CODE OF ETHIC

ANA CODE OF ETHIC ***(3 pages)NOTE: This is a two-part assignment. Use an APA format and correct use of English, grammar, spelling and the use of substantive writing/critical thinking in answering these questions. Use your own words. Use citations where necessary.Part I:Review provision one of the ANA Code of Ethics for Nurses. Please answer the following questions in one or two paragraphs based on your reading and understanding of the specific Provision one.What are the main points/highlights covered in this provision of the Code? Use your own words. Use citations where necessary. 2. What did you learn from reading this particular provision of the Code? How will you apply the information and knowledge from this section of the Code to nursing clinical experiences as a nursing student. Be specific about how this sectionof the Code serves to advance the professional role and practice of the nurse.Part II:What important changes were addressed in the 2015 revision of the Code of Ethics?What are the updates/ changes? What is the significance of this update? Specifically, how are these concepts addressed in the Code? Use statements from the Code to support your argument.As an RN, what will be your role in future updates of the nursing code of ethics?
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2010 RE-Issue
Guide to the
Code of Ethics
for Nurses
Interpretation
and
Application
editor: Martha D. M. Fowler, PhD, MDiv, MS, RN, FAAN
2010 REIssue
Guide to the
of
for Nurses
Code Ethics
Interpretation
and
Application
editor: Martha D. M. Fowler, PhD, MDiv, MS, RN, FAAN
American Nurses Association
Silver Spring, Maryland
2010
© 2008 American Nurses Association. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or any means, electronic or mechanical,
including photocopying and recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication data
Guide to the code of ethics for nurses : interpretation and application / Marsha D.M. Fowler, editor.
p. ; cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN-13: 978-1-55810-287-3 (e-publication, single user)
ISBN-10: 1-55810-287-6 (e-publication, single user)
ISBN-13: 978-1-55810-295-8 (e-publication, multiple users)
ISBN-10: 1-55810-295-7 (e-publication, multiple users)
1. Nursing ethics. I. Fowler, Marsha Diane Mary. II. American Nurses Association.
[DNLM: 1. Ethics, Nursing–Guideline. 2. Codes of Ethics–Guideline. 3. Societies, Nursing-Guideline. WY 85 G946 2008]
RT85.G85
2008
174.2–dc22
2008004469
The American Nurses Association (ANA) is a national professional association. This ANA publication—Guide to the Code of Nursing: Interpretation and Application—reflects the thinking of the nursing
profession on various issues and should be reviewed in conjunction with state board of nursing policies
and practices. State law, rules, and regulations govern the practice of nursing; Guide to the Code of
Nursing: Interpretation and Application guides nurses in the application of their professional skills and
responsibilities. The opinions in this book reflect those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect
positions or policies of the American Nurses Association. Furthermore, the information in this book
should not be construed as legal or professional advice.
Published by Nursesbooks.org
The Publishing Program of ANA
www.Nursesbooks.org
American Nurses Association
8515 Georgia Avenue, Suite 400
Silver Spring, MD 20910-3492
1-800-274-4ANA
www.Nursingworld.org
The American Nurses Association (ANA) is the only fullservice professional organization representing the interests of the nation’s 3.1 million registered nurses through
its constituent member nurses associations, its organizational affiliates, and the Center for American Nurses.
The ANA advances the nursing profession by fostering
high standards of nursing practice, promoting the rights of
nurses in the workplace, projecting a positive and realistic view of nursing, and by lobbying the Congress and
regulatory agencies on health care issues affecting nurses
and the public.
development editor: Rosanne O’Connor Roe (ANA staff)
production editor: Eric Wurzbacher (ANA staff)
copyediting and indexing: Grammarians, Inc., Alexandria, VA
design & composition 2010: David Fox, AURAS Design, Silver Spring, MD
printing: McArdle Printing, Upper Marlboro, MD
© 2008 American Nurses Association. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or
utilized in any form or any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording, or by
any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
ISBN-13: 978-1-55810-287-3
First eBook publication August 2010. (First paper publication July 2010.*)
*This book was re-issued with a new cover in July 2010. All content other than the annotations on this
page and on page 137 is identical to that which was first published in February 2008 and subsequent
reprints. (See page 137 for guidelines on citing the content of Appendix A.)
