Cyber Security Questions

Hello everyone, I need help in my Cyber Security assignment. the instructions are write 1800 words as for the whole assignment which means300 words per questions. please add citations and in the citations put the book author’s name and page number.the questions are in file (Cyber 2.jpeg),,in questions A pick one question and solve it.In questions B pick four questions and solve it.In questions C pick the book report question and solve it (The book report is attached also).The due date is this Sunday (April 29, 2018)
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“Cyberphobia by Edward Lucas” Report
The book Cyberphobia – identity, trust and the internet by Edward Lucas brings to light
the various risk that people face as a result of the internet. Throughout the twelve chapters, Lucas
explores avenues that cybercriminals use to attack victims about which many victims don’t know.
He emphasizes that people should take caution when dealing with computers the way they take
caution for example while driving. Lucas points out that email accounts form a fertile ground for
hackers to access victims. He also notes that the complex nature of current software and hardware
make it hard for the users to understand them. The author predicts that cybercrimes may continue
to increase in future because of the increased number of internet users. He, therefore, encourages
people to take simple cautionary measures such as securitizing emails before responding and
shunning the “free” internet things as a way of saving oneself.
The first chapter of the book talks about how people normally live a cautious life. The
writer gives an example of the Hakhetts family. The couple lives a careful life of observing all the
life rules. The two drive carefully, have insurances and service their cars often. By observing the
normal rules of life, the Hakhetts believe any misfortune that may come to them can only emanate
from a careless person near them. However, the Hakhetts understand little about their devices
including their computers and cars. The book advocates for “prudence and cautiousness” with the
internet and advice users to know the internet well. The writer points out that by failing to know
the nature of the devices we use, attacks may happen and we fail to know (35).
In the second chapter, the author talks about the unreliability of computers. Networking in
computers came into the scene for purposes of backups in the military and sharing academic
information among researchers in late 60’s and early 70’s. At the time no one knew that the
networks could grow and become complex as they are today. No one knew that developments of
networks could turn to a ground of all illegal activities including stealing money from banks,
exposing personal information and other forms of illegal trade. The author also notes that
computers get manufactured with little care of security. The main qualities considered in
computers currently include cheapness, quick manufacturing process, and profitability. Due to the
complex nature of modern computerized devices, the author states that its hard for normal users to
protect themselves from malware. Therefore, it calls for the governments and internet companies
to protect users.
The third chapter talks about how identities get misused through the internet for malicious
purposes. The writer states that currently destroying another person’s reputation had become easy
as compared to earlier days when people had to write blackmailing letters. Currently, people
misuse the internet and write false information about others with the aim of destroying their
reputation. In a world where business activities get conducted through internet platforms, it’s easy
to lose market if a competitor posts false information about your business. Authorities like the
police have little control over what people write and talk about others through the internet. The
author also notes that people steal password and login details and pretend to as the owners, borrow
loans or send bad messages to partners of the victim. According to the book, to reduce the risks
better mechanisms need to be put in place.
The book explores the dangers email accounts hold to their owners. One can purchase email
accounts details of several people from the internet; people also can crack email accounts using
off- the- shelf software available on the Internet. Criminals crack peoples’ email accounts and send
messages to the contacts in the account requesting for funds without the owner even noticing.
Before the whole drama comes to an end, the account holder will have to explain a lot to relatives
and friends. The author also notes that fraud gets conducted in the person of banks, where criminals
send emails pretending to be banks. Such emails lead to exposure of bank credentials and thus
theft. The author advices people to always scrutinize emails before responding to avoid such scams
because our fate hangs on” the slender string of access to an email account.”
The author also captures much about the geopolitical arena about cyber crimes. The author
notes that some countries use criminal gangs to hack into another country’s sensitive system. The
chapter has some examples of breaches of the US system by Chinese and the KGB. The attacks
led to the loss of intellectual property and leaking of vital government information to adversaries.
Currently, when the east wants to overtake the west, some countries believe electronic spying can
greatly help achieve the objective. According to the author, due to the high numbers of computer
hardware and software, weak points have increased enabling criminal groups to perpetuate in their
cybercrimes. In this chapter, the author advices governments to protect the public from the highly
crafted cyber crimes.
The book touches on digital weapons, and how they have created an unnecessary tension
between countries. International laws forbid development of weapons such as biological weapons.
The author notes one can develop a biological weapon and get detected when developing the
vaccine but Digital attacks occur and may stay unnoticed for long periods of time because it’s not
physical assault. The book has an example of an attack on America’s military network that led
exposure of 700,000 classified documents that included a video of an airstrike on Iraq civilians.
The exposure led to international cries and almost made America appear in a bad light. Similarly,
if one attacks the Russian nuclear system, America may appear as the primary suspect thus causing
tension when it was not an American attack. Through the vulnerabilities created by computers, the
author notes that unnecessary tensions will continue to rise.
The book also talks about monoculture as a habit that has led to insecurity on the internet.
In a world where people like cheap and easy to use software, it has become easier for people with
ill intentions to steal information and commit other cyber-related crimes. The author compares the
problem with a situation where all the doors in the world had the same type a lock, noting that
when the weakness of the lock gets discovered everyone else becomes vulnerable. Though
diversity may seem less efficient in the short run, it proves beneficial in the long run. The writer
laments the lack of seriousness on the side of the bodies that should provide security on the internet.
The writer calls for diversification of computer software and hardware and continuous securing of
security certificates.
The book covers the threats brought about by the development of internet and computing.
The author goes ahead and states that the problems may increase in future. Due to the complex
nature of current software and hardware, users cannot understand the devices they use. The book
also outlines the dangers presented by current software developers who have little concern for
diversity. Lack of diversity puts masses in danger of being compromised. The book also points
email accounts as great avenues through which cybercriminals work. The author encourages
internet users to shun emails that lack enough evidence to prove legitimacy. People should also
avoid the “free” things on the internet that usually transfers malware to computers. The book
advocates for prudence and cautiousness with the internet.
Reference:
Lucas Edward “Cyberphobia identity, trust security and the internet” Bloomsberry London 2015

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