Discussion

Research ways that Information Systems have been misused. Using the Internet, find an example of an organization that has misused Information Systems. Post your response to the discussion board. Respond to the following questions and, if appropriate, include personal experience as part of your answers: • Write a brief summary (250 words or less) of the example you researched.• Identify the level of the organization where the misuse primarily occurred.• Explain how this impacted other levels of the organization.• Explain how your example highlights the importance of information at various levels of an organization.Or research the Internet for methods used by organizations to prevent misuse of information and write an essay (250 words or less) on your research.All cited material and references must be in APA format. Textbook:Kroenke, D. (2015). Using MIS 2014 [VitalSource Bookshelf version] (7th ed.). Retrieved from
https://online.vitalsource.com/#/books/97813232909…
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UNIT I STUDY GUIDE
The Importance of MIS
Course Learning Outcomes for Unit I
Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to:
1. Distinguish the key differences between data, information, information technology, and information
systems.
6. Discuss the key issues involved in managing the components of IT infrastructure.
Reading Assignment
Chapter 1:
The Importance of MIS
Unit Lesson
In this unit, we explore the importance of management information systems (MIS). The author of our textbook,
Kroenke (2014), stated that the reason it is important to understand MIS is due to a principle known as
Moore’s Law. Moore’s Law illustrates improvements in computing that result in minimal-cost data processing,
communications, and data storage. If you were to look up Moore’s Law in the dictionary, it would be defined
as “an axiom of microprocessor development usually holding that processing power doubles about every 18
months especially relative to cost or size” (Merriam-Webster’s, 2003). For example, we all know that pulp
wood trees are the input in the production of paper. Moore’s law implies that more and more content will be
stored digitally, and there will be less printed material produced. Consequently, the demand for paper will fall.
The farmer recognizes that the value of his trees will decline over time as there is less demand for paper, so
he decides to use his land to produce a product with a projected value. Some other examples include Kodak
shifting its business away from film cameras and film development to digital cameras and photo printers,
Google’s project of scanning and digitizing books, and Amazon and Sony’s development of electronic reader
devices.
Some other examples of the effect of Moore’s Law include the following:
?
?
?
?
?
1-click shopping: Rather than ask a customer to enter shipping and payment information with every
order, store this information and enable the customer to buy with only one click.
Amazon marketplace (sell goods and optionally have Amazon fulfill your orders): Utilize existing
storage and communication to take and fulfill orders for others and reap a small commission on each
sale.
Amazon web services (leasing computer infrastructure): Utilize existing storage and processing
infrastructure more fully by leasing extra capacity to other businesses.
Search inside the book: This feature stores more information about the book and enables a customer
to know more about it before purchasing. Access to digitized book content is essential for this
innovation.
Amazon Kindle: This device exploits the digitization of books. It provides the ability to store digitized
book content on the Kindle and the ability to transmit digitized books easily over the Internet.
This unit discussed some cost-effective business applications of Facebook and Twitter. These applications
did not exist ten years ago, but, in recent years, have moved to the forefront as a communication medium. In
turn, businesses recognized their potential and adopted the technology in order to gain a competitive
advantage. Employees that can assess and evaluate emerging technologies will be valuable to organizations
BBA 3551, Information Systems Management
1
that must adapt to new technology. Facebook and Twitter are examples of reasons why business
professionals should be able to recognize emerging technologies and find ways to apply them to business.
Business professionals should acquire job skills that are marketable (non-routine cognition) such as abstract
reasoning, systems thinking, collaboration, and the ability to experiment. Figure 1 is a chart from your
textbook that outlines these skill sets.
Figure 1. Examples of Critical Skills for Nonroutine Cognition
(Kroenke, 2015, p. 7)
Abstract reasoning is the ability to have flexible thinking skills, to be creative, use proper judgment, and to be
able to solve problems logically. In information systems, abstract reasoning is the ability to construct and use
a model or representation. Being able to construct a model or representation of a complex situation through
abstract reasoning is an important skill for business professionals who frequently must make decisions in
uncertain and highly complex situations. This is a highly marketable skill. Some examples include projects
plans, budgets, and business process models. For example, you would use a systems development model
before deploying or installing a system (Figure 2).
