Discussion 5

After reading the chapters, compare and contrast the content or values of two learning objectives for motivation. When choosing your two learning objectives for your assignment, one should be an area where you had the least prior-knowledge; the second should be where you believe to be the most valuable in your future career. Do not use the same item for both of your choices! 1. An understanding of the role that motivation plays in achieving organizational objectives 2. The role of and importance of trust for managers in motivating employees 3. The scientific management approach to motivation 4. The equity approach of motivation 5. The hierarchy of needs 6. The achievement-power-affiliation approach to motivation 7. The motivation-maintenance approach to motivation 8. The expectancy approach to motivation 9. The reinforcement approach to motivation 10. Achieving a positive level of organizational morale – add how one would achieve this objective Required:1. Provide an initial posting of 225 to 300 words. 2. Use formal writing. 3. Consider content relating to management concepts.
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CHAPTER 9
Human Resource Management
Getting the Right People for
Managerial Success
©McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Authorized only for instructor use in the classroom. No reproduction or further distribution permitted without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
Major Questions You Should Be Able to Answer
(1 of 2)
9.1 How do effective managers view the role of people
in their organization’s success?
9.2 How can I reduce mistakes in hiring and find great
people who might work for me?
9.3 What are the various forms of compensation?
9.4 Once people are hired, what’s the best way to see
that they do what they’re supposed to do?
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Major Questions You Should Be Able to Answer
(2 of 2)
9.5 How can I assess employees’ performance more
accurately and give more effective feedback?
9.6 What are some guidelines for handling promotions,
transfers, disciplining, and dismissals?
9.7 To avoid exposure to legal liabilities, what areas of
the law do I need to be aware of?
9.8 What are the principal processes and issues
involved in organizing labor unions?
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Human Resource Management (1 of 2)
• Human resource management (HRM)
– Consists of the activities managers perform to plan for,
attract, develop, and retain an effective workforce
• Human capital
– The economic or productive potential of employee
knowledge, experience, and actions
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Human Resource Management (2 of 2)
• Knowledge worker
– Someone whose occupation is principally concerned with
generating or interpreting information, as opposed to a
manual laborer
• Social capital
– The economic or productive potential of strong, trusting,
and cooperative relationships
©McGraw-Hill Education.
The Strategic HRM Process
Strategic human resource
planning consists of
developing a systematic,
comprehensive strategy for:
Figure 9.1
– Understanding current
employee needs and
– Predicting future employee
needs
Jump to Appendix 1 for description
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Understanding Current Employee Needs
• Job analysis
– Determining the basic elements of a job by observation
and analysis
• Job description
– Summarizes what the holder of the job does and how and
why he or she does it
• Job specification
– Describes the minimum qualifications a person must have
to perform a job successfully
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Question
Joe, a human resources specialist for Jersey Office
Supplies Co., rides along with the furniture delivery
people to observe the problems they were
encountering and what activities they were required to
perform. Joe was performing a
A. personality test.
B. performance appraisal.
C. BARS.
D. job analysis.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Predicting Future Employee Needs
• Predicting future needs
– Become knowledgeable about the staffing the organization
might need
– Know the likely sources for staffing
• Human resource inventory
– A report listing your organization’s employees by name,
education, training, languages, and other important
information
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Copyright dennizn/Shutterstock RF
Recruitment and Selection
• Recruitment
– Process of locating and attracting qualified applicants for
jobs open in the organization
– “5% of your workforce produces 26% of your output”
– Internal – hiring from the inside
– External – from the outside
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Internal and External Recruiting:
Advantages and Disadvantages
Table 9.1
INTERNAL RECRUITING
ADVANTAGES
DISADVANTAGES
1.Employees tend to be inspired to greater
effort and loyalty. Morale is enhanced
because they realize that working hard and
staying put can result in more opportunities.
1.Internal recruitment restricts the
competition for positions and limits the pool
of fresh talent and fresh viewpoints.
2.The whole process of advertising,
interviewing, and so on is cheaper.
2.It may encourage employees to assume
that longevity and seniority will
automatically result in promotion.
3.There are fewer risks. Internal candidates
are already known and are familiar with the
organization.
3.Whenever a job is filled, it creates a
vacancy elsewhere in the organization.
EXTERNAL RECRUITING
ADVANTAGES
1.Applicants may have specialized
knowledge and experience.
