Compare and Contrast two readings_week8

For the Note Assignments, it is asked to provide some basic information about the documents that you have read. There are some basic facts to ascertain about each of the documents:1. Who wrote this document, and when and where?2. What kind of document is it?3. Who is the intended audience for this document?4. What are the main points of the document?5. Why was the document written?6. What can you tell about the society that this document comes from?PS: Those questions have to be answered for each documents or readings (2).All the details (including the readings) are in the documents attached. Thanks a lot!


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The Orisins of Western Civilization and the Classical World
perform to the Lord what you have sworn.’ But I
two miles. Give to him who begs from you, and
say to you, Do not swear at all, either by heaven, do not refuse him who would borrow from you.
“You have heard that it was said, ‘You shall
for it is the throne of God, or by the earth, for it
is his footstool, or byJerusalem, for it is the city love your neighbor and hate your enemy.’ But I
of the great King. And do not swear by your say to you, Love your enemies and pray for those
head, for you cannot rnake one hair white or
who persecute you, so that you may be sons of
black. Let what you say be simply ‘Yes’ or ‘No’; your Father who is in heaven; for he makes his
anythlng more than this comes from evil.
sun rise on the evil and on the good, and sends
‘1bu have heard that it was said, ‘An eye for rain on the just and on the unjust. For if you
an eye and a tooth for a tooth.’ But I say to yolr, love those who love you, what reward have you?
Do not resist one i,vho is evil. But if any one Do not even the tax collectors do the same? And
strikes yoLI on the right cheek, turn to him the if you salute onlyyour brethren, what more are
other aiso; arrd if any one lvould sue you and take you doing than others? Do not even the Gentiles
your coat, let him have your cloak as well; and if
do the same? You, therefore, must be perfect, as
any one forces you to go one mile, go with him your heavenly Father is perfect.
The Sermon on the Mount r,vas written dolvn and preserved for later
generations but it had originally been delivered orally. How might the
transformation of the spoke n to the written word affect the impact of the
original message?
Holv does the Sermon resemble earlier expressions of theJewish moral
How doesJesus elaborate on the Hebrelv law?
To whom isJesus’ message principally directed? Is
erfui or the humble? A{rat is his advice?
Jesus taught his message through sermons,
special powers. How did he do this?
it to the rich and pow-
but he also demonstrated
(cn. c.r. 57)
aul was born in the city of Tarsus in Asia Minor sometime in the first century. His family were RomanizedJews, and Paul may have been trained as
a rabbi as well as in the trade of tent-making, which he later practiced.
24. Sr. Paul
Though there is little evidence to suggest that Paul ever metJesus, he came
into contact withJesus’ teachings while inJerusalem. He was initially of the
common opinion thatJesus was a heretic and a troublemakeq but afterJesus’
crucifixion, Paui began to rethink his position. His conversion ro
Christianity came while he was on a trip to Damascus. After retrearing to
the desert to meditate, Paul ernbarked upon a series of missions to heip
spread the Gospei ofJesus throughout the Roman world. He was received
no better than wasJesus by the Roman authorities, who beat and imprisoned him for his opinions. Paul is thought to have met his death at the
hands of the Emperor Nero in c.s. 64.
4hile traveling, Paul wrote letters to the small congregations of Christians
that he had r.isited. These epistles were probably mearrt to be read aloud during services; through them Paul sought to settle points of doctrine and to
exhort the listeners to lead a Christian life. The Epistle to the Romans was
sent to one of the Christian congregations in Rome and set out many of Paul’s
central theoioqical views.
To all Cod’s beloved in Rome, rvho are called to
be saints:
Grace to )iou and peace from God our
Father and the LordJesus Christ.
First, I thank my God throughJesus Chrisr
for all of you, because your faith is proclaimed
in all the worid. For God is my ivitness, whom I
serve n’ith my spirit in the gospel of his Son, that
rvithout ceasing I mention you aiways in rny
prayers, asking that somehorv by God’s rvill I may
now at last succeed in coming to you. For I long
lo see you, that I may impart to you some spiritual
gift to strengthen you, that is, that we may be
mutually encouraged b),each other’s faith, both
yours and mine. I want you to knorv, brethren,
that I have often intended to come to you (but
thus far have been prevented), in order that I may
reap some harvest among you as rvell as among
the rest of the Gentiles.
I am under obligation both to Greeks and to
barbarians, both to the wise and to the foolish:
so I am eager to preach the gospel to you also
who are in Rome.