Figure 2. Systems Modeling
(Beekman & Beekman, 2009)
In the AllRoad scenario at the beginning of the chapter, Jennifer was unable to develop a model of the firm’s
supply chain. She developed a model that made no sense and had goods placed in inventory before they
were even ordered. She claimed that she knew the process but could not put it down on paper.
Systems thinking involves identifying and modeling the components of a system and connecting the inputs
and outputs among those components into a sensible whole, one that explains the phenomenon observed.
BBA 3551, Information Systems Management
2
This is an important skill because business people have to be able to identify and understand the
relationships among the elements involved in a complex situation. For example, suppose a database system
was taking too long to generate reports. You could then ask questions to help isolate the problem. Another
way to use systems thinking is to illustrate the concept using flows and charts.
In the AllRoad scenario, Jennifer was unable to understand and model the correct components and
relationships between components in the firm’s supply chain. Systems thinking skills can be developed with
practice. Applying existing models to different situations is a place to start, but actually creating the models,
critiquing the models, and examining their usefulness is even more essential to developing these skills.
Collaboration is the ability to work productively with others when developing ideas and plans. A good
collaboration results in a final work product that is superior to one that would be developed by a person
working alone. Collaboration is more than just dividing the work up between the group members and
assembling the individual contributions into a whole (a typical student approach to a group project
assignment). Good collaboration involves several iterations in which ideas are contributed, reviewed,
critiqued, and refined. All members contribute to the development and refinement of ideas.
In the AllRoad scenario, Jennifer failed to demonstrate effective collaboration skills because she was unwilling
to share her ideas and work-in-progress with others because she wanted to wait until she felt she was “done.”
She failed to seek out the benefit of having others review her ideas as they are developing and help her
improve upon them. Collaboration skills can be improved with practice. It may be hard for some people to
offer half-formed ideas to others and to subject themselves to criticism, but the benefits will help them
overcome this reluctance.
Ability to experiment involves creating and testing promising new alternatives, consistent with available
resources. In today’s demanding business environment, new ideas will be essential to success, and business
people have to overcome their fear of failure and pursue new approaches rationally. When someone says,
“that will never work,” he or she may be reflecting their own fear of failure. Unwilling to try a new way of doing
things may be an accurate assessment that the approach is unworkable, but it could also be an unwillingness
to work in a new way.
A company that is serious about innovation would not tolerate employees who are fearful of taking risks and
experimenting. Employees in such companies will be expected to do things they do not know how to do all the
time! A boss is likely to tell the employee that he or she was hired not for what they already know how to do,
but for the new things they can figure out how to do. It is that willingness to push into the unknown that is
valued. Employees who cannot tolerate this expectation will not stay employed at that company for long.
In the AllRoad scenario, Jennifer failed to demonstrate the ability to experiment because she was unable to
share new ideas with others. She was willing to do what she was told, but did not have the confidence to
discuss any new ideas she had with others in case the ideas did not work out. It is hard for some people to
change their innate willingness to take risks. The best way to overcome this is to work with a group that
accepts new ideas with enthusiasm and does not ridicule a member for suggesting a new approach. Once
some success is gained, it will be easier to take risks in the future.
The textbook defines job security as “a marketable skill and the courage to use it” (Kroenke, 2015, p. 7). The
textbook also argues that marketable skills are no longer specific task-related skills, but rather “strong
nonroutine cognitive skills” (Kroenke, 2014, p. 7). Unfortunately, the more traditional task-oriented skills you
learn (e.g., computer programming, accounting) will not provide you with job security. Technical skills are not
irrelevant to job security, but they are not sufficient to guarantee job security. This circumstance is very
different than in 1990, when technical skills probably were sufficient to get and keep a decent job.
An information system contains five important components: hardware, software, data, procedures, and
people.
Hardware: The hardware consists of a dozen or more computers linked together by telecommunications
hardware. Hand-held devices used as orders are picked, packed, and shipped are also included in the
hardware category.