2.Applicants may have fresh viewpoints.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
DISADVANTAGES
1.The recruitment process is more expensive
and takes longer.
2.The risks are higher because the persons
hired are less well known.
Which External Recruiting Methods Work Best?
• Most effective sources
– Employee referrals
– E-recruitment tools (member directories, social media
such as LinkedIn, “dot-jobs” websites)
• Realistic job preview
– Gives a candidate a picture of both the positive and
negative features of the job and the organization before
joining a firm
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Question
Melanie scheduled a special interview with Gina before
Gina was hired, in which Melanie painted a picture of
both the positive and negative features of the job. Mel
was performing a(n)
A. structured interview.
B. unstructured interview.
C. performance appraisal.
D. realistic job preview.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Selection: How to Choose the Best Person for the Job
• Selection process
– Screening of job applicants to hire the best candidate
– Involves three components
1. Background information
2. Interviewing
3. Employment tests
Many jobs, such as those in warehousing and trucking,
require that job applicants take a drug test.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Copyright Cultura/Getty Images RF
Interviewing: Unstructured
• Unstructured interview
– No fixed set of questions and no systematic scoring
procedure
– Involves asking probing questions to find out what the
applicant is like
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Interviewing: Structured
• Structured interview
– Asking each applicant the same questions and comparing
their responses to a standardized set of answers
• Type 1: Situational interview
– Focuses on hypothetical situations
• Type 2: Behavioral interview
– Explore what applicants have actually done in the past
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Employment Tests (1 of 2)
• Ability tests
– Measure physical abilities, strength and stamina,
mechanical ability, mental abilities, and clerical abilities
• Performance tests
– Also known as skills tests, measure performance on actual
job tasks—so-called job tryouts
– May take place in an assessment center
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Employment Tests (2 of 2)
• Personality tests
– Measure such personality traits as adjustment, energy,
sociability, independence, and need for achievement
– May include career-assessment tests
• Integrity tests
– Assess attitudes and experiences related to a person’s
honesty, dependability, trustworthiness, reliability, and
prosocial behavior
• Other tests
– Drug testing, polygraph, genetic screening
©McGraw-Hill Education.
How Hiring Is Being Changed
• Talent analytics
– Engineers, statisticians, and computer scientists have
begun applying analytics and robotics to HR.
– Automated recruiters canvass the Web for ideal
employees, based on a specific algorithm.
– Other companies have robots scanning résumés for the
“right” key words.
– A study shows that workers picked by an algorithm stayed
in the job 8% longer and were more productive overall
than ones picked by a hiring manager.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Compensation and Benefits
• Compensation
– Wages or salaries, incentives, and benefits
• Base pay
– Basic wage or salary paid employees in exchange for doing their jobs
• Incentives
– Commissions, bonuses, profit-sharing plans, and stock options
• Benefits
– Health insurance, dental insurance, life insurance, disability
protection, retirement plans, holidays off, vacation days, recreation
options, health club memberships, family leave, discounts
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Benefits: No Small Cost
Benefits are no small part of
an organization’s costs.
– In December 2015, private
industry spent an average of
$31.70 per hour worked in
employment compensation,
of which wages and salaries
accounted for 68.7% and
benefits for the remaining
31.3%.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Copyright Comstock Images RF
Orientation, Training, and Development (1 of 3)
• Onboarding
– Programs that help
employees to
integrate and
transition to new jobs
– Familiarize new
employees with
corporate policies,
procedures, cultures,
and politics
– Clarify work-role
expectations and
responsibilities
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Copyright ColorBlind Images/Blend Images RF
Orientation, Training, and Development (2 of 3)
• Orientation
– Helping the newcomer fit smoothly into the job and the
organization
– Designed to give employees the information they need to
be successful
– Following orientation, the employee should emerge with
information about:
• The job routine
• The organization’s mission and operations
• The organization’s work rules and employee benefits
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Five Steps in the Training Process
Figure 9.2
Jump to Appendix 2 for
description
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Types of Training and Development
• On-the-job training
– Coaching, training positions, job rotation, and planned
work activities
• Off-the-job training
– Classroom programs, workbooks, videos, and games and
simulations
• Microlearning
– Segments learning into bite-size content, enabling a
student to master one piece of learning before advancing
to anything else
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Copyright Rawpixel.com/Shutterstock RF
Example: Technology-Enhanced Learning—
Getting Ahead Through Microlearning
Millions of people are taking short-term, practical courses
related to their careers.
