Case Analysis: illegal immigration in the U.S.A

Use decision model (7 steps) to analyze the case: illegal immigration in the U.S.AI upload the essay you write last week.Same format as you write last time, but I think the sentences need to be shorter in each bullet point because this is my midterm essay that I need to write on the blue books in the class.We need to bring 1-2 pages of Facts( step 1) into class, and analyze step2-step7 in the midterm exam. I think around 5 pages paper is enough since we only have 1 hour to write on the blue book. (you don’t need to write any titles and citation page.)
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An Ethics-Focused Decision-Making Model
1. Determine the Facts
a. Resist an immediate “judgment call”
i. Be aware of how sports, for example, has influenced all of us to make
quick choices of what is within the rules
b. Gather all facts—not just ones supporting one point-of-view (people don’t
get facts and do no research at all. Not just the ones of preconceived
notion)
c. Check multiple sources of information (Google and Wiki are not sources)
d. Differentiate between “facts” and “assumptions” (assumptions are
necessary for analysis and progress. If heard enough people think it’s a
fact)
e. “Follow the Money”—who makes money based upon which choices?
(Money always causes a bias)
2. Identify the Ethical Issues Involved
a. Are there dimensions of “right and wrong”; “fair or
unfair”; “good or bad”? (Must be resolved by the
alternative by the end of what you recommend)
3. Identify All the Stakeholders
a. Who (Groups) and how many? (Shareholders,
members of community, team, friends etc.. Identify who
will be effected by a decision/situation)
b. How might I be biased—how are certain
Stakeholders “related” to me? (Do you have a bias are
you related or fall in any of these categories. Be
transparent and disclose that you have a bias in a
situation)
4. Delineate (list) (and/or Create)
Alternative Courses of Action
a. Generate at least two different courses (There are
always two sides to take action or not to take action.
Doing nothing is always the first alternative. The other is
to do something and something is where difference
comes from.
b. Imagine one “wild” scenario (This is how creativity
gets sparked.)
5. Assess How the Alternatives will
Affect Stakeholders
a. Envision the results of each alternative
decision/course of action (Make aTable: stakeholders by
alternatives)
b. Determine beneficial versus harmful consequences
c. “Consider” the Law (The laws in the largest penal
code of ethics. Sometimes course of action is ethical, but
illegal or vice-a-versa) Civil rights movement was illegal
though it was the ethical choice.
d. Recognize your own potential “conflict of interest” Are
you going to harm myself or anyone else?
6. Seek Guidance
a. Close friends (seek advice) For paper who would
speak to and why you would seek guidance from. By a
table.
b. People you respect
c. Knowledge sources
i. Subject matter experts
ii. Reference Librarians
iii. Authors
iv. Researchers
v. Professors
vi. Pastors
7. Make a Decision; Act; Monitor the
Outcome(s)
a.
b.
Make a choice (Follow steps and make a decision)
Do something constructive
c. Be prepared to DEFEND your choice with logical,
persuasive arguments
d. “All Solutions Just Create Different Problems”—
Follow up and Correct
An Ethics-Focused Decision-Making Model
1.
Determine the Facts
2.
Identify the Ethical Issues Involved
3.
Identify All the Stakeholders
4.
Delineate (and/or Create) Alternative Courses of Action
5.
Assess How the Alternatives will Affect Stakeholders
6.
Seek Guidance
7.
Make a Decision; Act; Monitor the Outcome(s)
Case 1:
1.
THE TITANIC *The Titanic began its maiden voyage to New York just before noon on April 10, 1912, from Southampton, England. *Two days
later at 11:40 P.M, Greenland time, it struck an iceberg that was three to six times larger than its own mass, damaging the hull. * so that the six
forward compartments were ruptured. *The flooding of these compartments Was sufficient to cause the ship to sink within two hours and 40
minutes *With a loss of more than 1,500 lives.
2. 11:35 p.m. Lookouts spot the iceberg 1/4 mile ahead. 11:40 The Titanic sideswipes the iceberg, damaging nearly 300 feet of the hull. Midnight
Watertight compartments are filling; water begins to spill over the tops of the transverse bulkheads. 1:20 a.m. The bow pitches; water floods
through anchor-chain holes. 2:00 The bow continues to submerge; propellers lift out of the water. 2:10 The Titanic tilts 45 degrees or more; the
upper structure steel disintegrates. 2:12 The stern raises up out of the water; the bow, filling with water, grows heavier. 2:18 Weighing 16,000 tons,
the bow rips loose; the stern rises to almost vertical. 2:20 The stern slips beneath the surface. 2:29 Coasting at about 13 mph, the bow strikes the
ocean floor. 2:56 Falling at about 4 mph, the stern strikes the ocean floor.
