Data presentation

CriteriaRatingsPtsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeIntroduction5.0 ptsThe presentation includes an introduction to a nursing problem or issue. The problem or issue is adequately defined, the prevalence is clearly stated and the significance of the problem including the PICOT question is fully described. Appropriate references are used to support the significance and prevalence of the problem.1.25 ptsThere is an identification of a nursing problem or issue, but it is not well defined and/or its significance and prevalence is not well stated. The references used in the introduction include the articles reviewed for this presentation or are not from professional sources or not relevant to the topic.0.0 ptsCentral problem not identified.5.0ptsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeRecommendations for Practice/Research10.0 ptsSpecific recommendations for practice change using an evidence-based practice model is clearly stated and are firmly grounded in quality and level of the evidence reviewed. The evidence used to support the recommendations is clearly made2.5 ptsRecommendations for practice change are not clearly described, the evidence-based model is incorrectly used and the recommendation stated is not firmly grounded in the evidence reviewed. The support for the recommendations is not clear. .0.0 ptsRecommendations may be present but is likely to be only a few lines of summary. Demonstrates serious inadequacy.10.0ptsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeGuideline/Policy/ Protocol3.0 ptsThe closing statement(s) in the conclusion clearly stated what you have learned. The recommendation for practice change is based on the evidence reviewed in the evidence table.0.75 ptsThere is inadequate presentation for the practice change. The practice change is not based on the evidence reviewed in the evidence table.0.0 ptsThere is no presentation of the guideline, protocol, or policy in relation to the evidence reviewed in the evidence table.3.0ptsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeAPA/Grammar2.0 ptsDemonstrates full control of APA format and style including proper citation format. Virtually free of sentence level errors: grammatical, typographical, and word choice.0.5 ptsAdequately adheres to APA forms and style including proper citation format, with likely deviations and lapses. May contain some consistent patterns of sentence level error: grammatical, typographical, and word choice. Pervasiveness of error does not impede0.0 ptsPresentation demonstrates serious inadequacy in APA/grammar2.0ptsTotal Points: 20.0
urinary_track_infections__2_revise.pptx

