Capstone Project (Two separate papers)

I need Two separate papers written to finish my capstone project For the 1st question I need a 4 page paperFor the 2nd question I need a 3 page paperCapstone Research question: “The role that community
law enforcement plays in urban areas and how community law
enforcement agencies can promote ethnic and racial discrimination in the urban
societies based on how they provide services” In research-based projects, conclusions and recommendations are an important part in finalizing efforts and sharing insights gained from the project. For your Capstone Project, your conclusions and recommendations will be based on your literature review and any other information you may have gathered. For this Assignment, you reflect on the literature you found for your Capstone Project. Then, you consider conclusions and recommendations you may develop related to your research questions.Question 1.Types of Data and Research MethodsWrite a 4 page paper explaining the types of data that may help you answer your research question, including which research method might be best if you were to collect data for your Capstone Project and why.Briefly describe the problem or issue you selected and the research question you developed for your Capstone Project.Explain one conclusion you might make, based on the analysis of the literature you found and your proposed research.With this conclusion in mind, explain one recommendation you might make regarding the problem or issue you identified. Reminder: Use APA guidelines for citations and formatting.Question 2. Conclusions and RecommendationsWrite a 3 page paper explaining conclusions you might make, based on the analysis of the literature you found and your proposed research. Include recommendations, as well as how you might disseminate this information to stakeholders.Capstone Guideline:Policy analysis: If your research question/problem seeks a best way to solve a
problem, then you are probably proposing a policy analysis. Policy analyses compare a
number of alternate approaches to solving a problem. Policy analysis involves an effort
to collect reliable research about each of those alternatives and determine which
alternative offers the best solution to the problem. It is important to narrow the scope of
the problem so that you can measure potential outcomes of the various solutions (i.e.,
should the best outcome be the most cost-effective solution, the simplest to implement,
or the fastest?). Establishing these criteria can help you identify the best solution. Policy Analysis Research Paper Guidelines
A policy analysis allows you the opportunity to examine an issue of current relevance to
public policy making. Topics may be issues of longstanding interest and debate in the
public sector, or issues that have not yet caught the attention of policy makers. In order
to successfully complete a policy analysis, you should keep in mind that such analyses
are intended to inform those who may be affected by such issues. Therefore, the
research paper should provide the reader with a balanced and comprehensive
assessment of the intended policy and its potential consequences. It should educate the
reader about the nature of the issue, its background and current status, and the different
alternatives that policy makers might pursue to resolve the issue in a satisfactory
manner. It should be noted that a policy analysis is not an evaluation of an existing
agency program. Although program evaluations and policy analyses share many of the
same tools and methodologies, they answer fundamentally different questions. Policy
analyses seek to determine whether there is a government alternative for solving a
generally recognized social problem that best suits the needs of the affected public. In
contrast, a program evaluation seeks to determine the success or failure of an existing
public program. When you write your paper, you should think of yourself as a staff
person who must advise a policy maker facing a problem that must be resolved in the
near future.
Policy Analysis Research Paper Outline
A policy analysis paper should generally include the following components:
I. Executive Summary. A 100- to 200-word summary of your topic and the plan of your
Chapter One
II. Issue Definition. Begin your analysis with a short section introducing the
problem/issue you wish to research. The purpose of this section is to give the reader an
immediate indication of the issue you are addressing and why it is significant. Be very
explicit about the subject matter and define the terms of your analysis.
III. Background. This section should describe the key historical aspects of your issue in
order to place the topic within an historical context. You should include the policy
networks that have arisen in connection with your issue. A typical policy network might
include elected or appointed officials, concerned citizen groups, interest groups, public
agencies, think tanks, and private entities (such as regulated industries). The policy
network will contain very different groups depending on the nature of the issue. In this
section you should also identify whom you believe to be the major stakeholders.
Chapter Two
IV. Theoretical Framework/Key Concerns. This portion of your paper should provide
you with some idea as to why this particular issue and your analysis are important to the
field of public administration and policy. In many ways, this is the heart of your paper.
Here you may wish to draw on readings that you have had in your program coursework.
You should provide the reader with a clear rationale for why this issue relates to key
concerns in public administration, and how your analysis will address some of those
V. Literature Review. This section ties together the historical background on you topic
and the key concerns identified in your theoretical framework by examining in more
detail the nature of your particular issue. It is here that you may wish to discuss the
immediate and future repercussions of your topic. In this section, you may draw from a
variety of sources (newspaper articles, scholarly journals, books, government
documents, legislation, previous analyses) to describe the reasons why this issue may
be difficult to resolve. You may wish to focus on the different values and interests of the
actors involved in the policy network, the resources (money, personnel, time, media)
© 2014 Laureate Education, Inc. Page 5 of 8
being used, the institutions involved (legislative bodies, executives, public agencies, the
courts, public opinion), and the degree to which consensus on the issue is either
present or lacking. It will also be important to identify the “facts” surrounding the issue,
and to what extent there is agreement across the different actors.
