discussion 5

1. You should response to two questions below. A response of 150 words or more is requested for one of the chosen questions, and a response of 75 words or more is requested for the other question.2. On a seperate page, please write two general response to each question that I could use to two of my classmates. Each response should be 50-100 words.A researcher conducts a study of adolescents and their smoking behaviors. In orally reporting the results, the researcher inadvertently mentions the names of specific students who are only occasional smokers. What are ethical issues presented in this study? If you were this researcher, what would you do to rectify this error? Provide a scripture that gives guidance on how a Christian might respond to a misstep such as thing.You are a high school assistant principal, and you plan to conduct a study on the value of adding a course called Multiculturalism in America. Develop a five-question survey in your choice of survey designs and ask for feedback on whether your classmates feel your survey is appropriate for this study.3. Please use text book and any other outside source Thext book is: Creswell, J. (2015). Educational Research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research. (5th ed.). Pearson
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Chapter 12: Survey Designs
Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating
Quantitative and Qualitative Research
Edition 5
John W. Creswell
© (2015, 2012, 2008) by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
By the end of this chapter,
you should be able to:
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
Define survey research, and describe when to use it,
and how it developed
Describe the types of survey designs
Identify the key characteristics of survey research
Describe how to construct and use a mailed
questionnaire
Describe how to design and conduct an interview
survey
Identify potential ethical issues in survey research
List the steps in conducting survey research
Identify criteria useful for evaluating survey research
Creswell, Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating
Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 5th Ed.
© (2015, 2012, 2008) by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
12-2
What Is Survey Research?
Survey research designs are
procedures in quantitative research in
which investigators administer a survey
to a sample or to the entire population
of people in order to describe the
attitudes, opinions, behaviors, or
characteristics of the population.
Creswell, Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating
Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 5th Ed.
© (2015, 2012, 2008) by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
12-3
When to Use a Survey
?
?
?
?
To assess trends
To assess opinions, beliefs, and
attitudes of individuals
For follow-up analyses
For program evaluation
Creswell, Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating
Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 5th Ed.
© (2015, 2012, 2008) by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
12-4
The Development of Survey
Research
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
1817 International Survey of Education Systems
1890 Stanley Hall survey of children
1907 The Pittsburgh Survey examined social problems
WWI and WWII sampling techniques improved
Wide applications in social sciences-marketing research,
public opinion research, journalism
Universities established social science research centers
Private organizations such as Gallup, Rand Corporation,
and Roper formed
Internet-based surveys widely used
Creswell, Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating
Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 5th Ed.
© (2015, 2012, 2008) by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
12-5
The Types of Survey Designs
Time of Data Collection
Study at One
Point in Time
Study Over Time
Longitudinal
Cross-sectional
Changes
Changes
in a
Trends in
in the
the same subpopulation
same
group
identified
population
people
over time by a common over time
characteristic
over time
Trend
Attitudes
and
Practices
Group
Comparisons
Panel
Cohort
Creswell, Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating
Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 5th Ed.
© (2015, 2012, 2008) by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Community Program
Needs
Evaluation
12-6
National
Survey
Key Characteristics of Survey
Research
?
?
?
?
Sampling from a population
Collecting data through questionnaires
or interviews
Designing instruments for data
collection
Obtaining a high response rate
Creswell, Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating
Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 5th Ed.
© (2015, 2012, 2008) by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
12-7
Population, Target Population,
Sampling Frame, and Sample
The Population
The group of individuals having one characteristic
that distinguishes them from other groups.
The Target Population or Sampling Frame
The actual list of sampling units from which the
sample is selected.
The Sample
The group of participants in a study selected
from the target population from which the
researcher generalizes to the target population.
Creswell, Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating
Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 5th Ed.
© (2015, 2012, 2008) by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
12-8
Reducing Error in Survey
Research
?
?
?
?
Reducing coverage error: Have a good
sampling frame list on which to select
individuals
Reducing sampling error: Select as large a
sample from the population as possible
Reducing measurement error: Use a good
instrument with clear, unambiguous questions
and response options
Reducing nonresponse error: Use rigorous
administration procedures to achieve as large
a return rate as possible
Creswell, Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating
Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 5th Ed.
© (2015, 2012, 2008) by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
12-9
Forms of Data Collection Based on
Who Completes or Records the Data
Who completes or records the data?
Participant
Mailed
Questionnaire
Electronic
Questionnaire
Researcher
To a
One
Over
Group Telephone
on
one
One
Individual Focus Group Telephone
Interview Interview
Interview
Creswell, Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating
Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 5th Ed.
© (2015, 2012, 2008) by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
12-10
Steps in Designing an
Instrument
?
?
?
Write different types of questions
Use strategies to construct good
questions
Perform a pilot test of the questions
Creswell, Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating
Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 5th Ed.
© (2015, 2012, 2008) by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
12-11
Aspects of Survey Instrument
Design: Types of Questions
?
?
?
?
?
?
Personal
Attitudinal
Behavioral
Sensitive
Closed-ended
Open-ended
Creswell, Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating
Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 5th Ed.
© (2015, 2012, 2008) by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
12-12
Question Construction Problems
?
?
?
?
?
?
Question is unclear because of vague
words
Two or more questions in one
Question is wordy
Question contains negatives
Question contains jargon
Overlapping response options
Creswell, Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating
Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 5th Ed.
© (2015, 2012, 2008) by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
12-13
Question Construction Problems
(cont’d)
?
?
?
?
Unbalanced response options
Mismatch between questions and
response options
Respondent does not have
understanding to answer the question
Not all respondents can answer the
question—need branching
Creswell, Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating
Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 5th Ed.
© (2015, 2012, 2008) by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
12-14
Pilot Testing
?
?
?
?
Test on a small number of individuals in
the sample
Ask for written feedback on the
questions
Revise the survey based on the written
comments
Exclude the pilot participants from the
final sample for the study
Creswell, Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating
Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 5th Ed.
© (2015, 2012, 2008) by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
12-15
Strategies to Improve
Response Rates
?
?
?
?
?
Prenotify participants
Use follow-up procedures
Study a problem interesting to the
population under study
Use a brief instrument
Consider the use of incentives
Creswell, Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating
Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 5th Ed.
© (2015, 2012, 2008) by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
12-16
Three-Phase Survey