• Advantages
– No transportation is needed
– Follow a flexible schedule
– Work at your own pace
• Disadvantages
– Not useful when people need to acquire complex skills, processes, or
behaviors
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Performance Appraisal (1 of 4)
• Performance management
– Set of processes and managerial behaviors that involve defining,
monitoring, measuring, evaluating, and providing consequences for
performance expectations
Jump to Appendix 3 for
description
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Performance Appraisal (2 of 4)
• Performance appraisal
– Also called a performance
review
– Consists of
• Assessing an employee’s
performance
• Providing feedback
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Copyright Asia Images Group/Getty Images RF
Performance Appraisal (3 of 4)
• Objective appraisal
– Based on fact and often numerical.
– Measures results
– Harder to challenge legally: reduced personal bias
– “Management by objectives” or MBO
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Copyright stevecoleimages/Getty Images RF
Performance Appraisal (4 of 4)
• Subjective appraisal
– Based on a manager’s perceptions of an employees traits
and behaviors
– Easy to create and use, but validity is questionable
– One type is behaviorally anchored rating scale (BARS)
• Rates employee gradations in performance according to scales of
specific behaviors
• For example:
Frequently
late and
unprepared
©McGraw-Hill Education.
2
3
4
Always early
and ready
for work
Question
Luann is conducting a performance appraisal on Bill.
The form her company uses asks her to list the
objectives that she and Bill agreed to last year, and
indicate how well he met each objective. Luann’s
company is using a(n) ________ system of performance
appraisal.
A. objective
B. BARS
C. trait
D. informal
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Who Should Make Performance Appraisals?
Peers and subordinates?
Customers and clients?
Self-Appraisal?
Managers?
YOUR PERFORMANCE
Example: 360-degree assessment
– Employees are appraised not only by their managerial superiors but also by
peers, subordinates, and sometimes clients
– Typically, an employee chooses evaluators (6 to 12 people) who fill out
anonymous forms, the results of which are tabulated by computer
– Employee goes over results with his or her manager and together they put
into place a long-term plan for performance goals
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Forced Ranking: Grading on a Curve
• Forced ranking
– All employees within a business unit ranked against one
another and grades are distributed along a bell curve
– Top performers rewarded with bonuses and promotions
– The worst performers given warnings or dismissed
– Rapidly losing favor; force ranking of about 27% (down
from 44% in 2013) of Fortune 1000 companies
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Effective Performance Feedback
To help increase performance, managers should offer:
1. Formal appraisals
–
Conducted at specific times throughout the year and
based on performance measures that have been
established in advance, and
2. Informal appraisals
– Conducted on an unscheduled basis and consists of less
rigorous indications of employee performance
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Promotions, Transfers, Discipline,
and Dismissals
• Promotion: moving upward in fair ways
• Transfer: moving sideways with similar responsibilities
• Discipline and demotion: the threat of moving downward
• Dismissal: moving out of the organization through layoffs,
downsizing, and firings
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Exit Interview and Nondisparagement Agreement
• Exit interview
– A formal conversation to find out why an employee is leaving and to
learn about potential problems in the organization
• Nondisparagement agreement
– Contract that prohibits one party from criticizing the other
– Often used in severance agreements to prohibit former employees
from criticizing their former employers
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Copyright Vgstockstudio/Shutterstock RF
Legal Requirements of HRM: Labor Relations
YEAR
LAW OR REGULATION
PROVISIONS
Labor Relations
1974
Privacy Act
Gives employees legal right to
examine letters of reference
concerning them
1986
Immigration Reform &
Control Act
Requires employers to verify the
eligibility for employment of all their
new hires (including U.S. citizens)
Sarbanes-Oxley Act
Prohibits employers from demoting
or firing employees who raise
accusations of fraud to a federal
agency
2003
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Legal: Compensation and Benefits
Compensation and Benefits
1974
Sets rules for managing pension plans;
Employee Retirement Income
provides federal insurance to cover
Security Act (ERISA)
bankrupt plans
Requires employers to provide 12 weeks
of unpaid leave for medical and family
reasons, including for childbirth, adoption,
or family emergency
1993
Family & Medical Leave Act
1996
Allows employees to switch health
insurance plans when changing jobs and
Health Insurance Portability &
receive new coverage regardless of
Accountability Act (HIPPA)
