Climate Change Journal

I need 7 articles that talk about any climate change issue. Please cite the source, 100 word count summary/abstract, 50 word count social commentary. I have uploaded an example of the journal articles I need.


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ENVS 110: Climate Change: Science, the environment, and society Student name:
The purpose of this assignment is to keep you educated about the current state of change and the
You will keep a journal about the current state of climate change and the environment through
materials you find in the news. Through our readings we have discovered many interesting
topics, information and ideas. Using this information, please find articles related to this material,
you can use newspaper articles, magazine articles, etc., – most of which are now on the Internet!
You must READ TEN (10) articles and then summarize them using the format below, plus add
some of your own social commentary. ANY ARTCILES THAT I FEEL DO NOT ADDRESS
Use the format below; refer to the sample journals.
1. You will lose one (1) point for improper formatting of the source of the article.
2. You will lose one (1) point for not having a 100-word abstract.
3. You will lose one (1) point for not having a 50 -word abstract. Again, each entry will
consist of a properly formatted source, a 100-word abstract/summary of the article, do not
copy and paste the article, and then a 50-word summary/social commentary by you about
the article.
Upload the completed document via CANVAS.
You will cite your articles as follows:
a. Journal Entry# ( ). Title of story. Date. Source. Author.
b. Example:
i. Journal Entry #1. Title of story, June 16th, 2017. NY Times. Author of the
ii. Summary: Survey of lakes and streams show increased contamination.
EPA sampling of freshwater bodies in 2017 showed increase levels of
harmful chemicals such as mercury, dioxin, and lead…
iii. Social Commentary/opinion: Another example of how humans are
destroying our natural resources, it furthers shows how…
c. Do not copy & paste the article, summarize it!!!
d. Separate each journal using a horizontal line like this:
In summary, your journal will consist of ten (10) summarized articles using the format above.
Journal Assignment: Food/Agricultural Issues in the News
ENVS 107: Food, culture, and the environment.
Student name: Sample Name
Journal Entry #1: Farm Bill 2018: A Primer prepared for the December 2016 SAFSF Policy
Briefing by the National Sustainable Agriculture Coalition in Washington D.C.
Summary: The modern-day farm bill focuses on two main sections: non-perishable commodities
like wheat, corn, feed grains, dairy, etc, and the other section focuses on nutrition and programs
like food stamps and SNAP or EBT. Authorization legislation like the farm bill allows for the
funding to be granted generally, whereas appropriation bills divide up funds and allocate them
directly. Topics not included in the farm bill include farmworker/food worker issues, public
lands, renewable fuel standard, agricultural taxation, and water rights including the water act.
GMO policy and pesticide use is dealt with by multiple agencies like the EPA and FDA and
USDA and child nutrition is dealt with by the Child Nutrition Act. The farm bill which occurs
every few years is only one step in the actualization process of programs; the annual
appropriation bills are where funding is actually allocated along with the mandatory spending of
the farm bill. There is talk of separating the bills of farm and nutrition, and reevaluating SNAP
and its dependency for people of the Unites States. It is expected that subsidies for crop
insurance will be greater than commodity program subsidies. This bill also encompasses many
other issues like conservation, and specifics like dairy farming, and cotton industries.
Social Commentary/Opinion: This process is obviously very complicated and there are many
elements involved that will be voted on by congress and eventually signed by the president as
well. This article was helpful for me to understand the ins and outs of the bill and how it comes
to actualization. As with anything it opens up pathways for further research because now I feel
that I need to keep up with the appropriation bills that occur almost every month. As far as the
things that are not included in the bill, I am very surprised and also disheartened especially that
farmworker rights and the water act are not intertwined, but I have to research also which entities
are in charge of these areas.
Journal Entry #2: Analysis: Ominous Symbol in Mozambique Food Riots, 9 September 2010.
PRI. Andrew Meldrum.
