Cyber security paper (WiMAX) 7 pages needed ( due 4/17 6pm)

I need someone to expand this 5 pages paper to 13-14 pages(count from intro to conclusion), double space. Below are the requirements. Possible Cyber Security issues associated with deploying and using WiMAX. You will need to follow these requirements for the paper.It must be well written, with no grammatical, spelling or other syntax errors.All citations must be referenced in accordance with APA format.Reference Materials: textbook, class notes, APA Guide, Search Papers examples posted on Canvas, Research JournalsDetails on Research Paper (example)TABLE OF CONTENTS1. Abstract. 32. Introduction 33. Capabilities and Merits 54. Limitations 115. Initiatives 136. Conclusion 147. Reference: 16


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Running head: WIMAX SECURITY
Student Name
Institution Affiliation
Table of Content
Abstract …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 3
Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 4
Capabilities and Merits ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 5
Limitations of WiMAX……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 7
Conclusion …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 8
References ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 9
The most significant challenge facing the technological world is the security of data and
information. Solution to handle these challenges discussed through world forums and one of the
solutions obtained was the introduction of Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access
(WiMAX). This standard was introduced to counter the problems of speed and distances of the
wireless access that Wi-Fi could not handle. However, WiMAX brought along some security
challenges to this world. It gave hackers access to the systems of businesses who could extract
essential data and information and use it maliciously or sell it to the business competitors.
Therefore, to ensure confidentiality, integrity, and authentication of data, the security issues that
were brought about by the deployment and the usage of WiMAX should be carefully be analyzed
and handled. This paper discussed the cybersecurity issues that were brought about by the
deployment and the use of WiMAX as well as the limitations that it causes to the businesses.
The easiest and most common and popular method of connecting to a network is through
the use of wireless technology. The need to connect to the outside world is increasing with the
number of internets through smart phones, tablets, and personal computers users doubling every
single day. To satisfy the need for this problem, Wi-Fi was introduced under 801.11 standard
which was well received by internet users and businesses. However, there were some limitations
to this standard. Wi-Fi only covered a very short distance which limited the number of users. The
speed was also not that fast, and it could reduce with the increase in numbers of users making the
signal strength so poor. Since the signal is broadcast and network shared, it was possible to allow
any networking device to listen to the traffic of the network which compromised with the
security of the network users. Also, since the signal spread some few distances outside the
building, unauthorized users could find ways to login to the network due to the inadequate
encryption facilities that used in the network.
To counter the challenges by the Wi-Fi, WiMAX was introduced in December 2001 by
IEEE under 802.16 standard for Wireless Metropolitan Area Network (WMAN). Two years after
the introduction of WiMAX, the standard was later amended and improved to 802.16a and later
approved by IEEE (Han et al., 2008). However, despite solving the general issues that were
brought about by the Wi-Fi like providing higher data rate multimedia services, higher
bandwidth, higher speed among others, its security has remained to be a major concern (Sandhu
et al., 2013). For the last few years, the researchers have been extensively studying architectures
and protocols of WiMAX security with articles, research papers and survey reports published
which highlights some flaws on the security of the WiMAX (Wright, 2006). Despite the many
improvements done to the WiMAX, many vulnerabilities are still left unattended.
Capabilities and Merits
WiMAX has more advantages as compared to other wireless networks. The advantages are
brought about by its many features that discussed below;
Multipath support – the WiMAX technology offers OFDM-based physical layer that
based on the orthogonal frequency distribution. The architecture of WiMAX which is
comprised of a single base station (BS) and one or more subscriber stations (SSs) gives
the users an opportunity to operate on NLOS condition thus allowing a multipath
technique for wireless network (Han et al., 2008).
High-speed data rate – the architecture of WiMAX to the physical layer is scalable
allowing it to offer high-speed data rate through the bandwidth of channels. For instance,
a bandwidth of between 1.25MHz to 10MHz may enable the system to use 128, 512, 048bit FFTs which is a very high rate.
WiMAX supports moderation and error correction – its support to error correction and
moderation facility to users allows them to change the scheme following the condition of
the channel. Hence, this makes Adaptive Moderation and Coding a valuable method
when exploiting throughput using different channels (Han et al., 2008).
