resistance against these very images which
take in familiar places, and animals return to their cribs, and take their shape from impressions on the bodily senses, when
dogs recognize the persons of their masters, and when asleep they are opposed to the truth? This power discerns the differthey often growl, or break out into a bark, which could not be ence between, to take a particular example, the true Carthage
unless their mind retained the images of things before seen or and its own imaginary one, which it changes as it pleases with
3
perfect ease. It shows that the countless worlds of Epicurus, in
which his fancy roamed without restraint, are due to the same
power of imagination, and, not to multiply examples, that we
get from the same source that land of light, with its boundless
extent, and the ?ve dens of the race of darkness, with their inmates, in which the fancies of Manichæus have dared to usurp
for themselves the name of truth. What then is this power
which discerns these things? Clearly, whatever its extent may
be, it is greater than all these things, and is conceived of without
any such material images. Find, if you can, space for this power;
give it a material extension; provide it with a body of huge size.
Assuredly if you think well, you cannot. For of everything of this
corporeal nature your mind forms an opinion as to its divisibility,
and you make of such things one part greater and another less,
as much as you like; while that by which you form a judgment of
these things you perceive to be above them, not in local loftiness
of place, but in dignity of power.
4
Augustine (354-430)
City of God
Translated by Marcus Dods. From A Select Library of the Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church, series I,
volume II, edited by Philip Schaff (Edinburgh: T&T Clark and Grand Rapids, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company)
Book XIII
Argument—In this book it is taught that death is penal, and had
its origin in Adam’s sin.
them with just sentence—which, too, has been spoken to in the
preceding book.
Chapter 2.—Of that Death Which Can A?ect an Immortal Soul, and
of that to Which the Body is Subject.
Chapter 1.—Of the Fall of the First Man, Through Which Mortality
But I see I must speak a little more carefully of the nature of
Has Been Contracted.
death. For although the human soul is truly affirmed to be imHaving disposed of the very difficult questions concerning the mortal, yet it also has a certain death of its own. For it is thereorigin of our world and the beginning of the human race, the fore called immortal, because, in a sense, it does not cease to live
natural order requires that we now discuss the fall of the ?rst and to feel; while the body is called mortal, because it can be forman (we may say of the ?rst men), and of the origin and prop- saken of all life, and cannot by itself live at all. The death, then,
agation of human death. For God had not made man like the of the soul takes place when God forsakes it, as the death of the
angels, in such a condition that, even though they had sinned, body when the soul forsakes it. Therefore the death of both—
they could none the more die. He had so made them, that if that is, of the whole man—occurs when the soul, forsaken by
they discharged the obligations of obedience, an angelic immor- God, forsakes the body. For, in this case, neither is God the life
tality and a blessed eternity might ensue, without the interven- of the soul, nor the soul the life of the body. And this death
tion of death; but if they disobeyed, death should be visited on of the whole man is followed by that which, on the authority of
5
the divine oracles, we call the second death. This the Saviour referred to when He said, “Fear Him which is able to destroy both
soul and body in hell.”1 And since this does not happen before
the soul is so joined to its body that they cannot be separated
at all, it may be matter of wonder how the body can be said to
be killed by that death in which it is not forsaken by the soul,
but, being animated and rendered sensitive by it, is tormented.
For in that penal and everlasting punishment, of which in its
own place we are to speak more at large, the soul is justly said
to die, because it does not live in connection with God; but how
can we say that the body is dead, seeing that it lives by the soul?
For it could not otherwise feel the bodily torments which are to
follow the resurrection. Is it because life of every kind is good,
and pain an evil, that we decline to say that that body lives, in
which the soul is the cause, not of life, but of pain? The soul,
then, lives by God when it lives well, for it cannot live well unless by God working in it what is good; and the body lives by the
soul when the soul lives in the body, whether itself be living by
God or no. For the wicked man’s life in the body is a life not of
the soul, but of the body, which even dead souls—that is, souls
forsaken of God—can confer upon bodies, how little so-ever of
their own proper life, by which they are immortal, they retain.
But in the last damnation, though man does not cease to feel,
1
Matthew 10:28
yet because this feeling of his is neither sweet with pleasure nor
wholesome with repose, but painfully penal, it is not without
reason called death rather than life. And it is called the second
death because it follows the ?rst, which sunders the two cohering essences, whether these be God and the soul, or the soul and
the body. Of the ?rst and bodily death, then, we may say that
to the good it is good, and evil to the evil. But, doubtless, the
second, as it happens to none of the good, so it can be good for
none.
Chapter 3.—Whether Death, Which by the Sin of Our First Parents Has
Passed Upon All Men, is the Punishment of Sin, Even to the Good.
But a question not to be shirked arises: Whether in very truth
death, which separates soul and body, is good to the good? For
if it be, how has it come to pass that such a thing should be the
punishment of sin? For the ?rst men would not have suffered
death had they not sinned. How, then, can that be good to the
good, which could not have happened except to the evil? Then,
again, if it could only happen to the evil, to the good it ought
not to be good, but non-existent. For why should there be any
punishment where there is nothing to punish? Wherefore we
must say that the ?rst men were indeed so created, that if they
had not sinned, they would not have experienced any kind of
death; but that, having become sinners, they were so punished
6
with death, that whatsoever sprang from their stock should also
be punished with the same death. For nothing else could be born
of them than that which they themselves had been. Their nature
was deteriorated in proportion to the greatness of the condemnation of their sin, so that what existed as punishment in those
who ?rst sinned, became a natural consequence in their children.
For man is not produced by man, as he was from the dust. For
dust was the material out of which man was made: man is the
parent by whom man is begotten. Wherefore earth and ?esh
are not the same thing, though ?esh be made of earth. But as
man the parent is, such is man the offspring. In the ?rst man,
therefore, there existed the whole human nature, which was to
be transmitted by the woman to posterity, when that conjugal
union received the divine sentence of its own condemnation;
and what man was made, not when created, but when he sinned
and was punished, this he propagated, so far as the origin of sin
and death are concerned. For neither by sin nor its punishment
was he himself reduced to that infantine and helpless in?rmity of
body and mind which we see in children. For God ordained that
infants should begin the world as the young of beasts begin it,
since their parents had fallen to the level of the beasts in the fashion of their life and of their death; as it is written, “Man when
he was in honor understood not; he became like the beasts that
have no understanding.”2 Nay more, infants, we see, are even
feebler in the use and movement of their limbs, and more in?rm
to choose and refuse, than the most tender offspring of other animals; as if the force that dwells in human nature were destined
to surpass all other living things so much the more eminently, as
its energy has been longer restrained, and the time of its exercise delayed, just as an arrow ?ies the higher the further back it
has been drawn. To this infantine imbecility the ?rst man did
not …
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