Summary: Mozambique is one of the world’s most underdeveloped countries that was under
colonial rule from Portugal until 1975 and ended a 16-year long civil war in the 1990’s so they
have been rebuilding their country ever since. According to the article 50% of the country is
under 18 years old so there are a lot of youth that are growing up without the guidance of a stable
government system. After Marxist rule, the Mozambican government took away food subsidies
that were citizen’s only means of affording food they needed to survive in the cities. Most
people in Mozambique live in rural areas, but an increasing amount are moving to cities and the
country as a whole is not transitioning to urbanization in a way that provides for the influx of city
dwellers. Although there is much poverty, there is usually not daily violence these days since the
ending of the civil war, however, in 2010 there were massive food riots in response to the
government cut of subsidies that made the price of bread 30% more expensive in which rioters
were met with police force and 13 were killed while hundreds were injured on the streets.
Social Commentary/Opinion: Examples like these food riots just show us how real scarcity is in
certain parts of the world that are being marginalized by developed societies. Although there is
sufficient food to feed the world many times over, the lack of equity in its distribution is what
causes over all hunger and starvation. This also speaks to the damaging nature of colonialism
and how the people of Mozambique have been left to rebuild their country and are divided and
chaotic because they have changed leadership so many times. On an agricultural note as well,
the separation of farms and cities (or dense urban areas and spread out rural areas) is also
disproportionately creating food deserts in Mozambique as it has already done in so many other
places like the United States.
Journal Entry #3: Nestle Fights Feds Over Water Rights, 9 May 2016. USA Today. Ian James.
Summary: Nestle owns or thinks it has the right to collect water from the Arrowhead mountain
area near San Bernardino where it collects around 36 million gallons of water for sale each year
through pipes and other infrastructure in the national forest land. It then trucks this water to
Ontario for bottling and distribution to the rest of the country. After the Desert Sun did an
investigation on the expired state permits (as of 1988) that Nestle had to collect the water (still
paying just above only $500 a year for the permit), various individuals and businesses have sued
the national Forest Service, claiming that they did not do their job monitoring the company and
their permits for water rights. Nestle argues that this is a state versus federal issue and that the
national Forest Service has no right to deny them of state water rights. This was especially
controversial this year when a drought caused many people in the surrounding area to conserve,
while Nestle had no restrictions on water collection. People are now expecting an environmental
investigation to take place to determine whether the collection of water by Nestle is harming the
wildlife in nearby rivers and streams. Some say that Nestle has no right to the current piping
they have done, let alone to build more infrastructure, but others say it is up to the state to decide,
not the feds.
Social Commentary/Opinion: After reading this I want to know more about the water rights in
California when it comes to individuals and businesses and compare that to the national water
rights as it relates to national forest land. I would rather that Nestle did not pipe water out of the
national forest and that they stuck to making chocolate (even though that is problematic too).
Bottled water is a disgrace in the first place, and companies like these will end up having control
of precious water supplies for profit when people actually need them for personal use and when
the agricultural industry needs water for irrigation. I would like to see water in California under
more strict protection especially considering we are the biggest agricultural producers in the
Journal Entry #4: Mexico Ready to Play Corn Card in Trade Talks, 2 April 2017. NY Times. Kirk
Summary: I learned that yellow corn is mainly grown for animal feed production and white corn
is used for tortillas and other human consumption. Mexico is the United States’ third largest
customer of exported goods under NAFTA and Trump’s campaign promises to remove NAFTA
have pushed the Mexican administration to seriously consider buying their corn from other
nations like Brazil or Argentina, even though that will be much more costly because of the lack
of defined trade routes and general distance. Many American farmers who voted for Trump in
the first place are now concerned that the corn belt will lose its market in Mexico with a
disruption from the Trump administration. Although no legislation has been passed yet, and as
always, people are waiting on Trump for some kind of action which is still uncertain. In the
meantime, trade partners are seeing the U.S. as less trustworthy or dependent and preparing for a
Social Commentary/Opinion: I personally am still not sure how I feel about NAFTA because
although it encourages trade around North America which is more sustainable that importing
from farther countries at a larger carbon footprint for transportation, I think it might have
contributed to wiping out domestic production of goods in an even more local economy and
affected small family farmers in Mexico negatively. The article argues that this causes an influx
of illegal immigration to the U.S. and I definitely see how NAFTA could cause Mexico to import
so much corn from the U.S. for livestock feed that small farms would not be able to compete and
lose a multigenerational business, causing them to resort to leaving the country. I would
personally love to see Mexico’s domestic production of white corn and other types of indigenous
corns increase and revive small family farms for the local economies, and I am not sure how
NAFTA’s role helps or hinders that.
