Demonstrate knowledge of the nursing research process by critiquing published research articles in a systematic manner. show your understanding of the components of research and the procedures necessary to implement the research process.

MUST BE KNOWLEDGEABLE IN RESEARCH AND RESEARCH PROCESS.This assignment will demonstrates knowledge of the nursing research process by critiquing published research articles in a systematic manner. The assignment will show your understanding of the components of research and the procedures necessary to implement the research process by critiquing a research article.Instructions:When completing the critique assignment, note that you’re critiquing with comments based on the logical steps of the research process. Critique process for quantitative studies include: Phase 1—Comprehension, Phase 2—Comparison, Phase 3—Analysis, Phase 4—Evaluation. Comprehension: Read the article carefully and highlight each step of the research process within the article. Comparison and analysis: With the knowledge of each step of the research process examine and compare the extent to which the researcher followed the rules for an ideal study by examining parts of the study for accuracy, completeness, and organization, then analyze the logical links among the steps of the study. Evaluation: Involves determining the meaning and significance of the study by examining the links among the study process, study findings, and previous studies.As noted in the critic process of one of the Jones and Bartlett publisher’s textbook, in the same way, another general rule includes:a. Read the entire study carefullyb. Examine the organization and perspectivesc. Highlight each step of the research processd. Identify the strengths and weaknesses objectively.e. Determine how well the study followed the rules of the ideal studyf. Consider the applicability of the research results to practice.
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Bowie State University
School of Professional Studies
Bowie, Maryland 20715
Department of Nursing
NURS 400
Quantitative Research Evaluation
Listed below are criteria that you will use to critique your primary research article. Discuss how
the investigator satisfied each criterion. Cite relevant passages in the articles, with
reference to page number if appropriate. Don’t merely respond “yes” or “no’ to the
presence or absence of each criterion—you must provide examples and rationale for
your response.
Introduction – 6 points
1. Is the purpose of the study presented?
2. Is the significance (importance) of the problem discussed?
3. Does the investigator provide a sense of what he or she is doing and why?
Problem statement – 6 points
1. Is the problem statement clear?
2. Does the investigator identify key research questions and variables to be examined?
3. Does the study have the potential to help solve a problem that is currently faced in
clinical practice?
Literature review – 6 points
1. Does the literature review follow a logical sequence leading to a critical review of
supporting and conflicting prior work?
2. Is the relationship of the study to previous research clear?
3. Does the investigator describe gaps in the literature and support the necessity of the
present study?
Theoretical framework and hypotheses – 6 points
1. Is a rationale stated for the theoretical/conceptual framework?
2. Does the investigator clearly state the theoretical basis for hypothesis formulation?
3. Is the hypothesis stated precisely and in a form that permits it to be tested?
Methodology – 10 points
1. Are the relevant variables and concepts clearly and operationally defined?
2. Is the design appropriate for the research questions or hypotheses?
3. Are methods of data collection sufficiently described’?
4. What are the identified and potential threats to internal and external validity that were
present in the study?
5. If there was more than one data collector, was inter-rater reliability adequate?
Sample – 6 points
1. Are the subjects and sampling methods described?
2. Is the sample of sufficient size for the study, given the number of variables and
design?
3. Is there adequate assurance that the rights of human subjects were protected?
Instruments – 5 points
1. Are appropriate instruments for data collection used?
2. Are reliability and validity of the measurement instruments adequate?
Data analysis – 5 points
1. Are the statistical tests used identified and the values reported?
2. Are appropriate statistics used, according to level of measurement, sample size,
sampling method, and hypotheses/research questions?
Results – 6 points
1. Are the results for each hypothesis clearly and objectively presented?
2. Do the figures and tables illuminate the presentation of results’?
3. Are results described in light of the theoretical framework and supporting literature?
Conclusions/discussion –12points
1. Are conclusions based on the results and related to the hypotheses’?
2. Are study limitations identified?
3. Are generalizations made within the scope of the findings?
4. Are implications of findings discussed (i.e., for practice, education, and research)?
5. Are recommendations for further research stated?
Research utilization implications – 15 points
1. Is the study of sufficient quality to meet the criterion of scientific merit’?
2. Is the study of relevance to practice?
3. Is the study feasible for nurses to implement?
4. Do the benefits of the study outweigh the risks?
Use of proper format (APA), grammar, spelling, and punctuation – 17 points
Student Paper General Requirements and Guidelines
1. All papers must be typewritten or printed on standard 81/2 x 11 inch white bond
paper. The type-face should be times roman or courier. Do not use bold or other
styles of type. Limit the use of italicized words.