WiMAX supports Time Division Duplexing (TDD) as well as Frequency Division
Duplexing (FDD) which offer low-cost system accomplishment.
WiMAX has strong encryption – WiMAX offers users with strong encryption method
known as Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) which allows users to get secure privacy
and administration.
WiMAX Broadband access – WiMAX technology offers the very high-speed broadband
access to all mobile internet. For instance, when using a 20MHz, it is possible to get as
high data rate as 74Mbps.
WiMAX also supports the reliability of data which achieved through Automatic
retransmission of data at data link layer. It also allows the retransmission of any
unacknowledged data packets from the sender to the receiver.
WiMAX mobility – WiMAX is mobile with its power saving mechanism which extends
the battery life of any handheld devices which is using WiMAX technology.
The above features of WiMAX make it better when compared to other wireless technologies
such as 3G or Wi-Fi. Therefore, the users can enjoy the following benefits as discussed below;
WiMAX coverage – a single WiMAX station provides services and coverage to hundreds
of users at a time at a very high speed and network security as compared to Wi-Fi and 3G
(Sandhu et al., 2013).
High Speed – the ability of WiMAX to provide high connectivity speed over long
distances makes it more demanding in both sparsely populated and in the congested
Multi-functionality – WiMAX can offer high-speed internet services, video streaming,
the transformation of data, provide telephone services and a couple of other services at
ago without reducing the speed of internet connection (Sandhu et al., 2013).
Flexible infrastructure – the flexibility of WiMAX infrastructure makes it provide
reliability as well as the consent of actual access to the end users.
Low cost of WiMAX – WiMAX technology is much cheaper compared to internet
services offered via modem or Local Area Network (LAN).
Limitations of WiMAX
Regardless of the many advantages that WiMAX offers to its users, WiMAX has a significant
number of theoretical vulnerabilities related to security as discussed below:
a. Man-in-the-middle attack – the authentication scheme that is implemented by WiMAX is
unidirectional which gives a potential vulnerability to the attackers. For instance, the
authentication scheme uses X.509 certificates from subscriber to base station, but
provision from subscriber authentication to the base station not provided (Barish, 2008).
The attacker may then spoof subscriber responses through interception of subscriber
requests thus allowing them to use rogue access points. The only solution to mitigate this
problem is through the use of secure mutual authentication via IEEE 802.1x and a
RADIUS server. However, the mitigation method may also provide other vulnerability to
the WiMAX system.
b. Denial of service attacks – these attacks caused by the WiMAX implementation of
cryptographic protections aiming to protect its users from spoofing attacks (Barish,
2008). Subsequently, this makes it vulnerable to replay-based attacks causing a flood to
the network with rogue management frames which as similar to the structures used by
WIFI. Consequently, this causes the denial of service attacks.
c. Base station attacks – this type of attack happens when attackers craft a malicious request
which allows them administrative access to the base station (Wright, 2006). Also, this
occurs even if the WiMAX protocols and security models well implemented.
d. Application-Layer Attacks – there is a possibility of deploying a solution without
enabling any encryption method including AES and DES (Barish, 2008). Transmitting
such a data creates a sniffing vulnerability to attackers over other applications. Therefore,
to mitigate this attack, it is wise for the network admins to make use of the built-in
WiMAX encryption.
It is undoubtedly accurate to say that WiMAX brought so many benefits to this
technological world. However, the disadvantages outweigh the advantages. Therefore, this is
because the most important thing that businesses and other internet users care about is the
privacy. Therefore, regardless of the many advantages that associated with WiMAX, there are
still many things that need to be looked at. It is worth noting that as the number of internet users
and businesses are increasing, there is also quite some malicious hackers and crackers who are
trying to take advantage of them. These people attack the system and maliciously use the data as
seen by the attacks directed at WiMAX. Therefore, the deployment and usage of WiMAX
presented the world with security issued that needs to be carefully looked into and improved.