Journal Entry #5: Led By Nigeria, Africa Opening Door to Genetically Modified Crop
Cultivation, 6 March 2017. Genetic Literacy Project. Steven E. Cerier.
Summary: This article provides a list of African countries, led by Nigeria that are adopting the
commercialization of GM crops and embracing their usage in their nation’s farms. They argue
that although many environmental groups oppose GMOs and many worldwide movements have
banned GMOs in cities, states, and countries, there is no reliable scientific data to support their
claims that GMOs cause birth defects or autism. The article argues that genetically modified
crops are as safe as any other crop and can help farmers who suffer from losing their farms to
disease and insects. Specifically in Africa, they mentioned that isolated crop field testing is
being done as the first stage to test out GM crops and their results. Some countries are in the
testing phase still and others, like Nigeria have approved GM crops completely. The article
argues that to feed a growing population, this is the only viable way to do it.
Social Commentary/Opinion: The interesting pieces of this article for me were the fact that
Africa exports most of its crop to Europe and that since Europe has banned the usage of many
GM crops, they have has a huge influence on the way Africa views GM crops as major
consumers and importers of their products. This is interesting to me because considering that
Europe played the biggest role in their colonization it is unfortunate to see them having to rely on
them still as consumers, but I am glad that countries like Nigeria are successful in exporting
goods in the first place. So one the one hand, Africa’s decision to use GMOs to improve their
crops even though the EU is against it makes me happy for that sense of independence, but in the
same way, harmful farming practices that have marginalized family farmers and subsistence
farmers in Africa are the reason we need GMOs in the first place so that is very sad.
Journal Entry #6: World’s First Farm to Use Solar Power and Seawater Opens in Australia, 10
October 2016. Ecowatch. Kristin Falzon.
Summary: Basically, this farm uses ocean water that is desalinated by solar energy in a 49 acre
greenhouse operation that grows tens of thousands of tomatoes a year and sells them as 13
percent of Australia’s tomato market share. The plants are grown in coconut husks and
apparently the salinity in the water makes it impossible for bacteria and therefore viruses to
thrive and spread, creating an almost aseptic environment for growing. This setup is also
looking to be implemented in Portugal and the U.S. in the future. Since they are self-sustaining,
they have been able to continue production through massive blackouts that bankrupted several
businesses in Australia last year.
Social Commentary/Opinion: I obviously think this idea is genius and the amount of brain that
went into designing this operation is incredible. I applaud the engineers and scientists who made
it possible and of course I hope it succeeds. I love that it is self-sustaining and does not depend
on fossil fuels for production either. The overall concept is amazing and shows the ability of the
creative human mind to solve modern issues with modern science, but of course this type of
large scale production of produce in the middle of nowhere still separates people from the origins
of their food and disconnects us from the process of the natural way of growing food completely.
I see this as a sort of Mad Max solution that is an amazing accomplishment, but not a solution for
the growing of all crops. It is very realistic, but I think more of a cultural shift like our textbook
mentions is more important for the better of our society as a whole.
Journal Entry #7: Michelle Obama Champions Vegetable Gardens and Healthy Food in
“American Grown”, 2 August 2012. Washington Post. Adrian Higgins.
Summary: Michelle Obama wrote a book about the shift in the American diet and exercise
lifestyle that also is a memoir of her personal story as it relates to health and follows the story of
the gardens that had lasted four growing seasons at the White House implemented by Michelle.
