Compare and Contrast two readings_week5

For the Note Assignments, it is asked to provide some basic information about the documents that you have read. There are some basic facts to ascertain about each of the documents:1. Who wrote this document, and when and where?2. What kind of document is it?3. Who is the intended audience for this document?4. What are the main points of the document?5. Why was the document written?6. What can you tell about the society that this document comes from?PS: Those questions have to be answered for each documents or readings (2).All the details (including the readings) are in the documents attached. Thanks a lot!


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19. Virgil
Judging from what you have read of Cicero’s speech, what verdict would
you render as one of Habitus’s judges?
Sassia, the defendant’s mother, is the focus of Cicero’s defense. Alhy do
you think he set his sights on her?
Sassia and her son obviously n ere
not likely to be held up
ily-what sort of lessons about family life might
as a model famRomans have drawn from
this affair?
4. {hat do the facts presented reveal about Roman socieg’?
5. 44ry do you think this speech was so famous?
ublius Virgilius Maro, know
Virgil (70-19 B.c.E.), was born near Mantua
to a peasant family. Remarkably, given his family background, he was able to
receive an education, first at local schools and then in Rome. He was especiaily
skilled in rhetoric and philosophy, the two central subjects of the time. Unlike
most other distinguished Romans, Virgil never aspired to public life but devoted himself entireiy to rvriting poetry. His early works were merely preparaiion
for the creation ofan epic, regarded as the highestform ofpoetic expression.
This work was the Aeneid, Virgil’s story of the founding of Rome and the
fulfiilment of its great destiny. Initially, the poem was meant to honor the
Emperor; in it, Augustus was compared favorably to the mythical founder of
Rome, Aeneas, after whom the poem rvas named. Virgil ivorked on the Aeneid
for over a decade and it remained unfinished at his death. The foliowine
selection comes from the opening stanzas of the poem.
Arms and the man I sing, who first made wa,v,
Predestined exile, from the Trojan shore
To italy, the blest Lavinian strand,
Smitten of storms he was on land and sea
By violence of F{eaven, to satisfr
SternJuno’s sieepless wrath; and much in war
He suffered, seeking at the last to found
The ciry and bring o’er his fathers’ gods
The Orisins of Western Civilization and the Classical World
To safe abode in Latium; whence arose
The Latin race, old A-lba’s reverend lords,
And from her hills wide-walled, imperial Rome.
O Muse, the causes teill What sacrilege,
Or vengeful sorrow moved the heavenly Queen
To thrust on dangers dark and endless toil
A man whose largest honor in men’s eyes
Was sewing Heaven? Can gods such anger feel?
ages gone an ancient city stoodCarthage, a Tyrian seat, which from afar
Made front on Italy and on the mouths
Of Tibe r’s stream; its wealth and revenues
Were vast, and ruthless was its quest of war.
‘T’ is said thatJuno, of ali lands she loved,
Most cherished this-not Samos’self so dear.
Here were her arms, her chariot; even then
A throne of power o’er nations near and far,
If Fate opposed not, ‘t was her dariing hope
To ‘stablish here; but anxiously she heard
That of the Trojan blood there was a breed
Then rising, which upon the destined day
Should utterly o’envhelm her Tynian towers;
A people of wide sway and conquest proud
Should compass Libya’s doom; such was the web
The Fatal Sisters spun.
Aeneas’ wave-worn crew now landward made,
And took the nearest passage, whither lay
The coast ofLibya. A haven there
Walled in by bold sides of a rocky isle,
Offers a spacioi-rs and secttre retreat.
Where every billow from the distant main
Breaks, and in many a rippling curve retires.
Huge crags and two confronted promontories
Frown heaven-high, beneath whose brows
The silent, sheltered waters; on the heights
The bright and glimmering foliage seems to show
A woodland amphitheatre; and yet higher
Rises a straight-stemmed grove of dense, dark
Fronting on these a grotto may be seen,
O’erhung by steep cliffs; from its inmost wall
Clear springs gush out; and sheiving seats it has
Of unhewn stone, a place the wood-n;nnphs love.
In such a port, a weary ship rides free
Of weight of firm-fluked anchor or strong chain.
Hither Aeneas, of his scattered fleet
Saving but seven, into harbor sailed;
With passionate longing for the touch of land,
Forth leap the Trojans to the welcome shore,
A.nd fling their dripping limbs along the ground.