For I am not ashamed of the gospel: it is the
power of Cod for saivation to every one who has
faith, to the {ew first and also to the Greek.
For in it the righteousness of God is revealed
through faith for faith; as it is written, “He who
through faith is righteous shali live.”
For the rvrath of Cod is revealed from heaverr
agalnst ail ungodliness and rvickedness of men
r,r,’ho by their wickedness suppress the truth. For
what can be known about God is plain to them,
because God has shown it to them. Ever since the
creation of the world his invisible nature, nameiy,
his eternai power and deiq’, has been cleariy perceived in the things that have been made. So they
are without excuse; for although they knew God
they did not honor him as God or give thanks to
him, but they became futiie in their thinking and
their senseless minds were darkened. Claiming to
be wise, they became fools, and exchanged the
glory of the immortal God for images resembling
mortal man or birds or animals or reptiles.
Therefore God gave them up in the lusts of
their hearts to impurity, to the dishonoring of
their bodies among themselves, because they
exchanged the truth about God for a lie and
norshiped and served the creature rather than
the Creator, who is b1e ssed for everl Amen.
For this reason God gave them up to dishonorabie passions. Their women exchanged natural
Tl-re C)riqins of Western
Civilization and the Classicai World
relations for unnatural, and the men like,!’lse gave
up riatllral relations with i,vomen and ,vere consumed with passion for one another, men committing shameless acts with men and receiving in
their own persons the due penalty for their error.
And since they did not see fit to acknowledge God, God gave them up to a base mind ancl
to improper conduct. They were filled with all
manner of wickedness, e,-il, covetousness, malice.
Full of enr,H murder, strife, deceit, malignity, they
are gossips, slanderers, haters of God, insolent,
haughty, boastfui, inventors of evil, disobedient
to parents, foolish, faithless, heartless, ruthless.
Though they know God’s decree that those who
do such things deserve to die, they not only do
them but approve those who practice them.
There is therefore now no condemnation for
those lvho are in ChristJesus. For the law of the
Spirit of life in ChristJesus has set me free from
the law of sin and deati’r. For God has done what
the law, weakened by the flesh, could not do:
sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh
and for sin, he condemned sin in the flesh, in
order that the just requirement of the law might
be fulfilled in us, who r,valk not according to the
flesh but according to the Spirit. For those who
live according to the flesh set their minds on the
things of the flesh, but those r,vho live according
to the Spirit set their minds on the things of the
Spirit. To set the mind on the flesh is death, but to
set the mind on the Spirit is life and peace. For
the mind that is set on the flesh is hostile to God;
it does not submit to God’s law indeed it cannot;
and those who are in the flesh canno[ please God.
But you are not in the flesh, you are in the
Spirit, if the Spirit of God really dwelis in you.
Any one who does not have the Spirit of Christ
does not belong to him. But if Christ is in you,
although your bodies are dead because of sin,
your spirits are alive because of righteousness. If
the Spirit of him who raisedJesus from the dead
dwells in you, he who raised ChristJesus from
the dead will give life to your mortal bodies aiso
through his Spirit which dwells in you.
So then, brethren, we are debtors, not to the
flesh, to live according to the flesh-for if you
live according to the flesh you will die, but if by
the Spirit you put to death the deeds of the body
you wril iive. For all who are 1ed by the Spirit of
God are sons of God. For you did not receive the
spirit of slavery to fail back into fear, but you
have received the spirit of sonship. A4ren lve cry
“Abba! Fatherl” it is the Spirit himself bearing
witness with our spirit that we are children of
God, and if children, then heirs, heirs of God
and fellow heirs with Christ, provided we suffer
with him in order that we may also be glorified
with him.
I consider that the sufferings of this Present
time are not worth comparing with the glory
that is to be revealed to us. For the creation waits
with eager longing for the revealing of the sons
of God; for the creation was subjected to futility,
not of its own will but by the wiII of him who subjected it in hope; because the creation itseif wili
be set free from its bondage to decay and obtain
the glorious liberry of the children of God.
We know that the whole creation has been
groaning in travaii together until now; and not
only the creation, but we ourselves, who have the
first fruits of the Spirit, groan inwardiy as we wait
for adoption as sons, the redemption of our
bodies. For in this hope we were saved. Now
hope that is seen is not hope. For who hopes for
what he sees? But if we hope for what lve do not
see, we waiL for it with patience.