Administration Procedure
Step 1:
First Mailing
of Survey
2 Weeks
Step 2:
Second Mailing
of Survey
2 Weeks
Start
Time
Creswell, Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating
Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 5th Ed.
© (2015, 2012, 2008) by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
12-17
Step 3:
Postcard
Mailing
2 Weeks
6 Weeks
Response Bias
?
The responses do not accurately reflect
the views of the sample and the
population.
?
?
?
Overly positive or negative
Assess response bias, particularly when
response rates remain low
Wave analysis
Creswell, Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating
Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 5th Ed.
© (2015, 2012, 2008) by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
12-18
Construct and Analyze a
Mailed Questionnaire
?
?
?
Write a cover letter to invite the
participants to complete the questionnaire
Form and construct the questionnaire
Identify what statistical procedures will be
used to analyze data from the mailed
questionnaire
Creswell, Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating
Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 5th Ed.
© (2015, 2012, 2008) by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
12-19
Planning and Designing an
Interview Survey
?
?
?
?
The interviewer should maintain a neutral
stance during the interview
Train the interviewers prior to the interview
Take good notes of responses or use an
audio recorder
For telephone interviews, develop a telephone
interview guide prior to the interview
Creswell, Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating
Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 5th Ed.
© (2015, 2012, 2008) by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
12-20
Potential Ethical Issues in
Survey Research
?
?
?
?
?
Overstating the benefits of participating in the
study
Placing interviewers or participants in unsafe
situations
Protecting confidentiality of survey responses
Disclosing identity of individuals through data
analysis of a subset
Not destroying instruments at the conclusion
of the study
Creswell, Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating
Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 5th Ed.
© (2015, 2012, 2008) by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
12-21
Steps in Conducting
Survey Research
1. Decide if a survey is the best design
to use
2. Identify the research questions or
hypotheses
3. Identify the population, the sampling
frame, and the sample
4. Determine the survey design and
data collection procedures
Creswell, Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating
Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 5th Ed.
© (2015, 2012, 2008) by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
12-22
Steps in Conducting
Survey Research (cont’d)
5. Develop or locate an instrument
6. Administer the instrument
7. Analyze the data to address the
research questions or hypotheses
8. Write the report
Creswell, Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating
Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 5th Ed.
© (2015, 2012, 2008) by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
12-23
Evaluating Survey Research
?
?
?
?
?
Describes the target population
Identifies and uses a systematic approach
to identifying the sample
Identifies the size of the sample and
means for identifying the sample size
Identifies the type of survey used
Mention survey instrument for data
collection
Creswell, Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating
Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 5th Ed.
© (2015, 2012, 2008) by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
12-24
Evaluating Survey Research
(cont’d)
?
?
?
?
Reports the reliability and validity of past
scores on the instrument
Discusses procedures for administering the
instrument
Administration procedures provide a
discussion about the follow-up procedures
to ensure a high return rate
Provides a systematic procedure for
analyzing the survey data
Creswell, Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating
Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 5th Ed.
© (2015, 2012, 2008) by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
12-25
Chapter 11: Correlational
Designs
Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating
Quantitative and Qualitative Research
Edition 5
John W. Creswell
© (2015, 2012, 2008) by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
By the end of this chapter,
you should be able to:
?
?
?
?
?
?
Define correlation research, and describe when to
use it, and how it developed
Identify the two types of correlational designs
Describe the key characteristics of correlational
designs
Identify potential ethical issues in conducting
correlational research
Identify steps in conducting a correlational study
List the criteria for evaluating a correlational study
Creswell, Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating
Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 5th Ed.
© (2015, 2012, 2008) by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
11-2
What Is Correlational Research?
?
?
In correlational research designs,
investigators use the correlation
statistical test to describe and measure
the degree of association (or
relationship) between two or more
variables or sets of scores
Product-moment correlation
coefficient: statistic that expresses
linear relationships
Creswell, Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating
Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 5th Ed.
© (2015, 2012, 2008) by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
11-3
When to Use Correlational
Designs
?
?
To examine the relationship between
two or more variables
To predict an outcome:
?
?
Look at how the variables co-vary together
Use one variable to predict the score on
another variable
Creswell, Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating
Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 5th Ed.
© (2015, 2012, 2008) by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
11-4
The Development of
Correlational Research
?
?
?
?
?
1895 Pearson develops correlation formula.
1897 Yule develops solutions for correlating two, three,
and four variables.
1935 Fisher pioneered significance testing and analysis
of variance.
1963 Campbell and Stanley write about experimental and
quasi-experimental designs (including correlational
designs).
1970s and 1980s computers give the ability to statistically
control variables and do multiple regression.
Creswell, Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating
Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 5th Ed.
© (2015, 2012, 2008) by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
11-5
Types of Correlational
Designs
?
?
The explanatory design
The prediction design
Creswell, Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating
Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 5th Ed.
© (2015, 2012, 2008) by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
11-6
The Explanatory Design
?
?
?
?
?
?
Correlate two or more variables
Collect data at one point in time
Analyze all participants as a single group
Obtain at least two scores for each individual
in the group—one for each variable
Report the correlation statistic (or advanced
form)
Interpretation based on statistical test results
indicate that the changes in one variable are
reflected in changes in the other
Creswell, Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating
Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 5th Ed.
© (2015, 2012, 2008) by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
11-7
The Prediction Designs
?
?
?
?
?
Predictor variable: A variable that is used to
make a forecast about an outcome in the
correlational study
Criterion variable: The outcome being
predicted
“Prediction” usually used in the title
Predictor variable(s) usually measured at one
point in time; the criterion variable measured
at a later point in time
Purpose is to forecast future performance
Creswell, Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating
Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 5th Ed.
© (2015, 2012, 2008) by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
11-8
Characteristics of
Correlational Designs
?
?
?
Displays of scores (scatterplots and
matrices)
Associations between scores (direction,
form, and strength)
Multiple variable analysis (partial
correlations and multiple regression)
Creswell, Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating
Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 5th Ed.
© (2015, 2012, 2008) by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
11-9
Displays of Scores in a
Scatterplot
Depression scores
Hours of
Internet
use
per week
Depression
(scores from 15–
45)
Laura
17
30
Chad
13
41
Patricia
5
18
Bill
9
20
Rosa
5
25
Todd
15
44
Angela
7
20
Jose
6
30
Maxine
2
17
Jamal
18
48
Mean Score
9.7
29.3
Educational Research: Planning, Conducting,
and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative
Research, 5e – Creswell
ISBN: 0132755912
Y=D.V.
50