Then good Achates smote a flint,v stone,
Secured a flashing spark, heaped on light leaves,
And with dry branches nursed the mounting
Then Ceres’ gift from the corrupting sea
They bring away; and wearied utterly
Ply Ceres’ cunning on the rescued corn,
Ald parch in flames, and mill ‘twixt two smooth
“Companions mine, we have not failed to feel
Calamity till now. O, ye have borne
Far heavier sorrow:Jove will make an end
Also of this. Ye sailed a course hard by
Infuriate Scylla’s howling cliffs and caves’
Ye knew the Cyclops’ crags. Lift up your hearts!
No more complaint and fear! It well may be
Some happier hour will find this memory fair.
Through chance and change and hazard with-
out end,
Our goal is Latium; where our destinies
Beckon to blest abodes, and have ordained
That Tioy shall rise new-born! Have patience all!
And bide expectantly that golden day.”
Such was his word, but vexed with grief and care,
Feigned hopes upon his forehead firm he wore,
And locked rvithin his heart a hero’s pain.
After these things were past, exaltedJove,
From his ethereal sky surveying clear
all rvinged with sails, Iands widely spread,
And nations populous from shore to shore,
Paused on the peak ofheaven, and fixed his gaze
On Libya. But while he anxious mused,
Near him, her radiant eyes ali dim with tears,
Nor smiling any more, Venus approached,
19. Virgil
And thus complained: “O thou who dost control
Things human and divine by changeless laws,
Enthroned in auful thunder! ,!’hat. huge {Tong
Could my Aeneas and his Trojans ferv
Achieve against thy pou’er? For they have borne
Unnumbered deaths, and, faiiing Italy,
The gates of all the world again them close.
Hast thou not give us thy covenant
That irence the Romans when the rolling years
Have come
full cycle, shall arise to Power
Frorn Troy’s regenerate seed, and rule supreme
The unresisted lords of land and sea?
O sire, {hat swerves thy rvill? Horv oft have I
In Troy’s most iamentable wreck and rvoe.
Consoled my heart r.vith this, and balanced ofi
Our destined good against our destined ill!
But the same stormful fortune still pursues
My band of heroes on their perilous rvay.
M/hen shall these labors cease, O glorious King?
Of thee and tl-rine. Nor shalt thou fail to see
That City, and the proud predestined wall
Encompassin g Lavinium. ThYself
Shall staru;ard to the heights of ireaven bear
Aeneas the great-hearted. Nothing s{erves
My will once uttered. Since such carking cares
Consume thee, I this hour speak freely forth,
And leaf by leaf the book of fate unfold
Thy son in Italy shall wage vast {ar
And quell its nations lvild; his city-1ar211
And sacred iaws shali be a mighty bond
About his gathered people. Summers three
Shall Latium call him king; and three times pass
The r,r,inter o’er Rutuiia’s vanquished hills.
His heir, Acanius, nor’r’Iu1us called
(Ilus it was while Ilium’s kingdorn stood),
Full thirty months shall reign, then tnove the
From tl-re Lavinian citadel, and build
For Alba Longa its wel]-bastioned rvall.
Antenor, though th’Achoeans pressed him sore,
Found his way forth, and entered unassailed
Ill;’ria’s haven, and the guarded iand
Of the Liburni. Straight up stream he sailed
A4lere jike a swollen sea Timavus Polrrs
A nine-fold flood from roaring mountain gorge,
And whelms u.ith voiceful n’ave the fields below.
He built Patavium there, and fixed abodes
For Troy’s far-exiled sons; he gave a name
To a nerv land and race; the Trojan arms
Were hung on temple walls; and, to this day,
Lying in perfect peace, the hero sleeps.
But we of thine orvn seed, to whom thou dost
A station in the arcir of heaven assign,
Behold our nay vilely rvrecked, because
A singte god is angry; we endllre
This treachery and r.iolence, whereby
Vide seas divide us from th’ Hesperian shore.
Is this wirat piety receives? Or thus
Dotl-r Heaven’s decree restore our falien thrones?”
Smiling reply, the Sire of gods and men,
A/ith such a look as clears the skies of storrrr,
Chastely his daughter kissed, and thus spake on:
“Let Cythera cast her fears awaYl
Irrevocably blest the fortunes be
Here three full centuries shall Hector’s race
Have kingly power; till a priestess queen,
B)’Nfars conceiving, her twin offspring bear;
Then Romulus, u’olf-nursed and proudiy clad
tarvny wolf-skin mantle, shall receive
The sceptre of his race . He shall Llprear
The war-god’s citadel and lofry ivall,
And on his Romans his orvn name bestow.
To these I give no boutlded times or po^Ier,
But empire ivithout end. Yea, even my Queen,
Juno, r,r,ho now chastisetir land and sea
With her dread fron’n, will find a wiser way,
And at my sovereign side protect and bless
The Romans, masters of the r’vhole round world,
{ho, clad in peaceful toga, judge mankind.
