Critical Infrastructure Protection and Resource Allocation

need document edited document attachedthe following is professors remarksHi Theodore : Total points earned (rounded): 117 out of 150 (78%). Task Requirements points earned: 30 out of 37.5 (80%). Demonstration and application of knowledge points earned: 66 out of 82.5 (80%). Academic writing and format points earned: 21 out of 30 (70%). Strengths: thought process is well laid out and appropriately researched. Opportunities for improvement: Missing the actual risk analysis process as evidenced by the use of the FEMA Risk Analysis Matrix. This is not the format of a professional-style or quality document as you would be presenting/providing to decision makers.

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Protecting Critical Infrastructure
Theodore Proia
Professor Constant Craig
May 2, 2018
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Theodore Proia
Critical infrastructure and Key resources refer to the totality of resources that are natural
as well as human-made and upon which a country heavily depends on for its functions, along
with the systems for their protection, delivery as well as processing. Critical infrastructure
combines IT, food, transport, water systems, agricultural, communications, energy and other
sectors. The United States has identified in number 16 sectors of critical infrastructure. CIKR
puts into place resources involved together with those systems and the core services like the
military, intelligence communities, and police (Goetz, E & Shenoi, 2008). These all combine to
defend them. Critical infrastructure elements are interconnected and dependent on other outside
features that on the other hand are planned for, managed as well as protected to enable the
support of a nation to its citizens and economy.
Various CIKR assets are available in the U.S metropolitan area of Chicago. The most
significant assets include; 1. Transportation systems sector: Getting around Chicago is easy.
This is due to the variety of transport options that are available. People in Chicago area use
buses, subway “EL” trains as well as bikes. All transit like Metra Trains, subway trains and
buses operate using a single payment method known as a Ventra Card. 2. Systems sector of
water and wastewater: Chicago has one of the biggest conventional water treatment plants in
the world. These include the James W. Jardine Plant, the Stickney Water Reclamation Plant
which supplies 1.4 billion gallons of pure water to the dwellers of Chicago. The area has an
extensive treatment system of wastewater. The wastewater is put into control by a government
authority which is independent, the Metropolitan Water Reclamation District. 3. Manufacturing
sector: Chicago has a vast number of manufacturing industries producing different products.
Some of the significant manufacturing companies include; elevator industries located in Illinois.
There are steel companies in Chicago like the Waukegan Steel Sales Inc, craft Metal Spinning,
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Columbia Metal spinning and Acme spinning company. These companies hugely contribute to
the growth of the economy of Chicago.
4. Food and agriculture sector in Chicago: The metropolitan area of Chicago has one
of the largest rooftop farms in the world. It also has the most significant indoor aquaponic farm
in the entire nation. There are more than 800 growing sites in this metropolitan area. This is
according to the Chicago Urban Agriculture Mapping Project. These ever-increasing sites
include urban agriculture, protected habitats, community and school gardens and orchards. The
success of urban farming has been hugely contributed by some factors like favorable climate,
huge vacant space, massive demand for food that is locally grown and land zoning policies that
are progressive (Taylor, J & Lovell, 2012). The food and agriculture sector in Chicago is stable,
and this sustains the entire area’s population without starvation. 5. Emergency services sector:
In Chicago, the Office of Emergency Management and Communications offer a reliable 911
service for different departments including service for police, emergency medical services, and
fire and organize or coordinate a critical emergency response. The mission of this office is to
coordinate events, provide technology, manage incidents, operate systems of communications,
and other sorts of support to protect property and lives of the people living in Chicago. The
OEMC works closely by partnering with state, local and federal partners to achieve
complementary and seamless integration missions.
The transport sector as one of the critical infrastructure and critical resources face various
risks. Manufacturers of transportation equipment must keep a close eye on trade policies as this
is one of the risks they face. They have to keep observing the currency trade as this impacts their
business in several ways. Currency variations affect fuel prices, the prices of raw materials, spare
parts and even cost of maintaining infrastructure. The emergency and communication sector
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faces various risks. One of them is the risk of cybersecurity in the communication sector. This is
a day to day evolving problem that must be addressed to avoid catastrophic losses. To protect the
citizens from being victims of such crimes in their businesses, measures must be put in place to
prevent cybersecurity. In matters to do with an emergency, coordination, poor management and
lack of professionalism are some of the critical risks hindering emergency CIKR protection.
The Chicago metropolitan area has the responsibility to protect its critical infrastructure
that preserves normalcy, quality of life and protect public safety. The city has vital infrastructure
protection resources used to protect the many essential infrastructures that are either privately or
publicly owned and that the whole community living in Chicago depends on (Moteff, 2005). One
of the available resources that Chicago uses to protect its CIKR is improved resource allocation.
This is used to conduct assessments of vulnerability. The area has a project like the Chicago
Urban Agriculture Mapping that lists all the growing sites in the food and agriculture sector and
which helps in protection of the agriculture sector which is a major CIKR of Chicago. The
Chicago Metropolitan Agency through the Regional Water Supply Planning Group and
