complete this lab report

you do not need to do a full lab report, however, you should discuss the following: 1. Explain your results in terms of the number of alleles being passed on to the next generation. 2. What is the phenomenon that you have observed often called in population/evolutionary genetics? ALL DATA IS IN THE PICTURES, EXERCISE 1 DATA IS IN PICTURE 1, EXERCISE 2 AND 3 DATA IS IN PICTURE 2PLEASE READ Lab Guide BEFORE DOING, THANK YOU!
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Department of Biological and
Environmental Sciences
BIO L320 – Genetics Lab
Dr. Jacqueline Jones
Lab 10. Genetic drift
Genetic drift is the change in allelic frequency due to random sampling. Some alleles can
disappear from a population solely due to the effects of genetic drift. It can have its most severe
effects in small populations, or when small numbers of alleles are passed to the next generation.
When there are fewer copies of an allele the effects of drift are larger than when there are many
copies of an allele. In today’s lab we are going to carry out a sampling exercise to look at the
effects of genetic drift as different numbers of alleles are passed on from one generation to the
next.
Exercise 1.
Start with 40 buttons, 20 white and 20 black (i.e. a 50:50 ratio, or allelic frequencies of
0.500 for the white allele and 0.500 for the black). Shake them up in your hand then squeeze out
20 buttons onto the desk. Count the numbers of each button and record the allelic frequencies of
the two colored buttons. If the frequencies are still 0.500 and 0.500, record this and then repeat
the exercise. If, however, the ratio is not 0.500 white and 0.500 black, record the frequencies of
the two different alleles. Then, you need to adjust the number of black and white buttons in the
40 buttons to match that frequency, because this represents the number of buttons going into the
next generation. For example if the ratio was 0.600 white and 0.400 black, you would have 24
white button and 16 back buttons going into the next generation. Then squeeze out 20 buttons
and record the allelic frequencies again. Keep doing this and record the allele frequencies,
recording the allelic frequencies for up to 20 generations, but remembering to change the number
of buttons each time to reflect the frequency of the buttons that resulted from the previous
generation. If you get to a point when you have a frequency of 1.000 of one button (i.e. all
buttons are of one color, then record that and stop. Now one allele has been eliminated by
genetic drift (random sampling) alone. Graph you data showing the frequency of each allele
over the generations in a figure.
Exercise 2.
This is similar to exercise 1, starting with 40 buttons, 20 of each color, except instead of
squeezing out 20 buttons, this time squeeze out 10 buttons each generation. Then record the
allelic frequencies, and adjust the number of buttons to reflect this frequency going into the next
 
1  
 
generation. Continue for up to 20 generations or until the frequency of one allele becomes fixed
(1.000). Graph you data showing the frequency of each allele over the generations in a figure.
Exercise 3.
This is similar to exercise 2, starting with 40 buttons, 20 of each color, except instead of
squeezing out 10 buttons per generation, this time squeeze out 5 buttons. Then record the allelic
frequencies, and adjust the number of buttons to reflect this frequency going into the next
generation. Continue for up to 20 generations or until the frequency of one allele becomes fixed
(1.000). Graph you data showing the frequency of each allele over the generations in a figure.
 
Lab write up.
Due to timing, you do not need to do a full lab report, however, you should discuss the
following:
1. Explain your results in terms of the number of alleles being passed on to the next generation.
2. What is the phenomenon that you have observed often called in population/evolutionary
genetics? (Use the class PPTs to help you)
Total points for the lab = 40 points.
2  
 

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