Such my decreel In lapse of seasons dne,
The heirs of Ilium’s kings shall bind ln chains
Mycenae’s glory and Achilles’ towers,
And ovel prostrale A gos sit suPreme
Of Trojan stock illustriousiy sprung,
Lo, Caesar comes! lr,hose po{er the ocean
Mrose fame, the skies. He shall receive the name
Iulus nobly bore, greatJulius, he.
Him to the skies, in Orient rrophies dight,
The orisins of western civilization and the classical world
Thou shalt with smiles receive; and he, Iike
Shall hear at his own shrines the suppliant vow.
Then will the world grow mild; the battle-sound
Wiil be forgot; for oiden Honor then,
With spotless Vesta, and the brothers twain,
Remus and Romulus, at strife no more,
Will pubtish sacred laws. The dreadful gates
44rence issueth war, shall with ciose-jointed steel
Be barred impregnably; and prisoned there
The heaven-offending Fury throned on swords,
And fettered by a hundred brazen chains,
Shall belch vain curses from his lips of gore.”
t. The Aeneid offered
Romans an explanation of their origins. Why
would such a myth have been useful? rVhat purpose might it have
Ahat is Rome’s destiny as foreroid
of success?
the Aeneid,? vvhat srands
3. virgil gives us a glimpse of what the Romans thought
in the way
they were like.
A{rat sort of people do the founders of Rome appear to be?
A4ry do you
think Virgil chose ro tell his story in the form of an epic poem?
The links between the Aeneid and the works of Homer seem very crear.
did the Romans want to connect themselves so closely with Homeric
The satires of DecimusJuniusJuvenal (ca. c.E. 60-l28) give us an unforgettable picture of the decline of the Roman Empire. Littie can be established
aboutJuvenal’s life. He was probabiy born in central Itary, where he received
an excellent education in rhetoric and philosophy. He may have made his living as a lawyer, though there is a tradition suggesting that he was a soldier. He
was certainly in Rome during the reign of the cruel Emperor Domitian, and
the satires began to appear shortly afterward. It is thought thatJuvenal died in
The Origins of A’estern Civilization and the Classical World
(cn. 150 B.c.E.)
olybius (200-1 l8 B.c.E.) was an Achaean, well educated in the employ of
his government when he was taken captive after the Romans defeated the
Macedo-nians in 168 s.c.r. He was taken io Rome as a prisoner and resided
there for the following l9 years. His experience in government made his services valuable, and he gained the confidence of a number of influential
Roman citizens including politicians and military leaders. His natural curiosity
Ied him to explore the nature of Roman rule and attempt to understand how
Rome had become the greatest empire on earth. He returned to Greece
sometime about 150 s.c.t., and there he began to compose a history of Rome
that was designed to explain to his countrymen the dramatic nature of
Rome’s rise through an analysis of its institutions, particularly is government
and its military. His History was thus composed in Greek. Polybius was himself
involved in a number of Roman military incursions, and he believed that the
historian should have the experience of those about whom he wrote.
The Histmy that he wrote after returning to Greece began with an account
of the Punic Wars but also contained descriptions of key Roman institutions.
Polybius wrote about both the distant and the recent past, including a history
of events in which he had personally taken part. In the following passage,
Polybius explains the strengths of the Roman Constitution with its checks and
balances of power.
its growth, i will explain what were the condi
tions at the time when by their defeat at
From the crossing of Xerxes to Greece . . . and
for thirty years after this period, it
deal with it. Therefore now that I have described
was always
one of those polities which was an object of special study, and it was at its best and nearest to
perfection at the time of the Hannibalic war, the
period at which I interrupted my narrative to
Cannae the Romans were brought face to face
with disaster.
I am quite aware that to those who have
been born and bred under the Roman Republic
my account of it will seem somewhat imperfect
owing to the omission of certain details. For as
17. Polybius
they have comPlete knowledge of it and practical acquaintance with all its parts, having been
familiar with these customs and institutions
from childhood, they will not be struck by the
extent of the information I give but will demand
in addition ali I have omitted: they will not think
that the author has purposely omitted small
peculiarities, but that owing to ignorance he has
been silent regarding the origins of manv things
and some points of capital importance. Had I
mentioned them, they would not have been
impressed by -y doing so, regarding them as
sma1l and trivial points, but as they are omitted
they wiil demand their inclusion as if they were
vital mattefs, through a desire themselves to
appear better informed than the author. Now a
good critic should not judge authors by what
they omit, but by what they relate, and if he
finds any falsehood in this, he may conclrrde
tl-iat the omissions are due to ignorance; but if
all the writer says is true, he should admit that
he has been silent about these matlers deliberately and not from ignorance.