© 2008 American Nurses Association. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or any means, electronic or mechanical,
including photocopying and recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Am
About the Authors
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Acknowledgments
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Contents
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Preface
Anne J. Davis, PhD, DS, MS, RN, FAAN
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Introduction
Marsha D.M. Fowler, PhD, MDiv, MS, RN, FAAN
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Provision 1
Carol R. Taylor, PhD, MSN, RN
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xiii
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Provision 2
Anne J. Davis, PhD, DS, MS, RN, FAAN
11
Provision 3
John G. Twomey, PhD, PNP
23
Provision 4
Laurie A. Badzek, JD, LLM, MS, RN, NAP
41
iii
© 2008 American Nurses Association. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or any means, electronic or mechanical,
including photocopying and recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Provision 5
Marsha D.M. Fowler, PhD, MDiv, MS, RN, FAAN
55
Provision 6
Linda L. Olson, PhD, RN, CNAA
71
Provision 7
Theresa S. Drought, PhD, RN, and Elizabeth G. Epstein, PhD, RN
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103
Provision 9
Marsha D.M. Fowler, PhD, MDiv, MS, RN, FAAN
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Provision 8
Mary C. Silva, PhD, RN, FAAN
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Appendix A
Code of Ethics for Nurses with Interpretive Statements
(American Nurses Association, 2001)
121
171
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Index
iv
© 2008 American Nurses Association. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or any means, electronic or mechanical,
including photocopying and recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
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Acknowledgments
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Laurie A. Badzek, JD, LLM, MS, RN, NAP
Janet M. Dahm, PsyD, RNC
Barbara J. Daly, PhD, RN, FAAN
Anne J. Davis, PhD, DS, MS, RN, FAAN
Candia B. Laughlin, MS, RN-BC
Kathleen M. Poi, MS, RN, CNAA
Molly Sullivan, MAOL, RN
Carol R. Taylor, PhD, MSN, RN
Linda S. Warino, BSN, RN, CPAN
sA
The American Nurses Association would like to thank the following people for their
help in reviewing the content of this book:
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Permissions
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The American Nurses Association gratefully acknowledges the publishers’ permission to reproduce passages from the following publications.
Chapter 5
Burgess, Mary Ayers. 1928. The hospital and the nursing supply. Transaction of
the American Hospital Association, pp. 440–414. Chicago: AHA.
Jameton, Andrew. Duties to Self: Professional Nursing in the Critical Care
Unit, in Fowler, Marsha and Levine-Ariff, June (eds.). Ethics at the Bedside.
Philadelphia: JB Lippincott, 1985, pp. 115–135.
v
© 2008 American Nurses Association. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or any means, electronic or mechanical,
including photocopying and recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
AcknowlEDgMEnts
Chapter 8
Cooper, R. W., G L Frank, C A Gouty, and M M Hansen. 2003. Ethical helps
and challenges faced by nurse leaders in the healthcare industry. Journal of
Nursing Administration 33(1): 17–23.
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DeVries, R., and J. Subedi, eds. 1998. Bioethics and Society: Constructing the
Ethical Enterprise. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, p xiii.
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Lee, M. B., and I. Saeed. 2001. Oppression and horizontal violence: The case of
nurses in Pakistan. Nursing Forum 36(1): 15–24.
Oberle, K., and S. Tenove. 2000. Ethical issues in public health nursing. Nursing
Ethics 7:425–38.
se
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Page–Sikma, S. K., and H. M. Young, 2003. Nurse delegation in Washington
state: A case study of concurrent policy implementation and evaluation.
Policy, Politics, & Nursing Practice 4(1): 53-61.
Nu
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Shapiro, H. T. 1999. Reflections on the interface of bioethics, public policy, and
science. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 9(3): 209–24.
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Chapter 9
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Weston, A. 2002. A Practical Companion to Ethics, 2nd ed. New York: Oxford
University Press., p 12.
rig
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Perlman, C. H., Olbrechts-Tyteca, L. The New Rhetoric: A Treatise on
Argumentation. Notre Dame: Notre Dame University; 1969. p. 51.
Co
py
Winter, Gibson. Elements for a Social Ethics. NY: Macmillan; 1966, p. 215.