Likewise the Spirit heips us in our weakness,
for we do not know how to pray as we ought, but
the Spirit himself intercedes for us with sighs too
deep for words. And he who searches the hearts
of men knolvs what is the mind of the Spirit,
the Spirit intercedes for the
according to the will of God.
We know that in everything God works for
good with those who love him, who are called
according to his purpose. For those whom he
foreknew he also predestined to be conformed to
the image of his Son, in order that he might be
the first-born among many brethren. And those
24. St. Paul
whom he predestined he also called; and those
whom he called he alsojustified; and those whom
jusrified he aiso glorified.
What then shall we say to this? If Cod is for
us, who is against us? He who did not spare his
own Son but gave him up for us all, will he not
also give us ail things with him? tho shall bring
It is God who justifies; who is to condemn? It is ChristJesus, who
died, yes, who was raised from the dead, who is
at the right hand of God, who indeed intercedes
for us? A4ro shall separate us from the love of
Christ? Shall tribulation, or distress, or persecution, or famine, or nakedness, or peril, or sword?
any charge against God’s elect?
“For thy sake we are being killed all the day
we are regarded as sheep to be slaughtered.”
No, in all these things we are more than
conquerors through him who loved us. For I
am sure that neither death, nor life, nor angels,
nor principalities, nor things present, nor things
to come, nor po rers, nor height, nor depth,
nor anything else in all creation, will be able to
separate us from the love of God in ChristJesus
our Lord.
if prophecy, in proportion to our
faith; if service, in our serving; he u,ho teaches,
in his teaching; he rvho exhorts, in his exhortation; he who contributes, in liberality; he who
gives aid, with zeal; he who does acts of mercy,
with cheerfuiness.
Let love be genuine; hate what is evil, hold
fast to what is good; love one another with brotherly affection; outdo one another in showing
honor. Never flag in zeal, be aglow with the Spirit,
ser-ve the Lord. Rejoice in your hope, be patient
in tribulation, be constant in prayer. Contribute
us use them:
to the needs of the sains, practice hospitality.
Bless those who persecute you; bless and do
not curse them. Rejoice with those who rejorce,
weep with those who weep. Live in harmony
with one another; do not be haughty, but associate u’ith the lon’ly; never be conceited. Repay no
one evil for evil but take thought for what is
noble in the sight of all. If possible, so far as it
depends upon you, live peaceably with all.
Beloved, never avenge yourselves, but leave it to
the wrath of God; for it is written, “Vengeance is
mine, I will repay, says the Lord.”
No, “if your enemy is hungry, feed him; if he
is thirsry, give him drink; for by so doing you wiil
heap burning coals upon his head.” Do not be
overcome by evil, but overcome evil with good.
I appeal to you therefore, brethren, by the
mercies of God, to present your bodies as a living
sacrifice, holy and acceptable to God, which is
your splritual worship. Do not be conformed to
this rvorld, but be transformed by the renewal of
your mind, that you may prove what is the will of
God, what is good and acceptable and perfect.
For by the grace given to me I bid every one
among you not to think of himself more highly
than he ought to think, but to think with sober
judgment, each according to the measure of
faith which God has assigned him. For as in one
body we have many members, and all the mem-
bers do not have the same function, so we,
though many, are one body in Christ, and individually members one of another. Having gifts
that differ according to the grace given to us, let
Let every person be subject to the gorrernitrg
authorities. For there is no authority except
from God, and those that exist have been instituted by God. Therefore he wl’ro resists the
authorities resists what God has appointed, and
those who resist will incur judgment. For rulers
are not a terror to good conduct, but to bad.
Wouid you have no fear of him who is in authority?
Then do u’hat is good, and you will receive his
approval, for he is God’s serrant for your good.
But if you do wrong, be afraid, for he does not
bear the sword in vain; he is the servant of God
to execute his wrath on the wrong-doer.
Therefore one must be subject, not only to avoid
God’s rvrath but also for the sake of conscience.
For the same reason you also pay taxes, for the
The Origins of lVestern Civilization and the Classical World
authorities are ministers of God, attending to
this very thing. Pay all of them their dues, taxes
to whom taxes are due, revenue to whom revenue is due, respect to whom respect is due,
honor to whom honor is due.
Owe no one anything, except to love one
another; for he who loves his neighbor has fulfilled the law. The commandments. ‘You shall
not commit adultery, You shall not kill, You
shall not steal, You shall not covet,” and any
other commandment, are summed up in this
sentence, “You shail love your neighbor as
Love does no wrong to a neighbor; therefore love is the fulfilling of the law.
