Complete 6 page paper for Business Innovation Course NO PLAGIARISM

Assignment: Individual Reflection: Creativity, Leadership, and Innovation: A Self-AssessmentDyer, Gregersen, and Christensen, in their essential components of “The Innovator’s DNA” make the important point that, while all successful innovators share certain characteristics, those characteristics are not literally written into an innovator’s DNA. Instead, it is essential to practice thinking creatively. What innovators achieve is the result of their actions and what they do, not simply who they are.With this in mind, it stands to reason that it is important to periodically assess whether you are on the right track in developing the skills of a leader who successfully fosters creativity in the organization. This self-assessment is not the final verdict on the level or depth of your creativity or your potential success as an innovator, but instead is an important part of understanding the ways you currently lead others and thinking about how you will lead others in the future.Regardless of where you are in the organization, there are leadership characteristics you have or would like to strive towards as you develop professionally. For this Individual Reflection you will identify and describe an innovation leader who has inspired you. This Individual Reflection will allow you to conduct a personal analysis of leadership qualities between you and an innovation leader to help you identify key leadership dimensions that you can develop.Note: For the sake of clarity, be mindful during this Individual Reflection to focus on a leader that you admire who inspires innovation and not a leader who is innovative in terms of leadership style and characteristics. For this Individual Reflection, describe a person who successfully brought together leadership, foresight, creativity, and innovation. This person should be someone with whom you have worked or who has inspired you in your professional career or personal life. (Note: You do not need to identify the individual by name, if he or she is someone you personally know). Be sure to include the following:
Part 1: Provide an opening section where you provide your assessment of the characteristics of this innovation leader that you currently do not possess or demonstrate that you would like to develop. Your own characteristics are the baseline in the analysis, and the innovation leader you identified is the model. If you are not currently in a leadership role, envision how you might develop these characteristics in a future position. Be sure to consider the following factors and questions:

Explain how this innovation leader supported a creative environment, and how they catalyzed, implemented, and promoted innovation in the organization.
Describe the leadership skills he or she used to foster creativity in successful ways.
How does the leader engage stakeholders (vendors, executives, board members, employees) in the innovative or creative process? For example, how does the leader conduct a stakeholder analysis?

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Provide an inventory of leadership characteristics exhibited by this leader using the Leader Characteristic Inventory Handout document in this week’s Resources.
Part 2: Provide a self-assessment on the extent to which you have (or need to cultivate to be successful) the dimensions of leadership that foster creativity. For each of the following dimensions of leadership, assess how you currently display (or would display) the dimensions in your work and professional life. Provide a brief explanation of your self-assessment for each of the dimensions listed below. (Refer to “The Innovator’s DNA” for more details about each of these innovator dimensions):

Associating
Questioning
Experimenting
Observing
Networking
Cultivating New Thinking
Comfort with Change
Risk tolerance
Collaboration

Part 3: Aggregate your findings and provide a summary of the main lessons you have learned about yourself as a leader (present or aspiring) and what you may need to work on to achieve your identified dimensions. How important do you think it is that leaders possess these dimensions and which do you think are the most important to your future? Provide your rationale or examples to justify your answer.
By Day 7Submit a paper that addresses the four areas listed above. Include your Innovation Leader Characteristic Inventory within the body or your paper or as an Appendix, depending on what makes better sense for the way you organize your assignment.Guidance on Assignment Length: Your Week 7 assignment should be 6–10 pages (3–5 pages if single spaced), excluding a title page and references.
resource1.pdf

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www.hbr.org
SPOTLIGHT ON INNOVATION
Five “discovery skills” separate
true innovators from the
rest of us.
The Innovator’s DNA
by Jeffrey H. Dyer, Hal B. Gregersen, and
Clayton M. Christensen
•
Included with this full-text Harvard Business Review article:
1 Article Summary
The Idea in Brief—the core idea
2 The Innovator’s DNA
Reprint R0912E
This document is authorized for use only in Laureate Education, Inc.’s Fostering a Culture of Innovation – NEW course at Laureate Education – Baltimore, from August 2017 to October 2018.