Barish, S, (2008). WiMax: Just Another Security Challenge? Symantec.Connect. retrieved from:
Han, T., Zhang, N., Liu, K., Tang, B., & Liu, Y. A. (2008, September). Analysis of mobile
WiMAX security: Vulnerabilities and solutions. In Mobile Ad Hoc and Sensor Systems, 2008.
MASS 2008. 5th IEEE International Conference on (pp. 828-833). IEEE.
Sandhu, G. K., Mann, G. S., & Kaur, R. (2013). Benefit and security issues in wireless
technologies: Wi-fi and WiMax. Future, 1(4).
Wright, J. (2006). WiMAX security issues. Network World. retrieved from:
Rakesh kumar Jha et al. / (IJCSIT) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technologies, Vol. 1 (4) , 2010, 256-263
A Journey on WiMAX and its Security Issues
Rakesh Kumar Jha#1, Dr Upena D Dalal #2
Electronics and Communication Engineering Department, SVNIT
Surat, Gujarat, India
Abstract— Security has become a primary concern in order to
provide protected communication in Wireless environment. We
know the basic concept of communication is sent the information
from source node to destination node but in my view the
communication is not sent the information but the amount of
secure information which is sent from source node to destination
node. The much anticipated technology for wireless broadband
access, the WiMAX (Wireless Interoperability for Microwave
Access) is finally starting to be available in the market with the
aim to provide high data rates and provide interoperability of
vendor devices at the same time. In this report we give an
overview on the different performance evaluations that have
been conducted on WiMAX systems and show the current
capabilities and future trends in the WiMAX technology. As a
promising broadband wireless technology, WiMAX has many
salient advantages over such as: high data rates, quality of
service, scalability, security, and mobility. Many sophisticated
authentication and encryption techniques have been embedded
into WiMAX but it still exposes to various attacks in. This report
is a survey of security vulnerabilities found in WiMAX network.
Vulnerabilities and threats associated with both layers in
WiMAX (Physical and MAC layers).
Keywords— WiMAX, Security Threats, Physical Layer, MAC
Layer, Security Model, Towerstream, Authentication
This–Security has become a primary concern in order to
environment .IEEE Standards Board in 1999 Established , the
IEEE 802.16 is a working group on Broad Wireless Access
(BWA).Developing standards for the global deployment of
broadband Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks .In
December 2001, the first 802.16 standard which was designed
to specialize point to-multipoint broadband wireless
transmission in the 10-66 GHz spectrum with only a light-ofsight (LOS) capability. But with the lack of support for nonline-of-sight (NLOS) operation, this standard is not suitable
for lower frequency applications. Therefore in 2003, the IEEE
802.16a standard was published to accommodate this
requirement. Then, after being revised several times, the
standard was ended in the final standard: 802.16-2004 which
corresponds to revision D. These standards define the BWA
for stationary and nomadic use which means that end devices
cannot move between base stations (BS) but they can enter the
network at different locations. In 2005, an amendment to
802.14-2004, the IEEE 802.16e was released to address the
mobility which enables mobile stations (MB) to handover
between BSs while communicating. This standard is often
called “Mobile WiMAX7”’.The Fig provides a summary of
the IEEE 802.16 family of standards. Based on the IEEE
802.16 standard, the WiMAX (Worldwide Inter-operability
for Microwave Access) is “a telecommunications technology
that provides wireless transmission of data using a variety of
transmission modes, from point-to-multipoint links to portable
and fully mobile internet access”. The WiMAX is supported
by the WiMAX forum, which is a non-profit organization
formed to promote the adoption of WiMAX compatible
products and services [1]. WiMAX is a very promising
technology with many key features over other wireless
technologies [2]. For instance, WiMAX network has the
capability of working on many bands: 2.3 GHz, 2.5 GHz, etc,
and provides scalability and mobility with high data rates with
NLOS operation. It also provides strong security and strong
QoS guaranteed services for data, voice, video, etc. However,
in order for WiMAX to achieve a maturity level and become a
successful technology, more research on security threats and
solution to these threats need to be conducted.
