Discussion

You should response to two questions below. A response of 150 words or more is requested for one of the chosen questions, and a response of 75 words or more is requested for the other question. On a seperate page please write an additional 50-100 words that I can use for classmate responses as if a complete new post on eachAll writing should be formtted in APA 6th Edition using any 2 outside sources including but not limited to Creswell, J. (2015). Educational research: Planning,
conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research. (5th ed.). Boston, MA: PearsonPrompt 1Researchers need to be sensitive to labels. Suppose you are studying children with learning disabilities, such as fourth-grade students in Wakefield Elementary School. Write a sentence that captures how you would refer to these children in a way that is sensitive to labels. Complete this sentence. “Participants in this study are . . . .” Then consider what you would do from a Christian perspective if your own special needs child was selected to be part of this study.Prompt 2A group of university researchers are conducting a study about the effectiveness of lunchroom vegetables for addressing childhood obesity. The vegetables are grown at the school and prepared by the school chefs for the lunches. Fourth graders are involved in this experiment, and the two classes of fourth graders are assigned to one of two groups. The control group receives a standard portion of vegetables every day for school lunches. The experimental group receives a double portion of vegetables at the lunches. At the beginning of the study and at the end, the children are weighed. A parent of a child in the control group calls, complaining about the small amount of vegetables her child has received for lunch at school. Hearing about the study at the parent-teacher meeting, this parent wants you to explain why her child was not assigned to the group to get more vegetables each day. How would you justify random assignment? What suggestions would you make to this parent about how you plan to give the student more vegetables?
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Chapter 10: Experimental
Designs
Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating
Quantitative and Qualitative Research
Edition 5
John W. Creswell
© (2015, 2012, 2008) by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
By the end of this chapter,
you should be able to:
?
?
?
?
?
?
Define experimental research, and describe when to
use it, and how it developed
Identify the key characteristics of experiments
State the types of experimental designs
Recognize the potential ethical issues in
experimental research
Describe the steps in conducting an experiment
Evaluate the quality of an experiment
Creswell, Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating
Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 5th Ed.
© (2015, 2012, 2008) by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
10-2
Experimental Research
?
?
In an experiment, you test an idea (or practice or
procedure) to determine whether it influences an
outcome or dependent variable.
Experimental design process
? Determine if an experiment is the appropriate
research approach for your study
? Determine activities with which to “experiment”
? Assign individuals to experience the experiment (and
have some individuals experience something
different)
? Determine whether those who experienced the
activities (or practice or procedure) performed better
on some outcome than those who did not experience
the same thing
Creswell, Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating
Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 5th Ed.
© (2015, 2012, 2008) by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
10-3
When to Use Experimental
Procedures
?
?
Used to establish probable cause and effect
? Between independent and dependent variables
? Control for all variables that might influence the
outcome
Used when comparing two or more groups
Creswell, Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating
Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 5th Ed.
© (2015, 2012, 2008) by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
10-4
Causal Comparative
Research
?
Determines whether an association exists
between groups (independent variable) and
the outcome (dependent variable)
?
?
?
?
No experimental manipulation
Select two groups differing on variable of interest
Compare groups on one or more dependent
variables
Practical but cannot establish probably cause
and effect
Creswell, Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating
Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 5th Ed.
© (2015, 2012, 2008) by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
10-5
The Development of
Experiments
?
?
?
?
?
?
Psychological experiments (late 19th, early 20th
century)
Procedures for comparing groups (McCall, 1925)
Statistics for comparing groups (e.g., chi-square)
Identification of types of experimental designs
(Campbell and Stanley,1963)
Types of basic designs and threats (Cook and
Campbell, 1979)
Complicated experiments with many variables (since
1980)
Creswell, Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating
Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 5th Ed.
© (2015, 2012, 2008) by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
10-6
Characteristics of
Experimental Designs
?
?
?
?
?
?
Random assignment
Control over extraneous variables
Manipulation of the treatment conditions
Outcome measures
Group comparisons
Guard against threats to validity
Creswell, Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating
Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 5th Ed.
© (2015, 2012, 2008) by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
10-7
Random Assignment
?
?
?
Randomly assign individuals to
conditions or to groups
Random assignment equates groups
and distributes variability between or
among groups and conditions
Different from random selection which is
selection of participants at random
Creswell, Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating
Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 5th Ed.
© (2015, 2012, 2008) by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
10-8
Control Over Extraneous
Variables
?
?
?
Extraneous variables: Influences in participant selection,
procedures, statistics, or the design likely to affect the
outcome and provide an alternative explanation of
results than what was expected
Random assignment of participants before beginning
the experiment
Other control procedures:
? Pretests and posttests
? Covariates
? Matching participants
? Homogenous samples
? Blocking variables
Creswell, Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating
Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 5th Ed.
© (2015, 2012, 2008) by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
10-9
Pretests and Posttests
Intervention
Time 1
Time 2
Pretest
Posttest
Creswell, Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating
Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 5th Ed.
