After compiling your CDC reports, discuss all of your data analysis findings (from all three reports). Be sure to identify your state (Texas). Your discussion should summarize your findings (2-3 paragraphs are plenty, do not post your entire report here) and your experience (was this a new experience for you? did you know these data were available? how did you feel about the assignments – were they useful?). What do these data say about the status of health in the United States?
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Cancer Diseases in Texas
Cancer can be defined as the uncontrolled growth of cells in a person’s body. These cells,
which grow abnormally, can be termed as tumor cells or malignant cells. In most cases, the
cancerous cells can break away from the original mass of cells and travel via the circulatory and
lymphatic systems; thus spreading and affecting other organs in the body. This is commonly
referred to as metastasis. There are various types of cancer, and they include colon cancer, lung
cancer, liver cancer, skin cancer, cervical cancer, leukemia, bone cancer e.t.c. The incidence of
cancer is influenced by many factors such as gender, race, local environment, and genetics. It is
estimated that by 2030 the death resulting from cancer will rise by seventy percent to
approximately thirteen million deaths.
Cancer Screening refers to checking or examining the human body for cancer before any
symptoms are observed (Center for disease and prevention, 2017). In 2016, the Center for Disease
Control and Prevention ( CDC), collected data in the state of Texas, where they asked different
categories of people if they had been screened for cancer. Next, they classified the data into
categories, which include gender, age group, race, education attained and household income.
The data shows that 5.1 % of black non-Hispanic had a higher chance of getting screened
while 0.8% of white non-Hispanic had the lowest chance of being tested for cancer. According to
the 2016 data provided by CDC for the state of Texas, a male who is between the age of seventy
to seventy five, who is black non-Hispanic; who has also attained a college degree, and earns
between fifteen thousand dollars and twenty four thousand nine hundred and ninety nine dollars
has a high chance of getting screened for cancer. Conversely, a female who is between the age of
fifty and fifty-nine, who is a white non-Hispanic, who has also attained education level of G.E.D,
and earns a salary of between twenty-five thousand dollars and thirty-four thousand nine hundred
and ninety-nine dollars has the least chance of getting a cancer screening.
According to the 2010-2014 data provided by Center for Disease Control and Prevention
(CDC) in Texas, it was discovered that the numerical values for the female breast cancer mortality
were 20.4 per 100,000 people. The colon and rectum cancer mortality was 14.8 per 100,000 people,
and the lung and bronchus cancer mortality was at 40.6 per 100,000 people. Finally, the prostate
cancer mortality was at 18.7 per 100,000 people. These data above confirms that lung and bronchus
cancer mortality was the worst in Texas.
Across the United States of America, it was discovered that cancer of the colon mortality
was at 14.8 per 100,000 people, while female breast cancer mortality was at 21.2 per 100,000
people. The lung and bronchus cancer mortality was at 44.7 per 100,000 individuals while the
prostate cancer mortality was at 20.1 per 100,000 people.
Correlation of Diseases
According to information provided by Center for Disease Control and Prevention in 2016,
there is a positive correlation between the diabetes percentage and the obesity and overweight
percentage. This means that the more people become obese, the higher the risk of becoming
diabetic. It was also observed that there is a negative correlation between cardiovascular diseases
and physical activity. This means that the more people engage in physical activities, the lesser the
risk of contracting cardiovascular diseases. The research findings illustrate that the increase in the
number of people for colorectal cancer screening leads to a decrease in the colorectal cancer
The World Health Organization (WHO) social determinant of health is a significant factor
in the health disparities in the USA. This factor states that people in the USA belong to different
economic status; thus, they have different income levels. This means that citizens of the USA
access different qualities of medical care depending on how wealthy they are. In the USA we have
different political classes whereby the top political class has power and thus it can access expensive
and better medical care while the lower class can only access deteriorated or no health care at all.
Therefore, as a result of the differences in class and economic status, health disparities arise.