SPOTLIGHT ON INNOVATION
The Innovator’s DNA
The Idea in Brief
The habits of Steve Jobs, Jeff Bezos, and
other innovative CEOs reveal much about
the underpinnings of their creative thinking. Research shows that five discovery
skills distinguish the most innovative
entrepreneurs from other executives.
DOING
• Questioning allows innovators to break
out of the status quo and consider new
possibilities.
• Through observing, innovators detect
small behavioral details—in the
activities of customers, suppliers, and
other companies—that suggest new
ways of doing things.
• In experimenting, they relentlessly try on
new experiences and explore the world.
• And through networking with individuals
from diverse backgrounds, they gain radically different perspectives.
COPYRIGHT © 2009 HARVARD BUSINESS SCHOOL PUBLISHING CORPORATION. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
THINKING
• The four patterns of action together help
innovators associate to cultivate new
insights.
page 1
This document is authorized for use only in Laureate Education, Inc.’s Fostering a Culture of Innovation – NEW course at Laureate Education – Baltimore, from August 2017 to October 2018.
Five “discovery skills” separate true innovators from the rest of us.
SPOTLIGHT ON INNOVATION
The Innovator’s DNA
COPYRIGHT © 2009 HARVARD BUSINESS SCHOOL PUBLISHING CORPORATION. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
by Jeffrey H. Dyer, Hal B. Gregersen, and
Clayton M. Christensen
“How do I ?nd innovative people for my
organization? And how can I become more
innovative myself?”
These are questions that stump senior executives, who understand that the ability to
innovate is the “secret sauce” of business
success. Unfortunately, most of us know very
little about what makes one person more creative than another. Perhaps for this reason,
we stand in awe of visionary entrepreneurs
like Apple’s Steve Jobs, Amazon’s Jeff Bezos,
eBay’s Pierre Omidyar, and P&G’s A.G. La?ey.
How do these people come up with groundbreaking new ideas? If it were possible to
discover the inner workings of the masters’
minds, what could the rest of us learn about
how innovation really happens?
In searching for answers, we undertook a sixyear study to uncover the origins of creative—
and often disruptive—business strategies in
particularly innovative companies. Our goal
was to put innovative entrepreneurs under
the microscope, examining when and how
they came up with the ideas on which their
harvard business review • december 2009
businesses were built. We especially wanted to
examine how they differ from other executives
and entrepreneurs: Someone who buys a
McDonald’s franchise may be an entrepreneur,
but building an Amazon requires different
skills altogether. We studied the habits of 25
innovative entrepreneurs and surveyed more
than 3,000 executives and 500 individuals who
had started innovative companies or invented
new products.
We were intrigued to learn that at most
companies, top executives do not feel personally responsible for coming up with strategic
innovations. Rather, they feel responsible for
facilitating the innovation process. In stark
contrast, senior executives of the most innovative companies—a mere 15% in our study—
don’t delegate creative work. They do it
themselves.
But how do they do it? Our research led us
to identify ?ve “discovery skills” that distinguish the most creative executives: associating, questioning, observing, experimenting,
and networking. We found that innovative
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This document is authorized for use only in Laureate Education, Inc.’s Fostering a Culture of Innovation – NEW course at Laureate Education – Baltimore, from August 2017 to October 2018.
The Innovator’s DNA •• •S POTLIGHT ON I NNOVATION
entrepreneurs (who are also CEOs) spend 50%
more time on these discovery activities than
do CEOs with no track record for innovation.
Together, these skills make up what we call
the innovator’s DNA. And the good news is, if
you’re not born with it, you can cultivate it.
What Makes Innovators Different?
Jeffrey H. Dyer (jdyer@byu.edu) is
a professor of strategy at Brigham
Young University in Provo, Utah, and
an adjunct professor at the University
of Pennsylvania’s Wharton School.
Hal B. Gregersen (hal.gregersen@
insead.edu) is a professor of
leadership at Insead in Abu Dhabi,
UAE, and Fontainebleau, France.
Clayton M. Christensen
(cchristensen@hbs.edu) is a professor
of business administration at Harvard
Business School in Boston.
Innovative entrepreneurs have something
called creative intelligence, which enables
discovery yet differs from other types of intelligence (as suggested by Howard Gardner’s
theory of multiple intelligences). It is more
than the cognitive skill of being right-brained.