© (2015, 2012, 2008) by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
10-10
Controlling for Covariates
No Covariates
Independent
Variable
Dependent
Variable
Covariate Introduced
Independent
Variable:
Type of
Instruction
Dependent
Variable:
Rates of
Smoking
Covariate:
Parents Who
Smoke
Variance
Removed
Variance
Creswell, Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating
Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 5th Ed.
© (2015, 2012, 2008) by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
10-11
Matching Process Based on
Gender
John
Jim
James
Josh
Jackson
Jane
Johanna
Julie
Jean
Jeb
Experimental
Group
Control
Group
Creswell, Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating
Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 5th Ed.
© (2015, 2012, 2008) by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
10-12
Manipulation of the Treatment
Conditions
?
?
?
Identify a treatment variable
Identify the conditions or levels of the
treatment variable
Manipulate the treatment conditions
Creswell, Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating
Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 5th Ed.
© (2015, 2012, 2008) by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
10-13
The Experimental Manipulation of a
Treatment Group
Independent variables
Dependent variable
1. Age (cannot manipulate)
1. Frequency of
smoking
2. Gender (cannot manipulate)
3. Types of instruction
(can manipulate)
a. Lecture (control)
b. Lecture + hazard instruction
(comparison)
c. Lecture + hazard instruction +
slides of damaged lungs (experiment)
Creswell, Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating
Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 5th Ed.
© (2015, 2012, 2008) by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
10-14
Outcomes
?
?
?
Criterion or effect variable
Outcome variable
Measured on a continuous scale
Creswell, Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating
Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 5th Ed.
© (2015, 2012, 2008) by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
10-15
Group Comparisons in an
Experiment
Phase 1: Relationship Picture
Error Correction Treatment
Spelling Accuracy
Phase 2: Timeline Picture
Test 1
Test 2
Test 3
Class A: Regular Spelling Practice (control) 6 Weeks 6 Weeks 6 Weeks
Class B: Reduced Word List (comparison) 6 Weeks 6 Weeks 6 Weeks
Error Correction Treatment
Class C: Error Correction (experimental) 6 Weeks 6 Weeks 6 Weeks
* p < .05 Creswell, Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 5th Ed. © (2015, 2012, 2008) by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 10-16 Group Comparisons in an Experiment (cont’d) Phase 3: Statistical Comparisons Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Class A 0.3 Class B10.8 (3.6) 10.7 (3.3) 11.1 (3.3) (4.3) 10.6 (3.8) 10.3 (3.6) Class C F value 9.9 (3.9) 13.9 (4.2) 13.1 (3.8) 0.27 4.90* 3.31* *p < .05 * p < .05 Creswell, Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 5th Ed. © (2015, 2012, 2008) by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 10-17 Threats to Internal Validity Internal validity: The observed changes that took place are a result of your intervention or your program and are not the result of other causes. ? ? ? ? ? ? History Maturation Regression Selection Mortality Interactions with selection ? ? ? ? ? ? Diffusion of treatments Compensatory equalization Compensation rivalry Resentful demoralization Testing Instrumentation Creswell, Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 5th Ed. © (2015, 2012, 2008) by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 10-18 Threats to External Validity External validity: The degree to which the findings are generalizable to a population ? ? ? Interaction of selection and treatment Interaction of setting and treatment Interaction of history and treatment Creswell, Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 5th Ed. © (2015, 2012, 2008) by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 10-19 Types of Experiments: Between-Groups ? True experiments ? ? ? Quasi-experiments ? ? ? Pre- and posttest Posttest only Pre- and posttest Posttest only Factorial designs Creswell, Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 5th Ed. © (2015, 2012, 2008) by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 10-20 Factorial Designs ? ? ? Involve two or more categorical, independent variables, each examined at two or more levels Main effects: the influence of each independent variable on the outcome in an experiment Interaction effects: exist when the influence on one independent variable depends on the other independent variable in an experiment Creswell, Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 5th Ed. © (2015, 2012, 2008) by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 10-21 Factorial Design Example Type of Instruction Depression Low Medium High Health lecture Mean rate of smoking Mean rate of smoking Mean rate of smoking Standard lecture Mean rate of smoking Mean rate of smoking Mean rate of smoking Main Effects of Depression Creswell, Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 5th Ed. © (2015, 2012, 2008) by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 10-22 Main Effects of Type of Instruction Types of Experiments: Within-Group ? Time series experiments ? ? ? Interrupted time series Equivalent time series Repeated measures experiments ? Measure ? Treatment #1? Measure ? Treatment #2 ? Measure Creswell, Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 5th Ed. © (2015, 2012, 2008) by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 10-23 Single Subject Design Features ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Use within a planned intervention Intra-participant research Notation: A (baseline phase), B (behavior under intervention), C, etc. Target behavior: outcome Analysis focuses on whether behavior changed from target to intervention Data collection sheets: situational information, performance, summary of behavior Outcome: magnitude of effect of intervention on target Creswell, Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 5th Ed. © (2015, 2012, 2008) by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 10-24 Single Subject Designs ? ? ? A-B designs: observe and measure behavior during a trial period (A), administer an intervention, and observe and measure the behavior during the intervention (B) Multiple baseline design: series of stacked AB designs with varying baseline length Alternating treatment design: examine relative effects of two or more interventions Creswell, Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 5th Ed. © (2015, 2012, 2008) by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 10-25 Potential Ethical Issues in Experiments ? ? ? ? ? Withholding experimental treatment from individuals Whether random