recommends many ways for businesses, local governments, and residents to preserve and protect
the already existing water supplies like local rivers Kankakee, Fox, Lake Michigan and
groundwater as well. Chicago uses resources like set institutions, departments and funds in
ensuring that its CIKR resources are protected.
Emergency Management and Communications: The metropolitan area of Chicago can
use some of the available resources in protecting its CIKR in the emergency management sector.
The availability of the office of Emergency management and communications can be used to
ensure that property and lives of people in this area are protected. The vision of this office is
integrated operations, safe and offer security to citizens. The department has values of
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accountability, professionalism, communication, collaboration, preparedness, and integrity. All
these values serve as guidelines for staff conduct as the department struggles to attain its vision
by offering support for city services and offering protection to both citizens and property in the
area of Chicago. Police, emergency medical services, and fire incidents are all reached through a
911 service which is reliable. This ensures that emergency services are under control at all the
time as citizens can easily receive aid from the respective bodies. Transportation system
protection: Chicago has several resources that are put to use to help protect its transportation
system sector. The area set up the Chicago Infrastructure Trust which was set up by the city
council and the mayor and its part of achieving the infrastructure plan of the area. The agency
has the responsibility of helping the government of municipality in finding finances for the
project. The area can use the resource of having professional companies in the construction
sector to design, build, finance, manage as well as maintain the speed rail links in the area. For
example, the agency launched a request for qualifications for companies to construct a highspeed rail link to connect O’Hare International Airport to downtown Chicago (Lewis, 2014).
This would ensure that the transportation sector in Chicago is well protected.
Various challenges exist in the Chicago area regarding Critical Infrastructure Protection. One of
the difficulties Chicago faces in the protection of its critical infrastructure is pollution. For
example, the Northeastern Illinois water supply has continued experiencing high rates of
pollution from different sources of pollutants. Some of these pollutants are toxins coming from
industrial processes and fertilizers emerging from lawns and agriculture. The communications
sector has also been faced with the challenge of cybersecurity crimes that are taking a new shape
in every day. The transportation system sector, on the other hand, is affected by the high cost of
materials needed to build other means of transport as well as repairing the existing ones. The
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Theodore Proia
manufacturing sector and the whole business sector face the challenge of poor and day to day
wobbles of the economy. Many of these businesses have incurred losses at different seasons, and
some have opted to remain closed. This in return results in too many people losing their jobs.
There are variations in which these challenges can be overcome. One of these ways is
shifting the focus towards resiliency, emphasizing protection of the CIKR that if destroyed, there
would be catastrophic effects. The other way is by broadening awareness, education and proper
training of security professionals who are in charge of protecting these infrastructures while
promoting critical development and research about infrastructure (Adar, E & Wuchner, 2005).
The third way is through engaging the private sector through proper channels of information
sharing, and this can be used to promote businesses in the area. Another solution is through
developing a process of congress to ensure that initiatives that are legislatively aimed at CIKR
protection have a basis on sound notions of risk.
Many recommendations can be put to use to protect Chicago’s CIKR. One of those
recommendations is promoting research that CIKR-related. Research plays a crucial part when it
comes to infrastructure protection. This is because the infrastructure is a combination of complex
systems and it’s only through research that its security and improvement can be achieved. The
other recommendation is broadening education, awareness as well as training. This increases
skill as well as making people knowing the importance of having specific materials like
businesses in place. This would encourage people to protect infrastructure more. Another
recommendation is securing chains of global supply. This ensures that there is an exchange of
what is available and what is not available. This not only brings stability as well as growth in
business. Through this way, CIKR products like in the manufacturing ones are protected.
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Critical Infrastructure and Key Resources ought to be protected to the fullest in
metropolitan areas for they have many benefits not only to the area but the nation as a whole.
Some challenges might arise when protecting them but they have to be overcome for critical
infrastructure protection to be in place.
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Theodore Proia
Goetz, E., & Shenoi, S. (Eds.). (2008). Critical Infrastructure Protection. Heidelberg: Springer.
Lewis, T. G. (2014). Critical infrastructure protection in homeland security: defending a
networked nation. John Wiley & Sons.
Taylor, J. R., & Lovell, S. T. (2012). Mapping public and private spaces of urban agriculture in
Chicago through the analysis of high-resolution aerial images in Google
Earth. Landscape and Urban Planning, 108(1), 57-70.
Moteff, J. (2005, February). Risk management and critical infrastructure protection: Assessing,
integrating, and managing threats, vulnerabilities and consequences. Library of Congress
Washington DC Congressional Research Service.
Adar, E., & Wuchner, A. (2005, November). Risk management for critical infrastructure
protection (CIP) challenges, best practices & tools. In Critical Infrastructure Protection,
First IEEE International Workshop on (pp. 8-pp). IEEE.

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