Innovators engage both sides of the brain as
they leverage the ?ve discovery skills to create
new ideas.
In thinking about how these skills work
together, we’ve found it useful to apply the
metaphor of DNA. Associating is like the
backbone structure of DNA’s double helix;
four patterns of action (questioning, observing, experimenting, and networking) wind
around this backbone, helping to cultivate
new insights. And just as each person’s physical DNA is unique, each individual we studied
had a unique innovator’s DNA for generating
breakthrough business ideas.
Imagine that you have an identical twin,
endowed with the same brains and natural
talents that you have. You’re both given
one week to come up with a creative new
business-venture idea. During that week, you
come up with ideas alone in your room. In
contrast, your twin (1) talks with 10 people—
including an engineer, a musician, a stayat-home dad, and a designer—about the venture, (2) visits three innovative start-ups to
observe what they do, (3) samples ?ve “new to
the market” products, (4) shows a prototype
he’s built to ?ve people, and (5) asks the questions “What if I tried this?” and “Why do you
do that?” at least 10 times each day during
these networking, observing, and experimenting activities. Who do you bet will come up
with the more innovative (and doable) idea?
Studies of identical twins separated at birth
indicate that our ability to think creatively
comes one-third from genetics; but two-thirds
of the innovation skill set comes through
learning—?rst understanding a given skill,
then practicing it, experimenting, and ultimately gaining con?dence in one’s capacity to
create. Innovative entrepreneurs in our study
harvard business review • december 2009
acquired and honed their innovation skills
precisely this way.
Let’s look at the skills in detail.
Discovery Skill 1: Associating
Associating, or the ability to successfully connect seemingly unrelated questions, problems,
or ideas from different ?elds, is central to
the innovator’s DNA. Entrepreneur Frans
Johansson described this phenomenon as
the “Medici effect,” referring to the creative
explosion in Florence when the Medici family
brought together people from a wide range
of disciplines—sculptors, scientists, poets, philosophers, painters, and architects. As these
individuals connected, new ideas blossomed
at the intersections of their respective ?elds,
thereby spawning the Renaissance, one of the
most inventive eras in history.
To grasp how associating works, it is important to understand how the brain operates.
The brain doesn’t store information like a
dictionary, where you can ?nd the word
“theater” under the letter “T.” Instead, it associates the word “theater” with any number of
experiences from our lives. Some of these are
logical (“West End” or “intermission”), while
others may be less obvious (perhaps “anxiety,”
from a botched performance in high school).
The more diverse our experience and knowledge, the more connections the brain can
make. Fresh inputs trigger new associations;
for some, these lead to novel ideas. As Steve
Jobs has frequently observed, “Creativity is
connecting things.”
The world’s most innovative companies
prosper by capitalizing on the divergent associations of their founders, executives, and
employees. For example, Pierre Omidyar
launched eBay in 1996 after linking three unconnected dots: (1) a fascination with creating
more-ef?cient markets, after having been
shut out from a hot internet company’s IPO
in the mid-1990s; (2) his ?ancée’s desire to
locate hard-to-?nd collectible Pez dispensers;
and (3) the ineffectiveness of local classi?ed
ads in locating such items. Likewise, Steve
Jobs is able to generate idea after idea because he has spent a lifetime exploring new
and unrelated things—the art of calligraphy,
meditation practices in an Indian ashram, the
?ne details of a Mercedes-Benz.
Associating is like a mental muscle that can
grow stronger by using the other discovery
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The Innovator’s DNA •• •S POTLIGHT ON I NNOVATION
skills. As innovators engage in those behaviors,
they build their ability to generate ideas that
can be recombined in new ways. The more
frequently people in our study attempted
to understand, categorize, and store new
knowledge, the more easily their brains could
naturally and consistently make, store, and
recombine associations.