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Guide to the Code of Ethics for Nurses
© 2008 American Nurses Association. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or any means, electronic or mechanical,
including photocopying and recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
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About the Authors
Provision 1
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Provision 2
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Carol R. Taylor, PhD, MSN, RN, is a faculty member of the Georgetown University
School of Nursing and Health Studies and Director of the Georgetown University
Center for Clinical Bioethics. She is a graduate of Holy Family University (BSN),
the Catholic University of America (MSN), and Georgetown University (PhD in
philosophy with a concentration in bioethics). Bioethics has been a focus of her
teaching and research since 1980 linked to her passion to “make health care work”
for those who need it. Special interests include healthcare decision making and
professional ethics.
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Anne J. Davis, PhD, DS, MS, RN, FAAN, and Professor Emerita, taught at
the University of California for 34 years. Beginning in 1962, Dr. Davis’s career
focused on international work with appointments in Israel, India, Nigeria, Ghana,
Kenya, Japan, Korea, China, and Taiwan. These rich experiences led to the development of her overriding interest in cultural diversity and nursing ethics. She is
a graduate of Emory University in Atlanta (BS, Nursing), Boston University
(MS, Psychiatry), and University of California, Berkeley (PhD, Higher Education).
Dr. Davis has been the recipient of numerous awards, including an honorary
Doctor of Science from Emory University and election as a Fellow in the American
Academy of Nursing.
Provision 3
John G. Twomey, PhD, PNP, is an Associate Professor at the Graduate Program
in Nursing at the MGH Institute of Health Professions in Boston, Massachusetts.
Dr. Twomey’s doctoral work was in bioethics. He teaches bioethics and research
vii
© 2008 American Nurses Association. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or any means, electronic or mechanical,
including photocopying and recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
About thE AuthoRs
and serves on several human subjects research protection committees. He has
completed two National Institute of Nursing Research-supported post-doctoral
fellowships in genetics. A member of the International Society of Nurses in
Genetics, he does research in the area of the ethics of genetic testing of children.
He is the editor of the Ethics Column in the Society’s quarterly newsletter.
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Provision 4
Provision 5
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Laurie A. Badzek, JD, LLM, MS, RN, NAP, is currently Director of the American
Nurses Association Center of Ethics and Human Rights, a role in which she
previously served from 1998–99. During that time, Badzek was instrumental in
developing a plan that ultimately resulted in the approval of a new Code of Ethics
for Nurses by the 2001 House of Delegates. Currently a tenured, full professor
at the West Virginia University School of Nursing, Badzek, a nurse attorney, teaches
nursing, ethics, law, and health policy. Having practiced in a variety of nursing and
law positions, she is an active researcher, investigating ethical and legal healthcare
issues. Her current research interests include patient and family decision making,
nutraceutical use, mature minors, genomics, and professional healthcare ethics.
Her research has been published in nursing, medical, and communication studies
journals, including Journal of Nursing Law, Nephrology Nursing Journal, Annals
of Internal Medicine, Journal of Palliative Care, and Health Communication.
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Marsha D.M. Fowler, PhD, MDiv, MS, RN, FAAN, is Senior Fellow and Professor
of Ethics, Spirituality, and Faith Integration at Azusa Pacific University. She is a
graduate of Kaiser Foundation School of Nursing (diploma), University of California
at San Francisco (BS, MS), Fuller Theological Seminary (MDiv), and the University
of Southern California (PhD). She has engaged in teaching and research in bioethics
and spirituality since 1974. Her research interests are in the history and development
of nursing ethics and the Code of Ethics for Nurses, social ethics and professions,
suffering, the intersections of spirituality and ethics, and religious ethics in nursing.
Dr. Fowler is also a Fellow in the American Academy of Nursing.
viii
Guide to the Code of Ethics for Nurses
© 2008 American Nurses Association. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or any means, electronic or mechanical,
including photocopying and recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
About thE AuthoRs
Provision 6
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Linda L. Olson, PhD, RN, CNAA, is currently Professor and Dean of the School of
Nursing at North Park University in Chicago, Illinois. Previously, she taught courses
in healthcare policy and economics, leadership, and nursing service administration
at the graduate and undergraduate levels as an Associate Professor at St. Xavier
University in Chicago. She has prior experience in nursing service administration,
practice, and consultation. Dr. Olson received her PhD and MBA from the University
of Illinois at Chicago, and her baccalaureate and master’s degrees in nursing from
Northern Illinois University. Her area of research interest is the work environment,
particularly focusing on organizational culture and ethics. As part of her dissertation
work, she developed the research instrument, the Hospital Ethical Climate Survey,
which has also been used by several researchers, nurses, and others in the United
States and internationally. She was a member of the ANA Task Force to Revise the
Code of Ethics, as well as the Congress on Nursing Practice and Economics, and has
held numerous leadership positions at local, state, and national levels. In addition,
she serves as an appraiser for the Magnet Recognition Program.