Chapter Three
VI. Identification of Policy Alternatives. This is the main section of your paper. This is
where analysis of what is currently being done is compared to the possible actions that
the government might take to resolve the issue. It is not appropriate, for example, to
focus on alternatives such as broad societal changes or new economics systems that
are beyond feasible limits. Identifying alternatives, establishing criteria, and evaluating
these criteria should be based on program readings.
Chapter Four
VII. Recommendations. Your analysis should conclude with a summary of the central
knowledge you have gained from research. Here you will provide your recommended
alternative to key policy makers, with a brief summary outlining how you arrived at this
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Frankfort-Nachmias, C., & Nachmias, D. (2008). Research methods in the social
sciences (7th ed.). New York, NY: Worth.
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Literature Review
MPA Capstone Literature Review
Dominic Norwood
Walden University
Literature Review
The research question posed “the role that community law enforcement plays in urban
areas and how community law enforcement agencies promotes ethnic and racial discrimination
in the urban societies based on how they provide services”
Community law enforcement is a philosophy that involves law enforcement agencies and people
or organizations coming together to develop strategies to solve social problems related to crime,
social confusion or even the fear of a possible crime (Banton, 1964). From its definition, it is
important to note that its operation is based on three factors. The first one is partnership within
the community which involve association between individuals, organizations and the law
enforcement corporations that serve them in order come up with solutions for problems and
improve their confidence in the law enforcement. Second is an organizational change which
involves changing the existing structure, members and the system of information to permit
partnership in the community and anticipatory problem-solving technique. The third is solving
the existing problem the final feature which aims at creating favorable responses after an orderly
analysis of the existing problem. In urban areas community law enforcement plays a great role
that cannot be overlooked. However, there have been reported cases of ethical discrimination
promoted by these law enforcement agencies in their line of duty. In nations like the United
States where there is racial diversity, cases have been reported of community law enforcement
officers practicing partiality has been very rampant. This research review looks into these issues
by establishing and analyzing the roles played by law enforcement agencies in urban areas and
how community law enforcement agencies promote ethical and racial discrimination in the urban
societies based on how they provide services (Maguire, 2005). The review aims at creating
effective and working ways of solving these problems and creating more trust in these agencies.
Literature Review
Community law enforcement is considered as a form of management that aims at promoting and
increasing corporation between the community and the police or other law enforcement agency.
It provides measures that could be used to solve problems by looking deeper into the significant
causes of delinquency and fear, law enforcement and community bonds among other issues.
According to community law enforcement, community safety is not left as a sole role of the
police, but the entire community or organization is involved. This aims at providing a broad and
functional response (Banton, 1964).
This new style of policing has shifted the part played by the police to mediators or facilitators and
problem solvers. This has changed the traditional law enforcement that was incidence driven.
However the traditional policing strategy has not been done away with, just a few adjustments
have been put in place to realize better outcomes from police service. The new strategy only
broadens the range of tools the police officers could use when doing their job. It can be described
as anticipatory, community and solution based (Scaglion, & Condon, 1980). Law complying
citizens and law enforcement agencies normally work in unison to achieve the following
• Arrest offenders – it is the community themselves who identify the criminals and work together
with them to ensure that they are apprehended.
Prevention of crime since the community law enforcement is supposed to be proactive by
identifying possible courses and promoters of crime and dealing with them in the most appropriate
way possible before it occurs.
Finding the solution to an ongoing problem: the community could work together with the law
enforcers to find a lasting solution to a problem which might have been affecting them for over an
extended period.
Literature Review
The most important reason for the establishment of community law enforcement is improving
the general quality of life of people. This is achievable when the roles discussed above are worked
out correctly.
Community input makes this kind of law enforcement more inventive and smart since new
efficient ways of administration and law enforcement are devised. This makes it even tougher to
criminal activities since the law enforcers well understand every unique information about the
members of the community.
For life in the community to be improved, Community law enforcement works on three
fundamental strategies (Greene, Matrofski, 1988).