Discovery Skill 2: Questioning
Sample of Innovative
Entrepreneurs from
our Study
Sam Allen: ScanCafe.com
Marc Benioff: Salesforce.com
Jeff Bezos: Amazon.com
Mike Collins: Big Idea Group
Scott Cook: Intuit
Michael Dell: Dell Computer
Aaron Garrity: XanGo
Diane Green: VMWare
Eliot Jacobsen: RocketFuel
Josh James: Omniture
Chris Johnson: Terra Nova
Jeff Jones: NxLight; Campus Pipeline
Herb Kelleher: Southwest Airlines
Mike Lazaridis: Research In Motion
Spencer Moffat: Fast Arch of Utah
David Neeleman: JetBlue; Morris Air
Pierre Omidyar: eBay
John Pestana: Omniture
Peter Thiel: PayPal
Mark Wattles: Hollywood Video
Corey Wride: Movie Mouth
Niklas Zennström: Skype
More than 50 years ago, Peter Drucker described the power of provocative questions.
“The important and dif?cult job is never to
?nd the right answers, it is to ?nd the right
question,” he wrote. Innovators constantly
ask questions that challenge common wisdom
or, as Tata Group chairman Ratan Tata puts
it, “question the unquestionable.” Meg Whitman, former CEO of eBay, has worked directly
with a number of innovative entrepreneurs,
including the founders of eBay, PayPal, and
Skype. “They get a kick out of screwing up the
status quo,” she told us. “They can’t bear it.
So they spend a tremendous amount of time
thinking about how to change the world. And
as they brainstorm, they like to ask: ‘If we did
this, what would happen?’”
Most of the innovative entrepreneurs
we interviewed could remember the speci?c
questions they were asking at the time
they had the inspiration for a new venture.
Michael Dell, for instance, told us that his
idea for founding Dell Computer sprang from
his asking why a computer cost ?ve times
as much as the sum of its parts. “I would
take computers apart…and would observe
that $600 worth of parts were sold for
$3,000.” In chewing over the question, he
hit on his revolutionary business model.
To question effectively, innovative entrepreneurs do the following:
Ask “Why?” and “Why not?” and “What if?”
Most managers focus on understanding how
to make existing processes—the status quo—
work a little better (“How can we improve
widget sales in Taiwan?”). Innovative entrepreneurs, on the other hand, are much more
likely to challenge assumptions (“If we cut the
size or weight of the widget in half, how would
that change the value proposition it offers?”).
Marc Benioff, the founder of the online sales
software provider Salesforce.com, was full of
questions after witnessing the emergence of
Amazon and eBay, two companies built on
harvard business review • december 2009
services delivered via the internet. “Why are
we still loading and upgrading software the
way we’ve been doing all this time when
we can now do it over the internet?” he
wondered. This fundamental question was the
genesis of Salesforce.com.
Imagine opposites. In his book The Opposable Mind, Roger Martin writes that innovative thinkers have “the capacity to hold two
diametrically opposing ideas in their heads.”
He explains, “Without panicking or simply
settling for one alternative or the other,
they’re able to produce a synthesis that is
superior to either opposing idea.”
Innovative entrepreneurs like to play devil’s
advocate. “My learning process has always
been about disagreeing with what I’m being
told and taking the opposite position, and
pushing others to really justify themselves,”
Pierre Omidyar told us. “I remember it was
very frustrating for the other kids when I
would do this.” Asking oneself, or others, to
imagine a completely different alternative
can lead to truly original insights.
Embrace constraints. Most of us impose
constraints on our thinking only when forced
to deal with real-world limitations, such as resource allocations or technology restrictions.
Ironically, great questions actively impose
constraints on our thinking and serve as a
catalyst for out-of-the-box insights. (In fact,
one of Google’s nine innovation principles is
“Creativity loves constraint.”) To initiate a
creative discussion about growth opportunities, one innovative executive in our study
asked this question: “What if we were legally
prohibited from selling to our current customers? How would we make money next year?”
This led to an insightful exploration of ways
the company could ?nd and serve new customers. Another innovative CEO prods his
managers to examine sunk-cost constraints
by asking, “What if you had not already hired
this person, installed this equipment, implemented this process, bought this business, or
pursued this strategy? Would you do the same
thing you are doing today?”
Discovery Skill 3: Observing
Discovery-driven executives produce uncommon business ideas by scrutinizing common
phenomena, particularly the behavior of
potential customers. In observing others, they
act like anthropologists and social scientists.