These gardens have been places for local students to also participate in harvests and sowing of
crops and learn about healthy food choices. Michelle Obama has also spearheaded movements
to encourage kids to be active and incorporate fun exercise into their lives everyday. The article
also points out, however, that of course there is criticism for her work where people are saying
that she is doing too much talk and not enough actual law changing to change this obesity
Social Commentary/Opinion: Although I agree that policy is where the biggest change can be
made to stop the spread of obesity, especially in children’s schools, I do not by any means see
the former first lady’s work as invaluable. I have so much respect for her to take on this
challenge and really try to open America’s eyes to a preventable problem that affects all of us and
our children. I love that there is a huge veggie garden on the South Lawn and that Michelle is
being a powerful woman and voicing her opinion on such a strong issue. Not only is she voicing
her opinion, but she is actively making a difference with her platform so I love her forever and
am buying this book!
Journal Entry #8: Mumbaikars Drop Seeds on I-Day, 15 August 2017. Times of India. Ismat
Summary: In a part of Mumbai whose wildlife and greenery is threatened more than any,
environmentalists have taken to seed bombing the area to increase vegetation. They say there is
a proposition for a new subway station that might pose more of a threat to the once densely
covered forest in the area. The seed bombs consist of cow dung, compost, cow urine, clay, soil,
and seeds of local plants that do well in the climate like papayas and other more tropical native
plants. The groups are organized on bike so they bike along hiking trails and spend the day
chucking these seed bombs into the forest in less densely covered areas so they break open and
the seeds can begin to germinate within the soil.
Social Commentary/Opinion: I like this concept and it is really cool to see it gaining momentum
internationally. The first I heard of seed bombing was from a friend who work in Oakland Lake
Merritt trying to increase populations of native bees and butterflies, who would create seed
bombs of clay and seeds of native host plants like milkweed and poppies and bee plant to chuck
around and sometimes hit like golf balls around the city which was very renegade, but I liked the
idea a lot. It is awesome to see this working everywhere in different climate-relevant ways and it
is a cool thing to do on a Saturday so we don’t even take the weekend off from resisting the
destruction of the environment.
Journal Entry #9: Crossing Borders: The Journey of Alaskan Salmon, 6 December 2017. Utah
Public Radio. Aimee Tallian.
Summary: Lee Perkins is a salmon fisherman from Utah who was able to work for many
companies on every angle of fishing, processing, quality management and sale and says he
learned most about his work as a consumer which pushed him to go into his own business of
distribution. He wants consumers to be savvy in their buying of fish and says that if a consumer
does not know where their fish was even caught, it has lost its story and the connection to the
environment is lost which comes with consequences. A third party quality assurance agency
MSC also says they want to ensure that consumers know what they are buying and can have
evidence that they are being told the truth. Sockeye salmon is often caught in Alaska, not kept
cold and allowed to bruise and then frozen to be shipped to China to be filleted on a mass scale
and injected with artificials to reabsorb the water that was lost in the thawing process. Since
Perkins has learned about all these unsustainable practices that also make lower grade meat, he
has built a company around marketing the transparency of knowing where your fish comes from
and about its whole journey.
Social Commentary/Opinion: I liked this article because I began to think about the concept of
sustainable when I was in Hong Kong since they consume more seafood than any other city in
southeast Asia and came back seeing how blind consumers are when it comes to our fish’s
stories. I can never get a response at sushi restaurants when I ask where their fish was caught
and how long ago and feel like a psycho when I whip out my sustainable seafood guide. This is
super sad and the underlying issue is lack of consumer education like Perkins said. I think this is
the root of all societal problems, but especially in the fish market, I agree with Perkins
completely and I like his business model.
Journal Entry #10: U.S. Touts Fruits and Vegetables While Subsidizing Animals that Become
Meat, 3 October 2011. The Washington Post. Arthur Allen.
Summary: The article in a nutshell basically uses strong statistics and sources to prove that the
American government’s propaganda on what is healthy directly opposes the actual subsidies
given to farmers. These subsidies were put in place largely …
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