3. WHY DID TITANIC SANK?
4. THE MANAGING CREW TITANICS ENGINEERING FLAWS
5. This was Captain E.J. Smith’s retirement trip. All he had to do was get to New York in record time. ? Captain E.J. Smith said years before the
Titanic’s voyage, “I cannot imagine any condition which would cause a ship to founder. Modern shipbuilding has gone beyond that.”
6. Captain Smith ignored seven iceberg warnings from his crew and other ships. If he had called for the ship to slow down then maybe the Titanic
disaster would not have happened.
7. It was Bruce Ismay’s fault Bruce Ismay was the managing director of the White Star Line and he was aboard the Titanic. Competition for Atlantic
passengers was fierce and the White Star Line wanted to show that they could make a six-day crossing. To meet this schedule the Titanic could not
afford to slow down. It is believed that Ismay put pressure on Captain Smith to maintain the speed of the ship.
8. The ship continued at a speed of about 21.5 knots. ? Each ship had three propellers ? Each outboard propeller was driven by a separate fourcylinder, triple expansion, reciprocating steam engine. ? The center propeller was driven by a low- pressure steam turbine using the exhaust steam
from the two reciprocating engines. ? The power plant was rated at 51,000 I.H.P.
9. It was Thomas Andrews’ faultThe belief that the ship was unsinkable was, in part, due to the fact that the Titanic had sixteen watertight
compartments. However, the compartments did not reach as high as they should have done. The White Star Line did not want them to go all the
way up because this would have reduced living space in first class. If Mr Andrews, the ship’s architect, had insisted on making them the correct
height then maybe the
10. 269.1 meters long, 28.2 meters maximum wide, and 18 meters tall from the water line to the boat deck. ? a gross weight of 46,000 tons. ? The steel
plate from the hull of the Titanic was nominally 1.875 cm thick. ? while the bulkhead plate had a thickness of 1.25 cm.
11. On an expedition in 1991 to the Titanic wreck, scientists discovered a chunk of metal lying on the ocean floor that once was a part of the Titanic’s
hull The Frisbee sized piece of steel was an inch thick with three rivet holes (each 1.25 inches in diameter)
12. The causes of brittle fracture ? Low Temperature ? High Impact Loading ? High Sulfur Content
13. Titanic disaster came following the recovery of a piece of the hull steel from the Titanic wreck ? After cleaning the piece of steel, the scientists
noted the condition of the edges ? The edges of the piece of steel appeared almost shattered, like broken china ? The metal showed no evidence
bending or deformation
14. Charpy test determines the amount of energy absorbed by a material during fracture ? A piece of modern high-quality steel was tested along with
the coupon from the hull steel ? Both coupons were placed in a bath of alcohol at -1°C to simulate the conditions on the night of the Titanic disaster
15. Charpy test is run by holding the coupon against a steel backing and striking the coupon with a 67 pound pendulum on a 2.5-foot-long arm
16. Results of the Charpy test for modern steel and Titanic steel [Gannon, 1995]. When a pendulum struck the modern steel, on the left, with a large
force, the sample bent without breaking into pieces; it was ductile. Under the same impact loading, the Titanic steel, on the right, was extremely
brittle; it broke in two pieces with little deformation.
17. How rivets may have contributed to disaster
18. When the iceberg tore through the hull plates ? Huge holes were created that allowed water to flood the hull of the ship ? The hull plates transferred
the inward forces ? The rivets were then either elongated or snapped in two, which broke the caulking along the seams and provided another inlet
for water to flood the ship
19. Vessel Particulars •LOA: 882 ft 9 in •Breadth: 92 ft 6 in •Depth: 64 ft 3 in •Draft: 34 ft 7 in •Gross Tonnage: 46,328 GT •Displacement: 52,310 LT
•Passengers & Crew: 3,547 •Design Speed: 21 knots •Builder: Harland and Wolff, Belfast, Ireland •Year Built: 1912 •Flag: United Kingdom
•Registered Owner: White Star Line •Vessel Type: Passenger Liner •Hull Material: Riveted Steel
20. These type of bulkheads are used nowadays in all most all types of ships. ? They provide maximum safety in times of flooding or damage of hull. ?