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The Innovator’s DNA •• •S POTLIGHT ON I NNOVATION
Intuit founder Scott Cook hit on the idea
for Quicken ?nancial software after two key
observations. First he watched his wife’s
frustration as she struggled to keep track of
their ?nances. “Often the surprises that lead
to new business ideas come from watching
other people work and live their normal
lives,” Cook explained. “You see something
and ask, ‘Why do they do that? That doesn’t
make sense.’” Then a buddy got him a sneak
peek at the Apple Lisa before it launched. Immediately after leaving Apple headquarters,
Cook drove to the nearest restaurant to write
down everything he had noticed about the
Lisa. His observations prompted insights
such as building the graphical user interface
to look just like its real-world counterpart
(a checkbook, for example), making it easy
for people to use it. So Cook set about solving
his wife’s problem and grabbed 50% of the
market for ?nancial software in the ?rst year.
Innovators carefully, intentionally, and
consistently look out for small behavioral
details—in the activities of customers, suppliers, and other companies—in order to gain
insights about new ways of doing things.
Ratan Tata got the inspiration that led to the
world’s cheapest car by observing the plight
of a family of four packed onto a single motorized scooter. After years of product development, Tata Group launched in 2009 the
$2,500 Nano using a modular production
method that may disrupt the entire automobile distribution system in India. Observers
try all sorts of techniques to see the world in
a different light. Akio Toyoda regularly practices Toyota’s philosophy of genchi genbutsu—
“going to the spot and seeing for yourself.”
Frequent direct observation is baked into the
Toyota culture.
Discovery Skill 4: Experimenting
When we think of experiments, we think of
scientists in white coats or of great inventors
like Thomas Edison. Like scientists, innovative
entrepreneurs actively try out new ideas by
creating prototypes and launching pilots.
(As Edison said, “I haven’t failed. I’ve simply
found 10,000 ways that do not work.”) The
world is their laboratory. Unlike observers,
who intensely watch the world, experimenters
construct interactive experiences and try to
How Innovators Stack Up
This chart shows how four well-known innovative entrepreneurs rank on each of the discovery skills. All our high-pro?le innovators scored above the 80th percentile on questioning, yet each combined the discovery skills uniquely to forge new insights.
ASSOCIATING
100
QUESTIONING
OBSERVING
EXPERIMENTING
NETWORKING
Michael Dell
Michael Lazaridis
80
Pierre Omidyar
60
Scott Cook
Noninnovators
40
PERCENTILE
Rankings are based on a survey of more than 3,000 executives and entrepreneurs.
harvard business review • december 2009
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This document is authorized for use only in Laureate Education, Inc.’s Fostering a Culture of Innovation – NEW course at Laureate Education – Baltimore, from August 2017 to October 2018.
The Innovator’s DNA •• •S POTLIGHT ON I NNOVATION
provoke unorthodox responses to see what
insights emerge.
The innovative entrepreneurs we interviewed all engaged in some form of active
experimentation, whether it was intellectual
exploration (Michael Lazaridis mulling over
the theory of relativity in high school), physical tinkering (Jeff Bezos taking apart his
crib as a toddler or Steve Jobs disassembling
a Sony Walkman), or engagement in new surroundings (Starbucks founder Howard Shultz
roaming Italy visiting coffee bars). As executives of innovative enterprises, they make
experimentation central to everything they
do. Bezos’s online bookstore didn’t stay where
it was after its initial success; it morphed
into an online discount retailer, selling a full
line of products from toys to TVs to home
appliances. The electronic reader Kindle is an
experiment that is now transforming Amazon
from an online retailer to an innovative
electronics manufacturer. Bezos sees experimentation as so critical to innovation that
he has institutionalized it at Amazon. “I encourage our employees to go down blind
alleys and experiment,” Bezos says. “If we can
get processes decentralized so that we can do
a lot of experiments without it being very
costly, we’ll get a lot more innovation.”
Scott Cook, too, stresses the importance of
creating a culture that fosters experimentation. “Our culture opens us to allowing lots
of failures while harvesting the learning,”
he told us. “It’s what separates an innovation
culture from a normal corporate culture.”
One of the most powerful experiments innovators can engage in is living and working
overseas. Our research revealed that the more
countries a pe …
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