assignments are ethical Not concluding an experiment when it is necessary Whether the experiment will provide the best answer to a problem Whether stakes are high in conducting an experiment Creswell, Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 5th Ed. © (2015, 2012, 2008) by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 10-26 Steps in Conducting Experimental Research 1. Decide if an experimental design fits research problem 2. Form hypotheses to test cause-and-effect 3. Select experimental unit and identify study participants 4. Select an experimental treatment and introduce it Creswell, Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 5th Ed. © (2015, 2012, 2008) by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 10-27 Steps in Conducting Experimental Research (cont’d) 5. Choose a type of experimental design 6. Conduct the experiment 7. Organize and analyze the data 8. Develop an experimental research report Creswell, Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 5th Ed. © (2015, 2012, 2008) by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 10-28 Criteria for Evaluating Experimental Research ? ? ? ? ? ? The experiment has substantial intervention Participants gain from the intervention The researcher systematically selects and adequate number of participants The researcher uses valid, reliable, and sensitive measures The researcher controls for extraneous factors that might influence the outcome. The researcher addresses threats to internal and external validity Creswell, Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 5th Ed. © (2015, 2012, 2008) by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 10-29 Chapter 9: Reporting and Evaluating Research Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research Edition 5 John W. Creswell © (2015, 2012, 2008) by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved By the end of this chapter, you should be able to: ? ? ? ? Define the purpose of a research report and identify the types Identify how to structure your research report Identify good sensitive, ethical, and scholarly writing practices List criteria for evaluating a research report Creswell, Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 5th Ed. © (2015, 2012, 2008) by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 9-2 What Is a Research Report? A research report is a completed study that reports an investigation or exploration of a problem, identifies questions to be addressed, and includes data collected, analyzed, and interpreted by the researcher. Creswell, Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 5th Ed. © (2015, 2012, 2008) by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 9-3 The Audience for Your Report ? ? Audiences have different standards Audiences for research ? ? ? ? ? ? Faculty including advisors or committees Journal reviewers Policy makers Practicing educators Conference paper reviewers The researcher Creswell, Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 5th Ed. © (2015, 2012, 2008) by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 9-4 The Types of Research Reports ? ? ? ? ? ? Dissertations and theses Dissertation and thesis proposals Journal articles Conference papers Conference proposals Reports for policy makers or school leaders and personnel Creswell, Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 5th Ed. © (2015, 2012, 2008) by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 9-5 Identifying the Structure of Research Reports ? Examine: ? ? ? ? The levels of heading in a study The six steps in the research process The research questions or hypotheses and the answers The structures or different types of reports, qualitative and quantitative Creswell, Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 5th Ed. © (2015, 2012, 2008) by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 9-6 Structure of a Quantitative and Qualitative Proposal Quantitative Format Qualitative Format Title page Abstract Introduction Review of the literature Methods Timeline, budget, and preliminary chapter outline References Appendices Title page Abstract Introduction Procedure Preliminary findings Anticipated outcomes and tentative literature review (optional) Timeline, budget, and preliminary chapter outline References Appendices Creswell, Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 5th Ed. © (2015, 2012, 2008) by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 9-7 Variations in Structure of a Qualitative Study ? ? ? ? ? ? Scientific approach Storytelling approach Thematic approach Descriptive approach Theoretical approach Experimental, alternative, or performance approach Creswell, Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 5th Ed. © (2015, 2012, 2008) by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 9-8 How Do You Write Your Report in a Sensitive and Scholarly Way? ? Use language that reduces bias ? Describe individuals at an appropriate level of specificity ? Be sensitive to labels for individuals or groups ? Acknowledge participation of people in a study Creswell, Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 5th Ed. © (2015, 2012, 2008) by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 9-9 Writing in a Scholarly Way ? ? ? ? ? Encode scholarly terms Use standard quantitative and qualitative terms appropriately Balance research and content Interconnect sections and be consistent for the reader Advance a concise title Creswell, Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 5th Ed. © (2015, 2012, 2008) by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 9-10 Ethical Report and Writing Research ? ? ? ? ? ? Report honestly Share reports with others Refrain from duplicate and piecemeal publication of data Give credit for using someone else’s work Do not engage in research that represents a conflict of interest Give credit for authorship-negotiate early Creswell, Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 5th Ed. © (2015, 2012, 2008) by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 9-11 Evaluating the Quality of a Research Report ? ? ? ? ? Does it meet publication standards? Will it be useful in our school? Will it advance policy discussions? Will it add scholarly knowledge about a topic or research problem? Will it help address some pressing educational problem? Creswell, Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 5th Ed. © (2015, 2012, 2008) by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 9-12 Signs of a Poor Quantitative Research Study ? ? ? ? Validity and reliability of data-gathering procedures Inappropriate research design or problems in research design Limitations of study not stated Inappropriate sampling Creswell, Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 5th Ed. © (2015, ... Purchase answer to see full attachment

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