Gender, age group, race, level of education and household income are factors that influence
the accessibility to cancer screening. It is also evident that the higher the number of cancer
screening, the lower the rate of cancer mortalities. Additionally, the lung and bronchus cancer
mortality is the worst in Texas and the US as a whole. However, the access to healthcare is affected
by the social and economic status of an individual.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2017, September 13). BRFSS Prevalence & Trends
Data. Retrieved January 4, 2018, from https://www.cdc.gov/brfss/brfssprevalence/
CDC Website Data Review for Diabetes and Obesity
The Centre for Diseases Control and Prevention (CDC) is a national organization that
aims at saving lives by protecting people from health predicaments and catastrophes. The
institution emphasizes on securing public health and safety by creating measures to control
and prevent the spread of disease, injury, accident and disability occurrence in America and
the rest of the world. Its primary aim is to help in control and prevention of infectious
diseases. Additionally, the institute provides research information regarding non-infectious
diseases. Therefore, the Institute records are the best sources to obtain data and information
about diabetes and obesity records. The following data were collected from the CDC Website
for the state of Texas in the year 2016.
Diabetes Demographics Data
Under diabetes, various demographic groups are crucial to study to get the necessary
information and data. These demographic groups include gender, age group, race/ethnicity,
education attained and household income. An analysis of the various demographic groups
revealed that the highest number of people diagnosed with diabetes was found in the age
group category. In this classification, persons aged sixty-five years and above had the highest
amounts of patients diagnosed with diabetes; with the data illustrating a percentage of
twenty-five for this age group.
Similarly, the age group category in the demographic classifications is also the one
with the lowest percentage of diabetes since it had the lowest number of individuals who
were diagnosed with diabetes. People between the age of eighteen and twenty-four years
recorded a zero percentage in their diabetes diagnosis. Furthermore, the same age group holds
the highest record of ninety-seven point five percent (97.5%) of people who reported a
negative diabetes diagnosis.
Assessing all the demographic categories of gender, race, age, education, and income
is vital to determine the person at the highest risk of diabetes. This evaluation reveals that the
individual with the highest risk of being diagnosed with diabetes would be a black, nonHispanic female, aged sixty-five years and above. Additionally, this individual should have a
maximum of high school level education and should also be earning less than fifteen
thousand dollars ($15,000) household income.
It is also essential to establish the person with the lowest risk of diabetes by
evaluating the data in the demographic groups of race, gender, age, income, and education.
The information shows that the person with the lowest risk of diabetes would be a multiracial, non-Hispanic male aged between eighteen to twenty-four years. Additionally, the
young man should have a college degree and also should be earning more than fifty thousand
dollars ($50,000) household income. Therefore, the data shows that a high level of education,
high income, and being young are some of the characteristics associated with people at low
risk of diabetes.
Overweight and Obesity Demographics Data
According to the CDC Website, the demographic category likely to have the highest
percentage of overweight and obesity issues in the household income group with prevalence
at forty-three percent (43%). Reports show that a person having a household income of less
than $15,000 has the highest probability of overweight and obesity problems. The overweight
and obesity classification was done using the body mass index methodology (Data, 2015).
Additionally, the gender group is the one with the lowest percentage of overweight and obese
people. The group report indicates the record at thirty-four percent (34%), which is low
compared to other demographic groups highest.
By cross-listing all the demographic categories, the person with the highest risk of
being overweight and obese should be a black, non-Hispanic female. The individual has to be
between fifty-five to sixty-four (55-64) years of age with less than $15,000 income.
Furthermore, they should have attained a maximum of high school level education. However,
an Asian, non-Hispanic male aged between eighteen and twenty-four (18-24) years old has a
low risk of overweight and obesity problems. The individual is likely to be a college graduate
and earning between $15,000- $24,000.
Chronic Health Indicators
Texas State has a higher prevalence of diagnosed diabetes among adults of age 18 and
above than Virginia state. In Texas, the age-adjusted prevalence ranges between 10.5% and
14.3% while in Virginia the age-adjusted prevalence is between 8.2% and 9.1%. Also, Texas
State is among the high ranking states in the United States of America with regards to the
prevalence of diabetes among adults.
Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Weight Status
Similarly, Texas State has a higher age-adjusted prevalence of obesity among adults
compared to the state of Virginia. For instance, obesity among adults in Virginia State
records between 26.8% and 30.0% which is lower compared to Texas State that lies between
32.5% and 38.0%. Texas is also among the high ranking states with regards to obesity in the
Data, D. o. (2015). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved April 02, 2018,
from National Centre for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion:
Cardiovascular Diseases in Texas
There are numerous cardiovascular diseases and also various factors that can help reduce
the risk of their occurrence; such as physical exercise. In the United States, these diseases vary
across states. In the state of Texas, like in other countries, the characteristics of the data collected
also varies across categories such as age. Similarly, the factors affecting the people’s ability to
engage in physical activities diverge from one state to another.
Cardiovascular diseases are a collection of ailments that involve the heart and blood
vessels. According to a publication by the World Health Organization (WHO), cardiovascular
diseases are the leading causes of death and are predicted to remain the highest causes of
fatalities. The leading causes of these diseases are tobacco use, being inactive physically, and an
unhealthy diet. Almost eighty percent of premature deaths due to cardiovascular diseases can be
avoided by eating a healthy diet, avoiding the smoke of tobacco and by engaging in regular
physical activity. Examples of cardiovascular diseases are Coronary Heart Disease (heart attack),
raised blood pressure (hypertension), heart failure, and strokes (World Health Organization,
Coronary Heart Disease
Coronary Heart Disease affects the ability of blood vessels to provide blood and oxygen
to the heart. In this disease, plaque (a fatty substance) accumulates in the lining of the blood
vessels causing a condition known as atherosclerosis. The arteries become extremely clogged
thus making it difficult for the heart to work properly (National Heart Foundation of Australia,
In 2016, the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), collected data in the state
of Texas; where they asked different categories of people if they had ever been diagnosed with
Coronary Heart Disease. Next, they classified the data into different categories; which include
gender, age group, race or ethnicity, education attained, and household income. The data shows
that eleven and a half percent of people (11.5%) with sixty-five years and above have been
diagnosed with the disease (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2017). This age group
has the highest percentage of Coronary Heart Disease. On the contrary, the age group between
forty-five and fifty-four years have the lowest rate of Coronary Heart Disease occurrence with
only 1.9 % recording that they have ever been diagnosed with the disease (Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention, 2017).
According to the 2016 data provided by the CDC, in Texas, a male who is either sixtyfive years or above, white non-Hispanic, has attained an education that is below high school
level and earns a salary of less than fifteen thousand dollars; has the highest likelihood of having
Coronary Heart Disease. Conversely, a female, from Texas, with her age ranging between fortyfive years and fifty-four years, black non-Hispanic, who is a college graduate and earns fifty
thousand dollars or more has the least risk of getting Coronary Heart Disease (Centers for
Disease Control and Prevention, 2017).
A stroke occurs when blood flow to the brain is interrupted due to either of two factors.
One of them being blood clots that block or plug blood vessels in the brain causing an ischemic
stroke and the other one is when a blood vessel breaks and causes bleeding in the brain resulting
to a hemorrhagic stroke. Since the brain cells in the immediate area of a stroke don’t get oxygen
and nutrients necessary for them to function, they begin to die. Even though a stroke is a disease
in the brain, it affects the whole body (National Institute of Health, 2013).
In the CDC report, the survey conducted in the year 2016 in the state of Texas had
missing values in its data. Therefore, according to the information present, those with sixty-five
years and above have the highest percentage (6.9%) of having been told they had a stroke.
Furthermore, those earning fifty thousand dollars or more have the least rate (0.7%) of ever
being diagnosed with a stroke. Moreover, a man who is sixty-five years or more, with a white
non-Hispanic ethnicity and has achieved an education level that is less than high school level,
and earns between twenty-five thousand dollars ($25,000) and thirty-four thousand nine hundred
and ninety-nine dollars ($34,999), has the highest chance of having a stroke. In contrast to this, a
college graduate female with her age ranging between forty-five and fifty-four years, black nonHispanic, and earning fifty thousand dollars or more has the least likeliness of having a stroke
(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2017).