2. All papers must have a title page that includes a page header, running head, title
and author’s name and affiliation.
3. All papers must have margins of at least 1 inch at the top, bottom, left, and right of
every page. Do not justify the right margin and do not hyphenate words at the end of
a line.
4. The entire paper must be double-spaced including the reference list.
5. The first line of every paragraph in the paper must be indented 5 spaces.
6. There must be only 1 space after commas, colons, semi-colons, punctuation marks
at the end of sentences, and periods after initials.
7. Headings may be used to organize the paper into sections.
8. The reference list must include only those references cited in the text of the paper.
9. All ideas that are not your own must be cited within the text of the paper and
referenced in the reference list. Failure to do so is PLAGIARISM.
11. Limit the use of direct quotes by paraphrasing ideas taken from references. These
paraphrases do need to include citation of the author(s).
12. The citation after direct quotes must include the page number of the reference that is
being quoted.
TOTAL POINTS ________
Qualitative Research Evaluation
Listed below are criteria that you will use to critique your primary research article. Discuss how
the investigator satisfied each criterion. Cite relevant passages in the articles, with
reference to page number if appropriate. Don’t merely respond “yes” or “no’ to the
presence or absence of each criterion—you must provide examples and rationale for
your response.
Statement of the phenomenon of interest – 6 points
1. Is the phenomenon of interest clearly identified?
2. Has the researcher identified why the phenomenon requires a qualitative format?
3. Has the researcher described the philosophic underpinnings of the research?
Purpose – 5 points
1. Has the researcher made explicit the purpose of conducting the research?
2. Does the researcher describe the projected significance of the work to nursing?
Method – 6 points
1. Is the method used to collect data compatible with the purpose of the research?
2. Is the method adequate to address the phenomenon of interest?
3. If a particular approach is used to guide the inquiry, does the researcher complete
the study according to the processes described?
Sampling – 9 points
1. Does the researcher identify the target and accessible population?
2. What sampling method was used?
3. What are the characteristics or inclusion criteria for the sample?
Data collection – 15 points
1. Is data collection focused on human experience?
2. Does the researcher describe data collection strategies (i.e., interview, observation,
field notes)?
3. Is protection of human participants addressed and if so how?
4. Is saturation of the data described?
5. Has the researcher made explicit the procedures for collecting data?
Data analysis – 20 points
1. Does the researcher describe the strategies used to analyze the data?
2. Has the researcher remained true to the data?
3. Does the reader understand the procedures used to analyze the data? State the procedure
4. Does the researcher address the credibility, auditability, and fittingness of the data?
Credibility
a. Do the participants recognize the experience as their own?
Auditability
a. Can the reader follow the researcher’s thinking?
b. Does the researcher document the research process?
Fittingness
a. Can the findings be applicable outside the study situation? b. Are the results
meaningful to individuals not involved in the research?
5. Is the strategy used for analysis compatible with the purpose of the study?
Findings – 10 points
1. Are the findings presented within a context?
2. Is the reader able to grasp the essence of the experience from the report of the
findings?
3. Are the researcher’s conceptualizations true to the data?
4. Does the researcher place the report in the context of what already is known about
the phenomenon?
Conclusion, implications, and recommendations – 12 points
1. Do the conclusions, implications, and recommendations give the reader a context in
which to use the findings?
2. Do the conclusions reflect the study findings?
3. Does the researcher offer recommendations for future study?
4. Has the researcher made explicit the significance of the study to nursing?
Use of proper format (APA), grammar, spelling, and punctuation – 17 points
Student Paper General Requirements and Guidelines
1. All papers must be typewritten or printed on standard 81/2 x 11 inch white bond
paper. The type-face should be times roman or courier. Do not use bold or other
styles of type. Limit the use of italicized words.