In the first section we are concentrate our study on security
issue related to Physical Layer and Mac Layer. In the physical
(PHY) layer, IEEE 802.16 supports four PHY specifications
for the licensed bands. These four specifications are WirelessMAN-SC (single carrier), OFDM (orthogonal frequencydivision multiplexing), and OFDMA (orthogonal frequencydivision multiple access). In addition, the standard also
supports different PHY specifications (SC, OFDM, and
OFDMA) for the unlicensed bands: wireless high-speed unlicensed MAN (Wireless HUMAN). Most PHYs are designed
for non-line-of-sight (NLOS) operation in frequency bands
below 11 GHz, except -SC, which is for operation in the 1066 GHz frequency band. To support multiple subscribers,
IEEE 802.16 supports both time-division duplex (TDD) and
frequency-division duplex (FDD) operations. In the medium
access control (MAC) layer, IEEE 802.16 supports two modes:
point-to-multipoint (PMP) and mesh. The former organizes
nodes into a cellular-like structure consisting of a base station
(BS) and subscriber stations (SSs).The channels are divided
into uplink (from SS to BS) and downlink (from BS to SS),
and both uplink and downlink channels are shared among the
SSs. PMP mode requires all SSs to be within the transmission
range and clear line of sight (LOS) of the BS. On the other
hand, in mesh mode an ad hoc network can be formed with all
nodes acting as relaying routers in addition to their sender and
Rakesh kumar Jha et al. / (IJCSIT) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technologies, Vol. 1 (4) , 2010, 256-263
receiver roles, although there may still be nodes that serve as
BSs and provide backhaul connectivity. As a cost-effective
solution, multihop communication is becoming more and
more important to WiMAX system. To successfully deploy
multihop WiMAX networks, security is one of the major
challenges that must be addressed. Another important issue is
how to support different services and applications in WiMAX
networks. Since WiMAX is a relatively new standard, very
little work has been conducted in the literature. In the authors
provided a survey on the security schemes used in the IEEE
802.16-2001 standards. They further analysed the security
flaws in the standard. Several improvements have been
proposed since then. Nevertheless, we notice that the security
mechanism of IEEE 802.16 is mainly focused on security in
the MAC layer, which may not be able to provide sufficient
security in multihop scenarios and satisfy the requirements of
emerging applications in WiMAX networks.
Here i am describing a short table review for WiMAX
technology standards and versions.
A. IEEE 802.16e protocol Architectures
The IEEE 802.16 protocol architecture is structured into
two main layers: the Medium Access Control (MAC) layer [3]
[4] and the Physical (PHY) [5][6] layer, as described in the
figure:1. MAC layer consists of three sub-layers. The first
sub-layer is the Service Specific Convergence Sub-layer (CS)
[7], which maps higher level data services to MAC layer
service flow [8] and connections [9]. The second sub-layer is
Common Part Sub-layer (CPS), which is the core of the
standard and is tightly integrated with the security sub-layer.
This layer defines the rules and mechanisms for system access,
bandwidth allocations and connection management. The MAC
protocol data units are constructed in this sub-layer. The last
sub-layer of MAC layer is the Security Sub-layer which lies
between the MAC CPS and the PHY layer, addressing the
authentication, key establishment and exchange, encryption
and decryption of data exchanged between MAC and PHY
layers. The PHY layer provides a two-way mapping between
MAC protocol data units and the PHY layer frames received
and transmitted through coding and modulation of radio
frequency signals.
In order to understand WiMAX security issues, we first need
to understand WiMAX architecture and how securities
specifications are addressed in WiMAX. This section provides
background and detailed information about WiMAX securities
specifications in the security sub-layer.
B. WiMAX security solutions
By adopting the best technologies available today, the
WiMAX, based on the IEEE 802.16e standard, provides
strong support for authentication, key management,
encryption and decryption, control and management of plain
text protection and security protocol optimization. In WiMAX,
most of security issues are addressed and handled in the MAC
security sub-layer as described in the figure: 2 Two main
entities in WiMAX, including Base Station (BS) and
Subscriber Station (SS), are protected by the following
WiMAX security features:
1) Security association: A security association (SA) is a
set of security information parameters that a BS and
one or …
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