preexisting health conditions; prohibits
group plans from dropping ill employees
2007
Fair Minimum Wage Act
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Increased federal minimum wage to $7.25
per hour on July 24, 2009
Legal: Health and Safety
Health and Safety
1970
Occupational Safety &
Health Act (OSHA)
Establishes minimum health and
safety standards in organizations
1985
Consolidated Omnibus
Budget Reconciliation Act
(COBRA)
Requires an extension of health
insurance benefits after
termination
2010
Patient Protection &
Affordable Care Act
Employers with more than 50
employees must provide health
insurance
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Legal: Equal Employment Opportunity
Equal Employment Opportunity
1963
Equal Pay Act
Requires men and women be paid
equally for performing equal work
1964, amended 1972
Civil Rights Act, Title VII
Prohibits discrimination on basis of race,
color, religion, national origin, or sex
1967, amended 1978
and 1986
Age Discrimination in
Employment Act (ADEA)
1990
Americans with Disabilities
Act (ADA)
1991
Civil Rights Act
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Prohibits discrimination in employees
over 40 years old; restricts mandatory
retirement
Prohibits discrimination against
essentially qualified employees with
physical or mental disabilities or chronic
illness; requires “reasonable
accommodation” be provided so they
can perform duties
Amends and clarifies Title VII, ADA, and
other laws; permits suits against
employers for punitive damages in cases
of intentional discrimination
Workplace Discrimination
• Discrimination
– People are hired or promoted—or denied hiring or
promotion—for reasons not relevant to the job.
• Adverse impact
– An organization uses an employment practice or
procedure that results in unfavorable outcomes to a
protected class.
• Disparate treatment
– Employees from protected groups are intentionally treated
differently.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Affirmative Action
• Affirmative action
– Steps include
• Active recruitment from groups traditionally discriminated against
• Elimination of prejudicial questions in interviews
• Establishment of minority hiring goals
– Importantly, EEO laws do not allow use of hiring quotas
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Sexual Harassment
• Sexual harassment
– Consists of unwanted sexual attention that creates an
adverse work environment
– Violates Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act
– Two types
• Quid pro quo: jeopardizes being hired or obtaining job benefits or
opportunities unless he or she implicitly or explicitly acquiesces
• Hostile environment: doesn’t risk economic harm but experiences
an offensive or intimidating work environment
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Bullying
• Bullying
– Abusive physical, psychological,
verbal, or nonverbal behavior
that is threatening, humiliating,
or intimidating
– What can you do?
•
•
•
•
•
•
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Recognize the mistreatment
Get others on your side
Don’t strike back
Stay calm and confident
Avoid being alone with the bully
Document events and be truthful
Copyright Jetta Productions/The Image Bank/Getty Images
Question
Stan is constantly telling off-color jokes and using
profanity in front of his administrative assistant. This
could be considered a(n)
A. difficult atmosphere.
B. hostile work environment.
C. intimidating surroundings.
D. quid pro quo situation.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Labor-Management Issues
• National Labor Relations Board
– Enforces procedures whereby employees may vote for a union
and collective bargaining
• Collective bargaining
– Negotiations between management and employees about
disputes over compensation, benefits, working conditions, and
job security

• Labor unions
– Organizations of employees formed to protect and advance
their members’ interests by bargaining with management over
job-related issues
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Who’s In a Union?
Who’s In a Union (2015)?
11.1% of full-time U.S. workers —down from 35.5% in 1945
6.7% of private-sector workers (7.6 million)
Most members, private sector: utilities (21.4%), transportation and warehousing
(18.9%), educational services (13.7%), telecommunications (13.3%), and
construction (13.2%)
35.2% of public-sector workers (7.2 million)
Most members, public sector: local government (41.3%), including teachers, police
officers, and firefighters
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Four Kinds of Workplace Labor Agreements
WORKPLACE
DEFINITION
STATUS
Closed shop
Employer may hire only
workers for a job who are
already in the union
Illegal
Union shop
Workers aren’t required to Not allowed in 22 states
be union members when
(right-to-work states)
hired for a job but must
join the union within a
specified time
Agency shop
Workers must pay
equivalent of union dues,
but aren’t required to join
the union
Applies to public-sector
teachers in some states,
prohibited in others
Open shop
Workers may choose to
join or not join a union
Applies in 22 sta …
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