2. All papers must have a title page that includes a page header, running head, title
and author’s name and affiliation.
3. All papers must have margins of at least 1 inch at the top, bottom, left, and right of
every page. Do not justify the right margin and do not hyphenate words at the end of
a line.
4. The entire paper must be double-spaced including the reference list.
5. The first line of every paragraph in the paper must be indented 5 spaces.
6. There must be only 1 space after commas, colons, semi-colons, punctuation marks
at the end of sentences, and periods after initials.
7. Headings may be used to organize the paper into sections.
8. The reference list must include only those references cited in the text of the paper.
9. All ideas that are not your own must be cited within the text of the paper and
referenced in the reference list. Failure to do so is PLAGIARISM.
11. Limit the use of direct quotes by paraphrasing ideas taken from references. These
paraphrases do need to include citation of the author(s).
12. The citation after direct quotes must include the page number of the reference that is
being quoted.
TOTAL POINTS ________
Running Head: Article Critique
1
Article Critique
2
Qualitative Article Critique
Introduction
There is a significant increase in the nursing shortage here in America and the number is
only getting higher. The qualitative research study that was critiqued for the purpose of this
paper discussed the reasons for this issue. A phenomenological research method was used to
investigate the factors that had an impact on the registered nurses’ decisions to leave the practice,
therefore causing a larger nursing shortage in the healthcare field. The investigation yielded
results that were consistent with the conceptualizations of the researchers.
Phenomenon of Interest
The phenomenon of interest is clearly identified throughout the article as the registered
nurses’ decisions to either leave the clinical setting or to leave the field of nursing in general. The
underlying problem and reason for the study to be conducted was due to the continuous increase
in the shortage of nurses in the clinical field. This shortage is partly because not enough people
are going in to the profession in the first place and partly because those that do enter the
profession, end up leaving shortly after for whatever reason. The researcher has identified that
this phenomenon of interest requires a qualitative format due to the method that was required in
order for them to collect their desired data accurately. ” Because the focus of the research is
related to the perceptions of the RNs, and because no definitive research exists about this
phenomenon, an interpretive, qualitative study was deemed appropriate” ( MacKusik & Minick,
2010). The qualitative format was the best format to approach this topic with because of the
nature of the desired information. The philosophical underpinnings of the research was not
identified but the reader can infer that the researchers’ philosophy is based on improving the
Article Critique
3
factors identified that cause nurses to leave clinical practice so that the nursing shortage can be
reduced and more competent nurses are available on hospital units to provide quality care.
Purpose
The researcher has defined the purpose of conducting the research clearly in the
beginning of the article. They began by stating statistics regarding the future of nursing and how
the shortage of nurses at the bedside is projected to increase in just 10 years. The researchers
went on to describe how the shortage of nurses is attributed things such as job dissatisfaction,
difference in salaries to other professions and uncomfortable working environments. They stated
that although research has been done to figure out what possible factors could contribute to the
shortage, none of them have been directed towards nurses that have been through it and left the
field because of it. The purpose of the study is ” to identify the factors or reasons that influenced
the decision of the registered nurses to leave clinical nursing practice (MacKusik & Minick,
2010). This study is significant to nursing because investigating the reasons that nurses leave the
clinical setting will help nursing leaders and supervisors know what to look out for when
bringing new nurses to the unit and how to help them adjust to the job. It will allow for them to
increase their retention rate by preventing the problems described by former nurses from
happening again.
Method
The method used to collect the data and the approach that guided the inquiry was semistructured interviews done with former nurses in the setting of their choice. Burns and Grove
define a semi-structured interview as a fixed set of questions with no fixed responses ( Burns &
Article Critique
4
Grove, 2011). There were a list of questions that were asked during the interview and the former
nurses were to answer based on their perspective of their experience. This method is compatible
with the purpose of the research because it accurately determines the perceptions of the former
nurses’ experiences through their responses to the listed questions. This method is also adequate
enough to address the phenomenon of interest because through interviews, the researchers are
able to understand the reasons why the participants felt that leaving the clinical practice was the
only solution. It allows for the correct data to be obtained in order to further investigate the
phenomenon of interest and assess for possible solutions.