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Provision 7
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Theresa S. Drought, PhD, RN, is currently an Assistant Professor at the
University of Virginia School of Nursing. She has long been interested in the
ethical issues related to professionalism in health care, serving as a nurse consultant to the California Medical Association’s Council on Ethical Affairs, chair of
the ANAC Ethics Committee (ANA/California), and as a member of the
American Nurses Association Task Force that produced the 2001 Code of Ethics
for Nurses. Her publications and research address issues of professionalism and
ethics in nursing and end-of-life decision making. Her current research focuses
on decisions made by stranger surrogates. She received her PhD in nursing from
the University of California at San Francisco in 2000.
Elizabeth G. Epstein, PhD, RN, received her PhD in Nursing from the University
of Virginia in 2007. In August 2007, she took a position as Assistant Professor
at the University of Virginia School of Nursing. Her doctoral dissertation and
continuing interests are in ethics and end-of-life issues in the pediatric setting.
In particular, she is interested in studying moral distress and moral obligations
Guide to the Code of Ethics for Nurses
ix
© 2008 American Nurses Association. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or any means, electronic or mechanical,
including photocopying and recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
About thE AuthoRs
among healthcare providers, as well as determining how care-based ethics is
evident in pediatric end-of-life care. She is a member of the American Society
for Bioethics and Humanities. She serves as a facilitator for Conversations in
Clinical Ethics, a multidisciplinary group at the University of Virginia that meets
to discuss ethical issues that arise in the hospital setting.
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Provision 8
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Mary C. Silva, PhD, RN, FAAN, received her BSN and MS from the Ohio State
University and her PhD from the University of Maryland. In addition, she undertook postdoctoral studies at Georgetown University. She has taught healthcare
ethics at the master’s and doctoral levels and published extensively in the area
of ethics, beginning in the 1970s. She is currently Professor Emerita at George
Mason University in Fairfax, Virginia. Dr. Silva is also a Fellow in the American
Academy of Nursing.
Provision 9
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Marsha D.M. Fowler, PhD, MDiv, MS, RN, FAAN, is Senior Fellow and
Professor of Ethics, Spirituality, and Faith Integration at Azusa Pacific University.
She is a graduate of Kaiser Foundation School of Nursing (diploma), University
of California at San Francisco (BS, MS), Fuller Theological Seminary (MDiv),
and the University of Southern California (PhD). She has engaged in teaching
and research in bioethics and spirituality since 1974. Her research interests are
in the history and development of nursing ethics and the Code of Ethics for
Nurses, social ethics and professions, suffering, the intersections of spirituality
and ethics, and religious ethics in nursing. Dr. Fowler is also a Fellow in the
American Academy of Nursing.
x
Guide to the Code of Ethics for Nurses
© 2008 American Nurses Association. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or any means, electronic or mechanical,
including photocopying and recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
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Preface
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A code of ethics stands as a central and necessary mark of a profession. It functions
as a general guide for the profession’s members and as a social contract with the
public that it serves. The group that would eventually become the American Nurses
Association first discussed a code of ethics in 1896. When the ANA code of ethics
was first developed, it was used as a model by nursing organizations elsewhere in
the world, so it had considerable influence both in this country and internationally.
As American nursing education and practice advanced over the years since then,
and we developed a deeper understanding and appreciation of ourselves as professionals, the code has been updated on several occasions to reflect these changes.
However, the core value of service to others has remained consistent throughout.
One major change that can be found is the re-conceptualization of the patient.
Formerly limited to an individual person usually in the hospital, now the concept of
the patient includes individuals, their families, and the communities in which they
reside. Another change of great significance, detailed in the fifth provision of the
code, reminds us that nurses owe the same duties to self as to others. Such duties
include professional growth, maintenance of competence, preservation of wholeness of character, and personal integrity. Just as the health system and professional
organizations need to attend to the rights of patients, they also must support nurses
and help them to take the actions necessary to fulfill these duties.
You will need to read this Code carefully and repeatedly to reflect on these nine
provisions for what they mean in your daily life as a nurse. Ethics and ethical codes
are not just nice ideas t …
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