They divide the ship into watertight compartments which prevents seeping of water to other parts of the ship incase the hull is broken. ? The
number of compartments that a particular ship has depends on the type and requirement of the vessel.
21. Correct height of the water tight compartments. ? One of Titanic’s greatest innovations was the placement of fifteen watertight bulkheads (with
electrically operated watertight doors) that extended from the ship’s double bottom through four or five of her nine decks and were said to make the
ship “unsinkable.”
22. 700 survivors among 2235 passengers. ? Most of 2nd and 3rd class passengers came to about sinking of ship when water entered their
compartments. ? Unethical act ? Crew should have treat all passengers equally.
23. Titanic was receiving warnings from other ships 60 hours before collision • uncommon warnings, • Ship was cruising with maximum speed •
Difficult for the crews to spot icebergs
24. • Pride E.J Smith • Unethical act • Decision that strongly influenced , as the crews were not emphasizing safety for the passengers. . • According to
our perspective , if they would not treated warnings uncommon and could have reduced the speed ‘loss of many lives would not occurred’
25. • Ship was cruising at maximum speed (22 knots), on a moonless night. • Design speed was 21 knots. • Unethical act , causes death of so many
passengers
26. There was room on deck for twice as many lifeboats. ? Carried just over half of passengers and crew. ? Unethical act ? Decision supported concept
of ‘unsinkable ship’ ? Number of lifeboats were more , more passengers could’ve survived. ? Designer shouldn’t approved this change that leads to
the death of many passengers.
27. 2,235 passengers in Titanic , includes Mr Ismay, whose company The White Star Line, owned the Titanic. Loss of 1,522 lives Cause There were
not enough life boats. ? Mr Ismay aware that capacity of lifeboats was not enough ,Did not bother him ? Unethical act. Had explanations – The
Titanic was unsinkable so there was no risk; Lifeboats were expensive both in cost and the deck space they occupied.
28. He complied with the law. ? Number of lifeboats required by law to carry was measured on the weight of the ship not on the number of passengers.
29. Portion of the hull was damaged by filled with water quickly and, water filled the other compartments. • Design was not watertight,
Engineers/designers made clear assumptions of the amount of water they predicted would enter the hull. • As it would reduce the living space in
first class Said by ‘WHITE STAR LION’. • Unethical act • If there were no watertight compartments , Titanic could have been afloat for 2 to 3
days.
30. The ice patrol could have informed the captain of the ice fields and surrounding icebergs and instructed him to stop the ship until morning. ? Most
of the life boards had the capacity of 65 people,held only 27 people. ? Unethical act. ? By carring equal no of people in each boat,could ‘ve saved
the life of many passengers. The crew stands blameworthy.
31. About three million rivets were used to hold the sections of the Titanic together. Some rivets have been recovered from the wreck and analysed. The
findings show that they were made of sub- standard iron. ? When the ship hit the iceberg, the force of the impact caused the heads of the rivets to
break and the sections of the Titanic to come apart. If good quality iron rivets had been used the sections may have stayed together and the ship may
not have sunk.
32. Bruce Ismay was the managing director of the White Star Line and he was aboard the Titanic. Competition for Atlantic passengers was fierce and
the White Star Line wanted to show that they could make a six-day crossing ? To meet this schedule the Titanic could not afford to slow down. It is
believed that Ismay put pressure on Captain Smith to maintain the speed of the ship.
33. The belief that the ship was unsinkable was, in part, due to the fact that the Titanic had sixteen watertight compartments. However, the
compartments did not reach as high as they should have. ? The White Star Line did not want them to go all the way up because this would have
reduced living space in first class. If Mr Andrews had insisted on making them the correct height then maybe the Titanic would not have sunk.
34. What changes does the titanic design required? ? How life of more peoples could have saved? ? What changes could’ve occurred when “Women
and Children first” policy would not have applied? ? What decision Captain Smith could have made , when ship was recieving uncommon
warnings? ? Why ship was moving with 22 knots speed when design speed was 21 knots?
35. The Titanic tragedy was a warning to all other ships ? From that point on ALL ships had enough lifeboats for every single person on the ship and
sometimes more ? There has been some other big ship crashes after that but usually not as many people died and the ship did not make the same
mistakes as the Titanic did
36. There was certainly no such thing as an “unsinkable ship” ? The Titanic will most likely continue to lure people for generations to come, since
every generation is able to take something different from its historic tragedy.