Sampling
Sampling is defined as the process of selecting subjects who are representative of the
population being studied (Burns & Grove, 2011). The researcher identifies the target and
accessible population to be nurses working in the clinical setting or ” directly working with the
patient” (MacKusik & Minick, 2010). Although it is not clearly stated that this is the target
population, the researcher shows that the nursing shortage is the phenomenon of interest and that
through this study, nurses will obtain improved strategies for retaining their nurses on their unit.
This infers to the reader that the target population is indeed nurses, specifically being nurses that
work on units in clinical settings in which there is a shortage. The sampling method used in this
study was purposive sampling. Purposive sampling is when the researcher consciously selects
certain participants, elements, events, or incidents to include in the study. The ultimate goal in
this method is to choose the information rich participants from which they can obtain in-depth
information needed for their studies (Burns & Grove, 2011). In this article, the researchers
described how they contacted current nurses to help them to find nurses that were once in
Article Critique
5
practice but not anymore. This displays the purposive sampling method because they selectively
chose their participants based on their employment status and history. Recruitment was done
through the snowballing technique where currently practicing RNs at various hospitals were
contacted and asked if they knew nurses who were no longer in clinical practice (MacKusik &
Minick, 2010). The inclusion criteria for the sample included that the nurse had to be licensed
and have had no less than 1 year of clinical practice experience. They also had to have had no
clinical practice in the 6 months prior to the study ( MacKusik & Minick, 2010). The researcher
also included that the nurses that participated in the study could not be in a supervisor or
education position, and they had to be RNs not LPNs or anything else other than a registered
nurse. They also had to have an active license and not have had it revoked by the board or let it
expire without renewal ( MacKusik & Minick, 2010).
Data Collection
The data collection for this article focuses specifically on the human experience. The
researcher describes in the methods section of the article that the data collection strategies used
included interviews and field notes. Ten semi-structured interviews were conducted in 2007. All
interviews were audiotaped and field notes were made during the interview process (MacKusik
& Minick, 2010). The researcher had the entire interview process written down and following the
interview, went over it with the participants in order to ensure accuracy. The study was approved
before anything took place and the researcher had the participants sign a consent form before the
interview process to ensure that they adequately understood everything that would take place
and that they had the right to bow out at any time. The study participants were recruited after the
institutional review board from Georgia State University approved the process. Written informed
Article Critique
6
consent assured the nurses that their participation was voluntary, that they would remain
anonymous and that they could end the interview process at any time they wished (MacKusik &
Minick, 2010). The participants of this study were well protected and everything they did
throughout the process was voluntary. The procedures for collecting the data were explicitly
listed as the interview process and the field notes taken during.
Data Analysis
The strategies used to analyze the data were clearly identified in the article. The
researchers used the written material that described the interview process word for word
accurately to interpret the deeper meanings of the responses. They also shared the written notes
with research colleagues to ensure that they were adequately interpreting the information without
bias or misjudgment ( MacKusik & Minick, 2010). They analyzed the data to determine if there
were any reoccurring themes that appeared. Identifying these reoccurring themes will allow for
the researchers to make the connection between the answers and the reasons why the participants
left clinical practice. The researcher has remained true to the data provided in this article. All of
the data provided and the procedures used to collect said data are geared towards the purpose and
the phenomenon of interest identified at the beginning of the article. The reader understands that
the procedure used to analyze the data is hermeneutics. This procedure is defined as a type of
interpretive phenomenological research method that uses textual analysis through emphasizing
the social and historic influences in quantitative interpretation and exposing the deeper meanings
( Burns & Grove, 2011). The researchers consulted with their colleagues in order to ensure that
the responses were interpreted accurately and used this procedure to evaluate the written
conversations.
Article Critique
7
The participants recognize the experience as their own. During the interview process,
they give their personal stories and their reasons why they left the clinical practice. They help to
contribute to the future of nursing by sharing their experiences and participating in this study.
Being open with the researchers and explaining what happened to them shows that they
recognize this experience as their own. The reader can follow the researcher’s thinking
throughout the study. The article in its entirety was clearly explained and each part of the study
was accurately identified for the reader’s understanding. The researchers went through the
process of the study from the …
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