Citizen input; these citizens are the members of the various communities protected by the
police. It is important to have their say in their protection since they are the main subject of any
criminal threat. Their input is necessary since they are well conversant with the various directions
from which they receive a threat. Getting this information from them would help the police to
establish proper preventive measures. Incorporating the citizens in the policing system also help
establish trust and remove any stereotype information they might be having concerning the police
Broad function; the traditional law enforcement agencies had very narrow roles which were
only concerned about fighting crimes and nothing else. The community law enforcement plays
decidedly broader roles regarding security. These roles may include finding a solution to conflicts,
providing physical and even emotional support to victims of crime, putting preventive measures
against accidents, overcoming fear among citizens, lowering crime levels through practicing strict
legal actions against lawbreakers through arresting and enforcement (American Psychological
Literature Review
Association, 2010). The public usually expect the police to accomplish a variety of objectives;
this requires the agency to diversify its functions into not just through acting to calls and law
enforcement activities. Narrowing of roles limits effectiveness in serving the public.
Offering personal service to citizens: the traditional policing service is very bureaucratic and
whenever a crime is reported, the response time is very long since the information has to go through
several channels before an action is taken. Community law enforcement offers personal services
to the citizens. It provides friendly services by dealing with citizens in an amicable, open and
caring manner. This would conjure increased satisfaction, confidence in police officers, reduction
in the number of complaints from the public. This can easily be achieved by doing away with
unnecessary barriers preventing free interaction between law enforcement officers and the public.
Through close interaction with the public, tolerance could be increased through understanding the
concerns of the community. Existing stereotypes could easily be removed.
Implementation of the community service involved a variety of actions that included the active
creation of awareness among community members and police officers. Paoline III, Myers, &
Worden, 2000). To make the creation of security a community role, all people had to come
together for it to work effectively. The following methods were used;
Communities should be encouraged to assist in crime prevention. Encouragement can be achieved
through; giving advice-this could be done on a door to door talks with families; providing talks on
security issues in schools. Students make the greater part of most communities, at least every
family has a child, advising them on how community law enforcement works and how various
people are involved. They could practice this or even pass the information to their parents. Groups
play a role in security surveillance within their communities. They are different from vigilante
Literature Review
groups in that in case of a crime being detected; they do not take the law into their hands but
contact the police officers (Radelet, Reed, 1973).
Police officers are encouraged to foot patrols or cycle patrols using motorbikes or bicycles. These
two modes of surveillance could offer coverage over smaller areas but will enable them to get very
detailed information on the areas they patrol. This kind of patrol also enables them to interact with
the surrounding communities establishing trust, tolerance, and removal of stereotypes. The mobile
patrol also psychologically creates fear in potential criminals.
Accountability and transparency to the communities they serve are critical. A dedicated system
should always ensure that the needs of its subjects are addressed comprehensively. This could be
through faster response to reported cases and improved interactions with the communities they
serve. Criminal cases would reduce, and community satisfaction would also increase.
Groups of officers should be appointed to carry out policing in specific neighborhoods. This would
increase their productivity as the area covered would be reduced. Work would easily be divided,
and the number of citizens covered by each officer would be specific. The overall work of
maintaining security would not be overwhelming, and the full potential of the officers would be
The officers should communicate their plan of action and objectives to the communities. This
could be achieved through public education. Public education could be through creating awareness
in schools, walking from house to house advising on the same and sending text messages to the
community members. This would make every member of the community be aware of their
existence and prevent any possible intimidation that some people may experience. This is the best
way of earning the corporation and trust of the public.
Literature Review
Since community law enforcement involves groups of people coming together to work hand in
hand with officers to promote security, the various institutions living in a community should work
together to ensure that they are secured. Such institutions include government agencies, businesses,
media, community members and nonprofit organizations such as public hospitals. It is majorly
these institutions that require protection from external forces such as criminal activities. A
partnership would enable the officers to provide them with their security plan and advise them
accordingly on the appropriate operational strategies that would ensure that their businesses are
secure for businesses (Cornell University Library 2014b). The media could help the community
law enforcement agency to pass its policies to the general public through advice, television and
radio talks. This is a faster means of ensuring that the information gets to every single member of
the public. The media could also help the officers to receive emergency alerts and give a rapid
response. Communication agencies could also help in creating a direct link between officers and
the communities they serve. Improved communications mean there will be a faster response. The
government agencies that could be involved include prosecutors, probation and parole, health
facilities, child support services, schools, ordinance enforcement, and legislative bodies. These
bodies could help identify the interests of the community members and come up with immediate
and lasting solutions to them.