Besides this you know what hour it is, how it
is full time now for you to wake from sleep. For
salvation is nearer to us now than when we first
believed; the night is far gone, the day is at hand.
Let us then cast offthe works of darkness and put
on the armor of light; let us conduct ourselves
becomingly as in the day, not in reveling and
drunkenness, not in debauchery and licentiousness, not in quarreling and jealousy. But put on
the LordJesus Christ, and make no provision for
the flesh, to grati0/ its desires.
How different is the tone and content of Paul’s messase from that of
Jesus in the Sermon on the Mount?
4rhat, according to Paul, is the fate of the nonbeliever?
How does the status of Christians as a persecuted minority in the Roman
Empire affect Paul’s thinking? How might this status be reflected in their
beliefs? How should Christians cope with persecution?
4. rlrat does Paul teach about secular authoriry?
Is this a sensible attitude
in view of the situation of Christians at the time?
Paul himself was raised in theJewish tradition. Does this play a role in his
religious thought?
28. Benedict of Nursia
How do you think that Augustine’s background as an urban Roman
affected his thought?
What is the difference between the ciq’ of God and the earthly city?
How, according to Augustine, do people become “residents” of the city
Augustine does not envisage a community of social equals in the ciry of
God. Would this, in Augustine’s view, lead to conflict? M4ry or why not?
There are several clues in Tlze Citl of Godabout the nature of sociery in
Iate classical cities: Augustine makes assumptions about social status, for
example. Judging from his work, what might you say about the real cities
that Auzustine knew?

enedict of Nursia (ca. 480-547 ), the patron saint of Europe, played a key
role in the foundation of Christian monasteries throughout the conLinent.
Benedict came from a prosperous Italian family and was sent to Rome for his
education. He grew up during a period of social and political disorder as the
Roman world was fast vanishing. Benedict was shocked by the immorality and
corruption that he witnessed in Rome, and in reaction he retreated to a cave
outside of the city, where he lived as a herrnit for three years. During this time his
reputation as a holy man spread, and he was persuaded to take charge of a local
monastery. Monasticism, which made its first appearance in Eglpt in the fourth
century was a movement in which men and women removed themselves from
worldly affairs in an attempt to create a closer bond with God. Monastics hoped
to perfect their spirituality through self-mortification and scrupulous piety. His
attempts to reform the monastery were not altogether successful and Benedict
narrorvly escaped being poisoned there. He subsequently founded his own
monastery at Monte Cassino, which became the model for the Benedictine order.
Benedict’s Rule was a system of reguiations for a monastic order. It is a
guide to life in a religious community and enjoins the residents to prayer,
hard work, obedience, and hospitality. The Rule became the constitution of
countless monasteries and nunneries in succeeding centuries.
Nledieval Europe
\rhat are the Instruments of Good Works.First Instrument: in the first place to
Iove the Lord God with all one’s heart,
ali one’s soul, and all one’s strength.
Then, one’s neighbour as oneself.
Then not to kill.
Not to commit adultery.
Not to steal.
Not to covet.
Not to bear false witness.
To honour all men.
Ncit to do to another what one would
not have done to oneself.
10. To deny oneself, in order to foilow Christ
11. To chastise the body.
12. Not to seek after delicate living.
13. To love fasting.
14. To relieve the poor.
15. To clothe the naked.
16. To visit the sick.
17. To bury the dead.
18. To help in affliction.
19. To console the sorrowing.
20. To keep aloof from worldly actions.
21. To prefer nothing to the love of Christ.
22. Not to gratifz anger.
23. Not to harbour a desire of revenge.
24. Not to foster guile in one’s heart.
25. Not to make a feigned peace.
26. Not to lorsake chariry.
27. Not to swear, lest perchance,
one fbrswear oneself.
28. To utter truth from heart and mouth.
29. Not to render evil for evil.
30. To do no wrong to anyone, yea, to bear,
patiently wrong done to oneself.
31. To love one’s enemies.
32. Not to render cursing for cursing, but
rather blessing.
33. To bear persecution forjustice’s sake.
34. Not to be proud.
35. Not given
to wine-
Not a glutton.
Not drowsy.
Not slothful.
Not a murmurer.
40. Not a detractor.
41. To put one’s hope in God.
42. To attribute any good that one sees in
oneself to Cod and not to oneself.
43. But to recognize and always impute to
oneself the evil that one does.
44. To fear the Day ofJudgement.
45. To be in dread of heli.
46. To desire with all spiritual longing e …
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