Creating a “news” article

The assignment is in the purple sheet Thebes power point will help u for choosing the 6 type baud and slanters And u have to do all 8 required Thanks
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Rhetorical Slanters
yet another cog in the wheel
of bias
Rhe torical S lante rs :
• R hetorical Slanters : words that put a negative or positive spin on what the
speaker or writer is saying
• R hetoric is the art of persuasion; differs from logic, which seeks to establish a
conclusion
• U ses the psychological (rhetorical) force of expressions to influence our
attitudes
• Nothing wrong with trying to be persuasive or with using rhetoric to dress up or
sell an argument; good writers choose words carefully, to make their writing
persuasive
• C ritical thinking means not being seduced by rhetoric
• Being able to make wise decisions and reasonable and well-founded judgments
depends largely on our ability to “see through” rhetoric to evidence and argument
argument
Rhetorical Analogy
• Use of figurative comparisons; comparing one thing to another in order to convey a
particular feeling (either negative or positive)
• Often comes in the form of a simile or metaphor
• Examples:
• In the 2008 presidential race, Sarah Palin jokingly suggested that she was like
a pit bull with lipstick.
• In another famous moment of the campaign, John McCain compared Barack
Obama to Paris Hilton, thus suggesting he was an unqualified celebrity.
• “The environment needs this candidate like farmers need a drought”
• “Your average environmentalist is about as smart as a toilet seat.”
Rhetorical Definition
• The use of emotionally charged language to express or elicit an attitude about
something
• A rhetorical definition stacks the deck either for or against the position it implies.
• Examples:
• “Capital punishment is “government-sanctioned murder.”
• “…America is not the crude stereotype of a self-interested empire.”
Barack Obama
• “An environmentalist is a tree-hugging extremist.”
Rhetorical Explanation
• Expressing an opinion as if it were fact, and doing so using biased language
• An explanation that conveys a strong attitude or feeling because of the diction
used; intended to influence attitudes or affect behavior
• Examples:
• “The reason environmentalists won’t let you cut down a tree is they want to put
everyone out of work.”
• You might say someone “didn’t have the guts to fight back” when taunted by
another person. This paints the person as motivated by cowardice. Or you might
say the person “took the high road, instead of taking a swing.”
Innuendo
• Use of language to imply a particular inference is justified, as if saying “go ahead and
read between the lines”
• Speaker makes an unsupported claim, leading audience to believe something by implying
or hinting at it
• In this way, the speaker doesn’t have to actually make a claim that can’t be supported;
instead, the audience is led to make the leap on their own.
• Examples:
• “I didn’t say Bush invaded Iraq to help his buddies in the oil industry. I just said his
buddies have done very well since the invasion.”
• “Think carefully about whom you choose; you want a president who will be ready to do
the job on day one.”
• “Since you’re debating whether to vote for me or Snodgrass, you may want to know
that I have never cheated on my taxes.”
Downplayers
• Use of qualifier words, phrases, or punctuation to make someone or something look
less important or significant
• Qualifier example words: mere, only, so called, nevertheless, etc.
• Examples:
• “She’s a ‘reporter’ for a blog that hardly anyone reads.”
• Use of quotation marks may also suggest irony or misleading: She got her
‘degree’ from a corresponding school
• “These self-appointed experts on the environment are just trying to scare us.”
• Calling a scientist a “so-called” scientist suggests he/she is something less than
a true scientist.
Hyperbole
• Use of extravagant overstatements to convey particular attitudes
• Can work to move the audience to accept the basic claim even if they reject the
extremes of the word choice
• Examples:
• In response to a dress code, a student might say “This school administration is
fascist!”
• “The new Radiohead record is the most amazing album ever made.”
Truth Surrogates
• Hinting that proof exists to support a claim without actually citing proof
• If evidence does exist, the author does a poor job of citing it; meanwhile, the writer
has not actually identified any source – or made any claim – that can be easily
disproven or challenged
• Often uses phrases such as: “studies show”, “according to an insider”, “there’s
every reason to believe that…”
• Examples:
• “There’s every reason to believe that…”
• We have every reason to believe that the football stadium will be ready for
next season.
• “Scientists have known that aliens exist for years now.”
• “Everyone knows that bottled water is better for you than tap water.”
Ridicule/Sarcasm
• Use of language that suggests the subject is worthy of scorn
• Language used seeks to evoke a laugh or sarcastically mock the subject
• Examples:
• “The news media themselves are oh-so-clearly impervious to the
predispositions and prejudice that afflict their audience.”
• “John McCain made a great speech last night. Everyone awakened feeling
refreshed.”
Caution:
? Never dismiss a statement or argument simply because it contains rhetoric;
rhetoric has a legitimate place in discourse
? A solid claim or a good argument may well contain powerful rhetoric
? Don’t accept a statement/argument BECAUSE of its rhetorical force, evaluate
it on its MERITS

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