BBA 3551, Information Systems Management
3
Software: The software consists of hundreds of different programs that coordinate communications among
the computers, and still other programs that communicate the orders to the warehouses and the shipping
companies.
Data: The system must store millions upon millions of characters of data about orders, customers, products,
shipments, and other facts.
Procedures: Hundreds of different procedures are followed by warehouse personnel, shipping companies,
and customers.
People: Including not only the people who use the system, but also those who operate and service the
computers, those who maintain the data, and those who support the networks of computers.
What is information? Information is made of data that has been processed in some way so as to provide
meaning and insight to the recipient of the data. Information can also be defined as data that is meaningful
within a context. For example, a transcript from a prospective employee is meaningful to an employer trying to
fill a position. The content of the transcript (courses taken, grades earned) has value in the hiring context. The
employer will view the transcript (data) and make judgments about the prospect as to how well he or she
fulfills the position requirements (information). Therefore, the transcript can help the employer produce
information as to the suitability and desirability of a candidate. In this case, the only thing that the prospective
employee controls is the content of the transcript—the input, or the data. By taking rigorous courses from
exceptional educational institutions and performing well in those courses, the prospective employee can
influence the information conceived by the employer in a favorable way.
References
Beekman, G., & Beekman, B. (2009). Tomorrow’s technology and you (9th ed.). Columbus, OH: Prentice Hall.
Kroenke, D. (2015). Using MIS 2014 (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Merriam-Webster’s collegiate dictionary (11th ed.). (2003). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.
Suggested Reading
Chapter 1 Presentation
Five Component Model
General Components of an Information System
Learning Activities (Non-Graded)
How Systems Can Help Your Business:

Course Flashcards:
http://media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/bp/bp_kroenke_umis_7/flashcards/index.html
From the Textbook:
Using MIS InClass 1, Information Systems and Online Dating, p. 14
Ethics Guide, Ethics and Professional Responsibility, pp. 20-21
Security Guide, Password and Password Etiquette, pp. 24-25
Guide, Five-Component Careers, pp. 26-27
Using Your Knowledge, pp. 29-30
Case Study 1, The Amazon Innovation, pp. 31-32
BBA 3551, Information Systems Management
4
Non-graded Learning Activities are provided to aid students in their course of study. You do not have to
submit them. If you have questions, contact your instructor for further guidance and information.
BBA 3551, Information Systems Management
5
Chapter 1
The Importance of MIS
This Could Happen to You: You’re Firing Me?
Jennifer lacks critical skills that AllRoad Parts
needs
1. Abstract reasoning skills.
2. Systems thinking skills.
3. Collaboration skills.
4. Experimentation skills.
Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
1-2
Study Questions
Q1: Why is Introduction to MIS the most important class in the business
school?
Q2: What is MIS?
Q3: How can you use the five-component model?
Q4: Why is the difference between information technology and
information systems important?
Q5: What is information?
Q6: What are necessary data characteristics?
Q7: 2024?
Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
1-3
Q1: Why Is Introduction to MIS the Most Important
Class in the Business School?
Moore’s Law
– “The number of transistors per square inch on an
integrated chip doubles every 18 months.”
Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
1-4
Computer Price/ Performance Ratio Historical Trend
Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
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Some Consequences
• YouTube
• Pintrest
• Facebook
• Woot
• Pandora
• Twitter
• LinkedIn
• Foursquare
None prominent in 2005, some didn’t exist in 2005
Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
1-6
What Are the Cost Effective Business Applications of
Facebook, Twitter, or Whatever Will Soon Appear?
• Are Facebook’s “Like” and Twitter’s “Follow” applications costeffective? Do they generate revenue worth the expense of
running them? What about cloud apps?
• Marketing people, not technical specialists, must answer these
questions.
Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
1-7
How Can I Attain Job Security?
“The only job security that exists, is a marketable skill
and the courage to use it.”
• Any routine skill can and will be outsourced to lowest
bidder.
• Message: Develop strong non-routine cognitive skills.
Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
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What Is a Marketable Skill?
Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
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How Can Intro to MIS Help You Learn Non-Routine
Skills?
• Abstract Reason
– Ability to make and manipulate models.
– Learn five components of an information system model.
– Chapter 5: How to create data models.
– Chapter 10: How to make process models.
Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
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How Can Intro to MIS Help You Learn Non-Routine
Skills? (cont’d)
• Systems Thinking
– Ability to model system components, connect inputs and
outputs among components to reflect structure and
dynamics of system observed.
• Discuss, illustrate, critique systems; compare alternative
systems; apply different systems to different situations.
Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
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How Can Intro to MIS Help You Learn Non-Routine
Skills? (cont’d)
• Collaboration
– Activity of two or more people working together to achieve
a common goal, result, or work product.
– Chapter 2 discusses collaboration skills and illustrates
several sample collaboration information systems.
Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
1-12
How Can Intro to MIS Help You Learn Non-Routine
Skills? (cont’d)
• Ability to Experiment
– Make reasoned analysis of an opportunity; developing and
evaluating possible solutions.
? “I’ve never done this before.”
? “I don’t know how to do it.”
? “But will it work?”
? “Is it too weird for the market?”
• Fear of failure paralyzes.
Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
1-13
Job Growth over the Past Twenty Years
Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
1-14
Bottom Line of MIS Course
Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
1-15
Q2: What Is MIS?
• Key elements
1. Management and use.
2. Information systems.
3. Strategies.
• Goal of MIS
? Managing IS to achieve business strategies.
Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
1-16
What Is MIS (cont’d)
Management
• The key is to develop, maintain, and adapt.
• To create an information system that meets your needs,
take an active role in the system’s development. Why?
– Business professionals understand business needs and
requirements.
Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
1-17
Components of an Information System?
Components interact to produce information
Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
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Development and Use of Information Systems
• Business professionals need to:
– Take active role to ensure systems meet their needs.
– Understand how IS is constructed.
– Consider users’ needs during development.
– Learn how to use the IS.
– Ancillary (security, backups).
Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
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Achieving Strategies
• Information systems exist to help people in a
business achieve the business’ strategies.
–
–
–
–
–
“What is the purpose of our Facebook page?”
“What is it going to do for us?”
“What is our policy for employees’ contributions?”
“What should we do about critical customer reviews?”
“Are the costs of maintaining the page sufficiently offset by
the benefits?”
Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
1-20
Q3: How Can You Use the Five-Component Model?
Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
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Characteristics of the Five Components
Most Important Component
? YOU!
– Quality of your thinking, your ability to conceive
information from data, determined by your cognitive skills.
– Information is value you add to information systems.
? All Components Must Work.
Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
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Characteristics of the Five Components (cont’d)
• High-Tech Versus Low-Tech Information Systems.
• Understanding the Scope of New Information Systems.
• Components Ordered by Difficulty and Disruption.
Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
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Why Is the Difference Between Information Technology and
Information Systems Important to You? (cont’d)
• Avoid a common mistake: Cannot buy an IS
– Can buy IT, rent, lease hardware, software and
databases, and predesigned procedures.
• Your people need to execute procedures to employ new IT.
• Use of new system requires training, overcoming
employees’ resistance, and managing employees as they
use new system.
Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
1-24
Using MIS InClass 1: Information Systems and Online
Dating (Group Exercise)
Basis
Theory of relationships: personality, compatibility, etc.
Political interests
Common social/economic interests
Common activity interests
Companies
• Chemistry
• eHarmony
• PerfectMatch
• Plenty of Fish
• ConservativeDates
• Liberalhearts
• GoodGenes
• MillionaireMatch
• Golfmates
• EquestrianCupid
• CowboyCowgirl
• Single Firefighters
• Asexual Pals
Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
1-25
Q4: Why Is the Difference Between IT and IS Important to
You?
• Information technology drives development of new
information systems.
• Information technology (IT)
1.
2.
3.
4.
Products
Methods
Inventions
Standards
? IT components = Hardware + Software + Data.
? IS = IT + Procedures + People.
Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
1-26
Q5: What Is Information?
Definitions vary
1. Knowledge derived …
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