40
30
20
+
10
M
5
11-10
+
M

10 15 20
Hours of Internet Use
X=I.V.
© 2015, 2012, 2008 Pearson
Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Displays of Scores in a
Correlation Matrix
1
1. School satisfaction
2

.24
-.03
4. Self-esteem
-.15
.
5. Pride in school
-.09
-.02
6. Self-awareness
*p < .05 **p < .01 © (2015, 2012, 2008) by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 65** .29** -.02 Creswell, Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 5th Ed. 4 5 6 - 2. Extra-curricular activities 33** 3. Friendship 3 11-11 .24* - .49* .16 - .39** .03 .22 - Associations Between Two Scores ? ? ? Direction (positive or negative) Form (linear or nonlinear) Degree and strength (size of coefficient) ? ? From -1.0 to +1.0 0 indicates no correlation Creswell, Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 5th Ed. © (2015, 2012, 2008) by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 11-12 Association Between Two Scores: Linear and Nonlinear Patterns A. Positive Linear (r = +.75) B. Negative Linear (r = -.68) C. No Correlation (r = .00) Creswell, Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 5th Ed. © (2015, 2012, 2008) by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 11-13 Linear and Nonlinear Patterns D. Curvilinear E. Curvilinear F. Curvilinear Creswell, Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 5th Ed. © (2015, 2012, 2008) by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 11-14 Nonlinear Associations Statistics ? ? ? Spearman rho (rs): Correlation coefficient for nonlinear ordinal data Point-biserial correlation: Used to correlate continuous data with a dichotomous variable Phi-coefficient: Used to determine the degree of association when both variable measures are dichotomous Creswell, Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 5th Ed. © (2015, 2012, 2008) by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 11-15 Association Between Two Scores: Degree and Strength of Association ? ? ? ? .20–.35: When correlations range from .20 to .35, there is only a slight relationship. .35–.65: When correlations are above .35, they are useful for limited prediction. .66–.85: When correlations fall into this range, good prediction can result from one variable to the other. Coefficients in this range would be considered very good. .86 and above: Correlations in this range are typically achieved for studies of construct validity or test-retest reliability. Creswell, Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 5th Ed. © (2015, 2012, 2008) by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 11-16 Multiple Variable Analysis: Partial Correlations R = .50 r squared=(.50)2 Time on Task Independent Variable Dependent Variable Achievement Time-on-Task Achievement Motivation r squared = (.35)2 Motivation Partial Correlations: Use to determine extent to which a mediating variable influences both independent a ... Purchase answer to see full attachment

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