Any movement of the body that exercises the muscles and demands more energy than
resting is classified as physical activity. Examples of such exercises are lifting weights, playing
sports, and aerobics. Aerobic activity is also known as endurance activity and it exercises large
muscles like those found on the arms and legs. Over time, these activities make the heart and
lungs stronger and improve their performance. Physical activity has numerous benefits such as
reducing the risk factors for coronary heart disease (U.S. Department of Health & Human
In the state of Texas, the CDC investigated if the participants did aerobics and if they did,
whether it was for one hundred and fifty minutes or more per week. This survey was conducted
in the year 2015. The ethnic classification of multiracial, non-Hispanic had the highest
percentage (62.8%) of people doing one hundred and fifty minutes or more of aerobic activity
per week. Conversely, those of American Indian or Alaskan Native, non-Hispanic ethnicity had
the lowest percentage (30.3%) of people taking part in one hundred and fifty minutes or more of
aerobic activity per week (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2017).
According to the information available, in the state of Texas, college graduate men with
an age of sixty-five years or more, an ethnicity of multi-racial non-Hispanic, and earning fifty
thousand dollars or more, have the highest likelihood of doing aerobic activity for one hundred
and fifty minutes or more per week. On the other hand, a twenty-five to a thirty-four-year-old
woman from an American Indian or Alaskan Native non-Hispanic ethnicity, with a household
income of less than fifteen thousand dollars; and also has an education level that is less than high
school has the least probability of participating in one hundred and fifty minutes or more of
aerobic physical activity per week (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2017).
Comparisons between the State of Texas and the State of Virginia or the Whole United
The first indicator is mortality from coronary heart disease. In the state of Texas, 89.9
cases per one hundred thousand reported in the year 2014 had coronary heart disease while in the
state of Virginia, 90.9 incidents per one hundred thousand cases were of people with coronary
heart disease (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2017). This data indicates that there
are more cases of coronary heart disease in the state of Virginia than in that of Texas.
Furthermore, 114.3 per one hundred thousand cases of coronary illnesses were recorded in the
entire US; which is almost half the cases in the state of Texas (Centers for Disease Control and
The next indicator is mortality from cerebrovascular disease (stroke). In the state of
Texas, there were 36.7 cases per one hundred thousand of stroke in 2014. In the state of Virginia,
there were 38.8 cases per one hundred thousand of stroke in the same year (Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention, 2017). Therefore there was just a small difference between the cases of
stroke in the two states. Moreover, there were 41.7 cases per one hundred thousand of stroke in
the whole of United States (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2017). This difference is
only a little higher than those in Texas.
The last indicator, “No leisure-time physical activity among adults aged >= 18 years” is
under the category “Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Weight Status.” In the states of Texas,
25.2% of those who are eighteen years old or above have no leisure-time for physical activities
while23.3% of people in the state of Virginia avail periods for physical activities (Centers for
Disease Control and Prevention, 2017). These percentages imply that more people (eighteen
years and above) in Texas have no leisure time for physical exercise than those in Virginia. Also,
in fifty states plus Washington DC, 23.1% of the people have no leisure-time for physical
activities which is less than in the state of Texas (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,
In the state of Texas, the different cardiovascular diseases vary across the classifications
of data and participants of aerobic activities also differ in these categories. Furthermore, the
comparisons of these aspects between the states of Texas and Virginia and the whole of United
States make it very clear that they change from one state to the other.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2017, September 13). BRFSS Prevalence & Trends
Data. Retrieved January 4, 2018, from https://www.cdc.gov/brfss/brfssprevalence/
National Heart Foundation of Australia. (2013). Coronary heart disease. Retrieved from
National Institute of Health. (2013, Jul …
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