In a large corporation where there are a lot of employees with different ranks, the employees with
lower ranks usually tend not to express their full potential because the jobs they handle maybe do
not allow them to. Such problems can always be solved through decentralization. Some of the
benefits of decentralization include the lower ranking employees expressing all their expertise
since there is proper monitoring (Machi, & McEvoy, 2016). The same applies to the police
authority. It should be decentralized to ensure that lower-ranking officers can have freedom when
Literature Review
not comes to decision making. Community law enforcement is an agenda that involves all the
officers thus each of them is given the ability to make choices and judgments whenever a problem
arises although all these should be by law. The department should also create a working
environment for the officers to ensure that they are comfortable even as they carry out their duties.
This could be through the provision of proper equipment such as guns, appropriate clothing
according to the weather of a place and shelter. The high ranking leaders in the government should
ensure that they give a voice to policing strategies. This is because leaders are normally very
influential and their comments would facilitate the corporation of citizens.
Law enforcement usually follows a problem-solving model which offers steps and guidelines that
could be followed by officers in case a problem comes up. It is through these steps that the role of
community law enforcement is achieved. The model includes the following;
Scanning. This involves the identification and prioritization of problems. Problem identification
could be through reports on criminal activities reported by community members, observations
made by government agencies, reports made by the media, an effect of criminal activities that is
very evident. The officers also in the process of their patrol could be able to identify some problems
with them. After identification of the problems, it is important to prioritize them according to
possible impact or its severity. Prioritization could also be on the ease by which they could be
solved. Some would require the enactment of long-term laws while other would require rapid
action (Johnson, B., & Reeves, B. 2005). Scanning is essential in ensuring that no single problem
is left out.
Analysis. Identifying a problem is not enough since at timers it might not be easy to establish the
authenticity of any problem before enough evidence is collected. The various research techniques
could be applied to ensure that the information is authentic. Research could also enable the officers
Literature Review
to relate the situation to others that have occurred elsewhere and how they were solved. Operations
towards solving problems would be this under some background information about the entire issue.
It also enables one to understand the reason behind certain behaviors that might have led to such
Response. This step involves development and enforcement of solutions. If it is a long-term
problem that would probably take a longer duration to solve, it would be important to involve the
community members. This could be issues such as the use of drugs among youths which would
require parents to constantly keep an account of it children‘s behavior so that they do not fall on
the wrong side of the law.
Assessment. Once the action has been taken, the success of the response has to be evaluated. This
could be achieved through the crime triangle which involves the victim, offender, and location.
After the response, the victim should be safe from any possible attacks in the future. Appropriate
security measures should be put in place. The officers should ensure that appropriate action is
taken against the offender. Legal actions usually serve as a warning to people who might get
involved in the same issues in the future. This prevents the possible occurrence in the future.
Community law enforcement is concerned with creating law and order in the society. Its work is
to ensure that all citizens carry out themselves responsibly in whatever they do. It promotes respect
among people by ensuring that nobody damages the property of the other. It also enables people
to exist in harmony with the various institutions around them. Some of the roles played include;
Reduction of crime and drug abuse. Drug abuse is a major course of violence and criminal
activities. Most criminals are usually under the influence of some drug. Fighting this would ensure
that people are safe. Drug abuse is majorly observed among street families. Once under the
Literature Review
influence of drugs, the streets don’t become places to walk in at night since it is normally their
target attacking places. This could be achieved by establishing rehabilitation centers where drug
addicts could be reformed. On criminal activities, organizations such as businesses should always
ensure that they install a proper security system that cannot easily be bridged by criminals.
Community members are also of importance; they could provide information to the officers
whenever they realize an abnormal activity is going on in their neighborhood. Legal measures
should be taken against those found practicing criminal activities such as robbery or rape. This
would serve as an example to whoever may want to get involved in such practices in the future.
The presence of officers within the community psychologically instills fear in the criminals. This
could be another way of creating security (Trojanowicz, & Bucqueroux, 1998). Community law
enforcement is a decentralized system meaning that there is a faster response to any security issue
that might arise. There is very little bureaucracy hence action is fast. Faster action prevents adverse
effects of these criminal activities.
Through community law enforcement, ethical practices can easily promote in society. Such
practices include promotion of anti-drug attitudes among citizens and creation of social norms and
promotion of behaviors that would ensure peaceful coexistence among individuals. Creation of
anti-drug attitudes would ensure that nobody engages in drug abuse. These cases would thus
reduce. Such an attitude could be created by creating awareness on the risks associated with drug
abuse. Drug cartels within the community should also be

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