Deontology Essay

Using Deontological ethics as your theory, write a one-paragraph essay arguing what should be done about one of the six issues in the Issues Readings. Make sure to respond to the author’s arguments, whether deontology comes to the same conclusion or not. Remember, briefly describe the issue, the theory, and what the theory would say about the issue and why.
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Who is Responsible for a Living Wage?
Posted by Mike LaBossiere on April 24, 2015 Leave a comment (18) Go to comments
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There is, obviously enough, a minimum amount of income that a person or family needs in order to
survive—that is, to pay for necessities such as food, shelter, clothing and health care. In order to address
this need, the United States created a minimum wage. However, this wage has not kept up with the cost
of living and many Americans simply do not earn enough to support themselves. These people are
known, appropriately enough, as the working poor. This situation raises an obvious moral and practical
question: who should bear the cost of making up the difference between the minimum wage and a
living wage? The two main options seem to be the employers or the taxpayers. That is, either employers
can pay employees enough to live on or the taxpayers will need to pick up the tab. Another alternative is
to simply not make up the difference and allow people to try to survive in truly desperate poverty. In
regards to who currently makes up the difference, at least in Oregon, the answer is given in the
University of Oregon’s report on “The High Cost of Low Wages in Oregon.”
According to the report, roughly a quarter of the workers in Oregon make no more than $12 per hour.
Because of this low income, many of the workers qualify for public assistance, such as SNAP (better
known as food stamps). Not surprisingly, many of these low-paid workers are employed by large, highly
profitable corporations.
According to Raahi Reddy, a faculty member at the University of Oregon, “Basically state and taxpayers
are we helping these families subsidize their incomes because they get low wages working for the
companies that they do.” As such, the answer is that the taxpayers are making up the difference
between wages and living wages. Interestingly, Oregon is a leader in two categories: one is the
percentage of workers on public support and the other is having among the lowest corporate tax rates.
This certainly suggests that the burden falls heavily on the workers who are not on public support (both
in and outside of Oregon).
The authors of the report have recommended shifting some of the burden from the taxpayers to the
employers in the form of an increased minimum wage and paid sick leave for workers. Not surprisingly,
increasing worker compensation is generally not popular with corporations. After all, more for the
workers means less for the CEO and the shareholders.
Assuming that workers should receive enough resources to survive, the moral concern is whether or not
this cost should be shifted from the taxpayers to the employers or remain on the taxpayers.
One argument in favor of leaving the burden on the taxpayers is that it is not the moral responsibility of
the corporations to pay a living wage. Their moral obligation is not to the workers but to the
shareholders and this obligation is to maximize profits (presumably within the limits of the law).
One possible response to this is that businesses are part of civil society and this includes moral
obligations to all members of that society and not just the shareholders. These obligations, it could be
contended, include providing at least a living wage to full time employees. It, one might argue, be more
just that the employer pay a living wage to the workers from the profits the worker generates than it is
to expect the taxpayer to make up the difference. After all, the taxpayers are not profiting from the
labor of the workers, so they would be subsidizing the profits of the employers by allowing them to pay
workers less. Forcing the tax payers to make up the difference certainly seems to be unjust and appears
to be robbing the citizens to fatten the coffers of the companies.
It could be countered that requiring a living wage could destroy a company, thus putting the workers
into a worse situation—that is, being unemployed rather than merely underpaid. This is a legitimate
concern—at least for businesses that would, in fact, be unable to survive if they paid a living wage.
However, this argument would obviously not work for business, such as Walmart, that have extremely
robust profit margins. It might be claimed that there must be one standard for all businesses, be they a
tiny bookstore that is barely staying afloat or a megacorporation that hands out millions in bonuses to
the management. The obvious reply is that there are already a multitude of standards that apply to
different businesses based on the differences between them—and some of these are even reasonable
and morally acceptable.
Another line of argumentation is to attempt to show that there is, in fact, no obligation at all to ensure
that citizens have a living income. In this case, the employers would obviously have no obligation. The
taxpayers would also not have any obligation, but they could elect lawmakers to pass laws authorizing
that tax dollars be spent supporting the poor. That is, the tax payers could chose to provide charity to
the poor. This is not obligatory, but merely a nice thing to do. Some business could, of course, also
choose to be nice—they could pay all their full time workers at least a living wage. But this should, one
might argue, be entirely a matter of choice.
Some folks would, of course, want to take this even further—if assisting other citizens to have a living
income is a matter of choice and not an obligation arising from being part of a civil society (or a more
basic moral foundation), then tax dollars should not be used to assist those who make less than a living
wage. Rather, this should be a matter of voluntary charity—everyone should be free to decide where
their money goes. Naturally, consistency would seem to require that this principle of free choice be
extended beyond just assisting the poor. After all, free choice would seem to entail that people should
decide as individuals whether to contribute to the salaries of members of the legislatures, to the cost of
wars, to subsidies to corporations, to the CDC, to the CIA, to the FBI and so on. This does, obviously
enough, have some appeal—the state would operate like a collection of charity recipients, getting
whatever money people wished to contribute. The only major downside is that it would probably result
in the collapse of civil society.

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