These remarks are meant for those who find
fault with authors in a cavilling rather than just
completely monarchical and royai; if on that of
the senate it seemed again to be aristocratic; and
when one iooked at the Power of the masses, it
seemed clearly to be a democrac;’. The parts of
the state falling under the control of each element were and with a few modifications still are
The consuls, previous to leading out their
legions, exercise authority in Rome over all public affairs, since all the other magistrates excePt
the tribunes are under them and bound to obey
them, and it is they rvho introduce embassies to
the senate. Besides this it is they r’r’ho consult the
senate on matters of urgency, they lvho carry out
in detail the provisions of its decrees. Agarn as
concerns ali affairs of state administered by the
people it is their duty to take these under their
charge, to summon assemblies, to introduce measures, and to preside over the execution of the
popular decrees. As for preparation for war and
the general conduct of operations in the field,
here their power is almost uncontrolled; for they
are empowered to make what demands they
choose on the ailies, to appoint military tribunes,
spirit. . . .
In so far as any view of a matter we form
applies to the right occasion, so far expressions
of approvai or blame are sound. [When circumstances change, and when appiied to these
changed conditions, the most excellent and true
to ler,y soldiers and select those rvho are fittest for
service. They also have the right of inflicting’
when on active service, punishment on anyone
under their command; and they are authorized
to spend any sum they decide upon from the
pubiic funds, being accompanied by a quaestor
who faithfully executes their instructions. So that
reflections of authors seem often not only not
acceptable, but utterly offensive . . .].
The three kinds of government that I spoke
of above all shared in the control of the Roman
state. And such fairness and propriety in all
respects rvas shown in the use of these three elemen$ for drawing up the constitution and in its
subsequent administration that it was impossible
even for a native to pronounce with certainty
rvhether the whole syslem rn’as arislocralic.
democratic, or monarchical. This was indeed
only natural. For if one fixed one’s eyes on the
po{er of the consuls, the constitution seemed
alone, one may reasonably pronounce the constitution to be a pure monarchy or kingship. I may
remark that any changes in these matters or in
others of rvhich I am about to speak that may be
made in present or future times do not in any rvay
afFect the truth of the views I here state.
To pass to the senate. In the first place it has
the control of the treasury, all revenue and
expenditure being regulated by it- For with the
exception of payments made to the consuls, the
quaestors are not allowed to disbr-rrse for any
particular object rvithout a decree of the senate’
if one looks at this part of the administration
The Oricins of {‘estern Civilization and the Classical World
And even the item of expenditure which is far
heavier and more important than any otherthe outlay every five years by the sensors on public works, whether constructions or repairs-is
under the control of the senate, which makes a
grant to the censors for the purpose. Similarly
crimes committed in Italy which require a public
can be properly administered. How indeed is
this possible when good and evil men are held
in equal estimation? It is by the peopie, then, in
many cases that offences punishable by a fine
are tried when the accused have held the high-
investigation, such as treason, conspiracy, poisoning, and assassination, are under the jurisdiction
of the senate. Also if any private person or community in Italy is in need of arbitration or indeed
claims damages or requires succour or protec-
have a practice which is praiseworthy and should
be mentioned. Their usage allows those on trial
for their lives when found guilty liberty to depart
openly, thus inflicting voluntary exile on themselves, if even only one of the tribes that pronounce the verdict has not yet voted. Such exiles
enjoy safety in the territories of Naples, Praenes[e,
tion, the senate attends to all such matters. It also
occupies itself with the dispatch of all embassies
sent to countries outside of Italy for the purpose
either of settling differences, or of offering
friendly advice, or indeed of imposing demands,
or of receiving submission, or of declaring war;
and in like manner with respect to embassies
arriving in Rome it decides what reception and
what anslver should be given to them. AII these
matters are in the hands of the senate. nor have
the people anything whatever to do with them.
So that again to one residing in Rome during the
absence of the consuls the constitution appears
to be entirely aristocratic; and this is the conviction of many Greek states and many of the kings,
as the senate manages ali business connected
with them.
After this we are naturally inclined to ask
what part in the constitution is left for the people, considering that the senate controls ail the
particular matters
rnentioned, and, what
most important, manages all matters of revenue
and expenditure, and considering that the
consuls again have uncontrolled authority as
regards armaments and operations in the field.
But nevertheiess there is a part and a very
important part left for the people. For i …
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