urinary_track_infections.pptx

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Urinary Track Infections
Student Name
Institution Affiliation
Date
Introduction
? Urinary track infections are infections which results from the contamination
of genitourinary by bacteria.
? UTI’s are more prevalent in women as compared to men of the same age.
? However, there is increased risk of UTI infection for adults with Type 2
diabetes mellitus when compared with people without.
? There are other causes of UTI such as various impairments in the immune
system and incomplete bladder emptying which results from autonomic
neuropathy.
? Other factors that triggers UTI infections in diabetic adults includes age,
cystopathy, long time complications, metabolic control among others.
PICOT Question
? In adult type 2 diabetic women (P) does increasing fluid intake to two liters
per day (I) prevent the occurrence of UTI’s (O) when compared with
patients who have less than 1 liter of fluid intake daily (C) over a period of
three months (T).
? Two diabetic women groups were studied with one group taking two litres
of water per day while the other was supposed to be taking less than one
litre of water per day
? Urine samples were supposed to be taken every two weeks from the two
groups for a period of three months and the results to be compared
afterwords.
? The results showed that the group that took two litres of water prevented
athe occurrences of UTI in them.
Recommendation
? The study was conducted to diabetic women because women have a
higher chances of contracting UTI and therefore, there was likelyhood of
getting more accurate results
? The main cause of UTI is poor circulation in diabetic patients thus limiting the
ability of red blood cells to circulate and contain any infection effectively.
This was the reason why water was used in the study because it would help
in the circulation of red blood cells.
? It is therefore highly recommended for diabetic patients both male and
females to increase the consumption of water that will increase red blood
cells circulation in the body to contain any infection in the body.
Conclusion
? Complicated UTIs are life threatening conditions to Adults with Diabetes
and mostly Women.
? Water is an essential element for diabetic patients because it helps the
occurrences of UTI.
? Methods of predicting the diseases such as early diagnoses, clinical and
radiography assessment, and knowledge of predisposing factors should
help fight the disease in its early stages.
References
Aswani, S.M., Chandrashekar, U.K., Shivashankara, K.N., & Pruthvi, B.C. (2014).
Usually turn non-diabetics. Australasian Medical Journal, 7(1), 29-34.
Foxman, B., & Buxton, M. (2013). Alternative approaches to conventional
treatment of acute uncomplicated urinary tract infection in women. Current
Infectious Disease Reports, 15(2), 124-9.
Pagano, M.J., Barbalat, Y., Theofanides, M.C., Edokpolo, L., James, M.B., &
Cooper, K.L.(2017). Diagnostic yield of cystoscopy in the evaluation of
recurrent urinary tract infection in women. Neurourology and Urodynamics,
36(3), 692-696.
Urinary Track Infections
Student Name
Institution Affiliation
Date
Introduction
? Urinary track infections are infections which results from the contamination
of genitourinary by bacteria.
? UTI’s are more prevalent in women as compared to men of the same age.
? However, there is increased risk of UTI infection for adults with Type 2
diabetes mellitus when compared with people without.
? There are other causes of UTI such as various impairments in the immune
system and incomplete bladder emptying which results from autonomic
neuropathy.
? Other factors that triggers UTI infections in diabetic adults includes age,
cystopathy, long time complications, metabolic control among others.
Pathogenesis
? Presence of glycosuria, increased adherence of the bacteria to
uroepithelial cells and neutrophil dysfunction are likely to cause increased
frequency of UTI in diabetic patients.
? Organisms which ferment glucose and produce carbon dioxide leads to
Emphysematous complications in the kidney or the bladder.
? xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGP) which is a complicated type of
UTI is caused when renal tissues are destroyed and replaced hardened
xanthogranulomatous materials which is yellow in color.
? The causes of XGP includes lymphatic obstruction, alterations in lipid
metabolism, and renal ischemia among others.
? Asceding of infections from the bladder and Hematogenous spread
causes renal abcess.
Cont.…
? disruption of a corticomedullary renal abscess causes the occurrence of
Perinephric abscess.
? Perinephric abscess may also be caused by the obstructing renal pelvic
stone
? Marginal change in vascular supply causes Pathogenesis of renal papillary
necrosis (RPN) which is another complicated type of urinary track infections
which further leads to infarction and sloughing of papillae.
? RPN may also be caused by Diabetes, sickle cell disease, renal vein
thrombosis, pyelonephritis, tuberculosis, analgesic abuse and obstructive
uropathy.
Diagnosis
? Lower UTI has the following symptoms: dysuria, frequency, urgency and
suprapubic pain while the symptoms of upper UTI includes fever, chills, and
costovertebral angle pain.
? Such symptoms are found mostly in women who are diabetic as compared to
men with diabetic or non diabetic men and women.
? After diagnosis of UTI, an examination of midstream urine should be done to
look for presence of leukocytes which causes pyuria that is mostly present in all
cases of UTI
? Such examination also allows bacteria visualization in urine to look for presence
of urinary nitrite.
? When pyuria is not detected in microscopic it suggests that it is not an infection
but a colonization. Prior the treatment of UTI, the urine culture must always be
obtained using a voided, clean-catch, midstream urine method.
Treatment
? Adequate urinary drainage with correction, broad-spectrum antimicrobial
therapy and hyperglycemic control are among the methods that involved
in the treatment of emphysematous pyelitis (EP), emphysematous cystitis
(EC) type of complicated UTIs.
? On the other hand, patients with RPN should be treated through aggressive
antibiotic therapy and relieve of obstruction too.
Conclusion
? Complicated UTIs are life threatening conditions to Adults with Diabetis and
mostly Women.
? Methods of predicting the diseases such as early diagnoses, clinical and
radiography assessment, and knowledge of predisposing factors should
help fight the disease in its early stages.
References
Aswani, S.M., Chandrashekar, U.K., Shivashankara, K.N., & Pruthvi, B.C. (2014).
Usually turn non-diabetics. Australasian Medical Journal, 7(1), 29-34.
Foxman, B., & Buxton, M. (2013). Alternative approaches to conventional
treatment of acute uncomplicated urinary tract infection in women. Current
Infectious Disease Reports, 15(2), 124-9.
Pagano, M.J., Barbalat, Y., Theofanides, M.C., Edokpolo, L., James, M.B., &
Cooper, K.L.(2017). Diagnostic yield of cystoscopy in the evaluation of
recurrent urinary tract infection in women. Neurourology and Urodynamics,
36(3), 692-696.

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