Choose two documents that support government intervention in the economy and two documents opposed to government intervention in the economy

Using primary texts supplied IN THE FOLDERS BELOW, choose two documents that support government intervention in the economy and two documents opposed to government intervention in the economy, and write a 750-word essay that demonstrates the arguments the proponents and opponents of government intervention used. You should identify the authors’ main point and examine how they defended their position. NB: you are not expected to incorporate all of the sources listed, just those relevant to your approach to the paper prompt.No secondary sources, other than the Cengage text, should be integrated into this paper’s analysis.Your paper should briefly introduce your paper’s topic or question and provide a thesis statement. In a paper of this size, your introduction and thesis statement should appear on the first page, in the paper’s first paragraph.Your paper should show that you reasoned through the evidence in a fair-minded way. In other words, you should state (paraphrase) what your evidence says and not what you wish it said or think it should say. You need to state the evidence fairly, even if you think it wrong or offensive.Your paper should use evidence to answer the historical question. You need to explain how the evidence answers the question.Your paper should develop and organize your thoughts clearly and logically. Outlining is probably necessary, but not a required, step in writing a well-organized paper.Your paper should draw a conclusion that addresses the paper’s chief topic or question and that states your answer to the question or your contribution to the topic.Common Style:Submission to Blackboard LearnTypewritten, double-spacedLength: 750 wordsDocumentation: Chicago StyleCommon Instruction on Academic Honesty:To meet the standards for Academic Honesty:• Cite your sources consistently throughout your paper (good rule of thumb: at least one citation per paragraph, although introduction and conclusion may not require citation).• Cite your source for any statement or quotation that is not common knowledge.• Place quotation marks around phrases/sentences that represent the words of someone else.• Use proper paraphrasing rather than poor paraphrasing to avoid plagiarism.
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U.S. Supreme Court
Lochner v. New York, 198 U.S. 45 (1905)
Lochner v. New York
No. 292
Argued February 23, 24, 1905
Decided April 17, 1906
198 U.S. 45
Syllabus
The general right to make a contract in relation to his business is part of the liberty
protected by the Fourteenth Amendment, and this includes the right to purchase and
sell labor, except as controlled by the State in the legitimate exercise of its police power.
Liberty of contract relating to labor includes both parties to it; the one has as much right
to purchase as the other to sell labor.
There is no reasonable ground, on the score of health, for interfering with the liberty of
the person or the right of free contract, by determining the hours of labor, in the
occupation of a baker. Nor can a law limiting such hours be justified a a health law to
safeguard the public health, or the health of the individuals following that occupation.
Section 110 of the labor law of the State of New York, providing that no employes shall
be required or permitted to work in bakeries more than sixty hours in a week, or ten
hours a day, is not a legitimate exercise of the police power of the State, but an
unreasonable, unnecessary and arbitrary interference with the right and liberty of the
individual to contract in relation to labor, and, as such, it is in conflict with, and void
under, the Federal Constitution.
[…]
The mandate of the statute that “no employee shall be required or permitted to work,” is
the substantial equivalent of an enactment that “no employee shall contract or agree to
work,” more than ten hours per day, and, as there is no provision for special
emergencies, the statute is mandatory in all cases. It is not an act merely fixing the
number of hours which shall constitute a legal day’s work, but an absolute prohibition
upon the employer’s permitting, under any circumstances, more than ten hours’ work to
be done in his establishment. The employee may desire to earn the extra money which
would arise from his working more than the prescribed time, but this statute forbids the
employer from permitting the employee to earn it.
The statute necessarily interferes with the right of contract between the employer and
employes concerning the number of hours in which the latter may labor in the bakery of
the employer. The general right to make a contract in relation to his business is part of
the liberty of the individual protected by the Fourteenth Amendment of the Federal
Constitution.Allgeyer v. Louisiana, 165 U. S. 578. Under that provision, no State can
deprive any person of life, liberty or property without due process of law. The right to
purchase or to sell labor is part of the liberty protected by this amendment unless there
are circumstances which exclude the right. There are, however, certain powers, existing
in the sovereignty of each State in the Union, somewhat vaguely termed police powers,
the exact description and limitation of which have not been attempted by the courts.
Those powers, broadly stated and without, at present, any attempt at a more specific
limitation, relate to the safety, health, morals and general welfare of the public. Both
property and liberty are held on such reasonable conditions as may be imposed by the
governing power of the State in the exercise of those powers, and with such conditions
the Fourteenth Amendment was not designed to interfere. Mugler v. Kansas, 123 U. S.
623; In re Kemmler, 136 U. S. 436; Crowley v. Christensen, 137 U. S. 86; In re
Converse, 137 U. S. 624.
The State therefore has power to prevent the individual from making certain kinds of
contracts, and, in regard to them, the Federal Constitution offers no protection. If the
contract be one which the State, in the legitimate exercise of its police power, has the
right to prohibit, it is not prevented from prohibiting it by the Fourteenth Amendment.
[…]
It must, of course, be conceded that there is a limit to the valid exercise of the police
power by the State. There is no dispute concerning this general proposition. Otherwise
the Fourteenth Amendment would have no efficacy, and the legislatures of the States
would have unbounded power, and it would be enough to say that any piece of
legislation was enacted to conserve the morals, the health or the safety of the people;
such legislation would be valid no matter how absolutely without foundation the claim
might be. The claim of the police power would be a mere pretext — become another and
delusive name for the supreme sovereignty of the State to be exercised free from
constitutional restraint. This is not contended for. In every case that comes before this
court, therefore, where legislation of this character is concerned and where the
protection of the Federal Constitution is sought, the question necessarily arises: is this a
fair, reasonable and appropriate exercise of the police power of the State, or is it an
unreasonable, unnecessary and arbitrary interference with the right of the individual to
his personal liberty or to enter into those contracts in relation to labor which may seem
to him appropriate or necessary for the support of himself and his family? Of course, the
liberty of contract relating to labor includes both parties to it. The one has as much right
to purchase as the other to sell labor.

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