Case 2:
Carnival Cruise Lines is one of the largest cruising companies in the world. There are 101 ships in all their fleets total. This is a global cruise line that
cruises from many places including North and South America, Europe, and also many islands. The ships include all different luxuries including areas to
shop, fine dining, gaming areas which include casinos but also arcades, 24-hour room service, and this is just some of the many things Carnival offers on
board. Carnival also provides on shore excursions for their passengers.
On January 13, 2012 captain Francesco Schettino took the boat off course and took it close to the Tuscan Island of Giglio, off the coast of Italy. The captain
hit some rocks and ended up capsizing the ship around 9:45PM. It took an hour for the evacuation call to happen, this should have been done within 15
minutes of hitting the rock. The lifeboats were also not fully prepared for evacuation, many of them were stuck and took many members of the crew to try
and get them down into the water. The captain also evacuated the boat prior to all the passengers, which is not what should have been done, the captain is
supposed to stay on until the boat has been cleared of all passengers. There were a total of 32 deaths, some of these bodies were missing for many days
before being found. Carnival’s lawsuits were mostly in Italy due to where this wreck happened. Carnival paid out only what they were told to by the courts
to those parties involved.
An ethical analysis of this case will be made using four ethical theories including Individualism, Utilitarianism, Kantianism, and Virtue Theory. The first
theory is the individualism ethical theory. Individualism is when the company chooses to do what is best for them while being law abiding citizens. When
looking at Carnival’s actions, it disagrees with the individualism theory. After capsizing the ship a call should have been made right away for rescue crews.
The call was not made until an hour later, which made this illegal. The second theory is the utilitarianism theory. In this ethical theory the business tries to
maximize the happiness of the stakeholders.The stakeholders of this case include the captain and crew, the over 4200 passengers on the ship at the time of
the wreck, Carnival Cruise Lines and its subsidiaries, the stockholders of the Carnival Corporation, and also family members of those who passed on the
ship due to this wreckage. Carnival’s actions disagree with this theory. Carnival did nothing to try and please their stakeholders. There were families who
had to suffer the loss of someone in their family. Also the incredible amounts of stress that the victims of this capsizing had to deal with. The Kantianism
theory has four parts including acting rationally, allowing rational decisions to be made, respecting peoples needs and differences, and to be motivated by
good will. None of Carnival’s actions agreed with this theory. They had life boats that were not fully available, they did not make a call about the boat
sinking for over an hour when it should have been done within 15 minutes, they had to be brought to court and forced to pay out money to those involved
in the wreck, and finally they clearly were not motivated by good will because anything that they gave to those involved were forced, they did not perform
any of this goodness on their own. Finally there is the virtue theory for ethical behavior. The virtue theory states that there is action to help people live a
fulfilled and happy life. There are a few reasons why Carnival failed to do this. They did not compensate the passengers as much as they could have. The
captain allowed the sinking of the ship to happen for a long period of time, and then fled before passengers. Overall Carnival failed at being an ethical
company to the stakeholders in this situation.
Case 3:
Notable Ethics Failures
Corvair Safety Lapses
The corvair was a car produced by General Motors, Chevrolet division, from 1959 to 1969. Up to that time, most US cars were larger than necessary.
However, the popularity of the VW beetle proved that a market for compact cars existed and was substantial. The corvair was one of the first US
automaker offerings to compete in this category. Its engineering was highly unconventional. It had an aluminum block, flat-opposed air-cooled engine in
the rear producing from 80 to 180 HP depending on the model. It even had factory air conditioning! It was quite popular and reached sales of over 200,000
units for several years. It was named Motor Trends “car of the year” for 1960.
Safety issues:
1. Heat for passengers came from air that was directly passed over the cylinders of the engine. Thus, the passengers were exposed to the possibility of
inhaling engine fumes (carbon monoxide) in the case of gasket failures, for example.
2. The engine design suffered from a bad choice of pushrod tube sealant which causes chronic oil leakage. This further contaminated the air inside the
vehicle when the heater was operating.
3. The engine was a mix of aluminum block and steel cylinders. The different expansion rates of these material caused gaps at joints and resulted in oil
leaks.
4. The battery could emit hydrogen if overcharged, further contaminating the interior.
5. Most of the above were known well before the corvair was designed: many American cities’ taxi regulations had prohibited air-cooled engine cars
from being used as taxicabs when they derived their heated air from engine exhaust heat, decades before the corvair.
6. The rear engine, rear suspension combination was prone to “tuck under” under certain conditions.
7. The required tire pressures were unusual: 15 psi in front, 26 psi in back when cold so tires needed to be in …
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