Discussion Board

Read “Case 10: Politics of the Clinton Health Plan” on
page 287 of the course textbook and answer the following question: Where does
the Health Security proposal fall on Oliver’s framework for analysis of policy
design and political feasibility?•Each thread must be 300–500 words and demonstrate
course-related knowledge.•cite at least 2 current (not older than 5 yrs.)
peer-reviewed journal articles, •cite the textbook, •include at least 1 biblical integration, Follow current APAformat
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•
,-,..”ter 10: Tot Pohcv Anah-s1s Process l:.v~uino n of Pol inc~ F
290 I …._,.
c~, b1111-y
( 41,t I
lltiii•I (continued)
((wees \1th addtrionJl cow~ge) would
. h 1
mak<' up h l)nh tht' (t'~t l)I r e ea,1 e,pens1ve plan would be r;u t e dtfTt'ttnc, Jnioa.lh. thl' JJckson I lolc Group considered the deductible.' -•dt•Ol1' exerclt' but then Michael Wetn t proJ'orit T,111a 1 r·m•nJ~<'J .. .in1clr, th 1 wmpl'tmon and endorsed theJ .lCkon I lo((' r ~ menuon<'d .... ~rk t'n ,rs cd1tona.l page Th us, 1 hen ~'o« d t up s Irune 1h· ,, 11or won h 15 !oieml-a the idea had public leguiman, and 1as kno\TI c1(ct1on 111 • ·con!reS and congrcs~1onal srafTcrs as a pol ' ' mrrr l(r ''t • IC ro cha ncul.11" 1he idea attracted considerable tntcrc r mp,on In p.u ~r ,rom the although rh. c· H'n .Ct ti 1110"'_, t)f rhc Democratic Parry, c Onrrvat1c J l. Forum reJectrd rhe idea ot an employer mandate rmocr.111 Dunng rhe 1992 pres1denr1al primarv camp . a1gns. mJm• healch rtfonn proposa1s emergeri , includmg one b• Pa 1T <".Ur . , u songa1ha1c h d siud manage competmon Clmton, a ccncnsr h · mp a · Wit tics •o th sci'·,m·.- 11ni; o f his party, promoted a plav-o e con r-pav scrateb"t bu · · 111nntng the nomination began moving ro\ard 1 l alter a pan t 11.,1 comb -cl man.igt'd compwtton 11th regularon· reforms d d in, . , es1gnc to dmt Jo\n ro~t) He fonnall unveiled this planar a Septembcr 2.,, speech Jd11 ,r.:J Jt thr hcadquarters ot ~krck & Co., a maJor pharmaccuncal cornp.im (lllp n.·r.cnra~c (thcr 1mnJ.!h proposed 80 ) of thl cost of a pl ,-• . d b fi • an thir p ldrd a tiJ..<>ic ,er of StJndard11c enc t~. It emplo) ers or d
ro.
tn l1d ,L
l ,lntrd 10 purchJ.~C more comprchcns1e cmcragc. it would
U-.:.
corne
of rhcir po(kch TJ.X reform would ensure that this addmo n., Out
…, rnon ,
\,l.!, nM Ll CAempt
~
[nchocn and K.romck believed health care inflanon .
.
\as dnv'”
mo~th hi 1h1 tcc-for-srmce sp,tem, which pro1dcd no inc
entt’e for
prondcr~ Ill provtdc bcner hcakh outcomes ar lower costs. The'””‘
aho rnncrmcd al-oul rhc dll’Ct~ 0! n,k elcctton on health
· rt
_
.
111s urance
aflordal-ilm The, bchc, cd their plan would rncourage peoplc ro pur.
ch~.: t,.i~1c )cl\cr rnst plans appropnace to rhc1r bcl of acruanal ruk
and pnu:d ac,ordmgh Thev J.!so believed 1t would dnw people tOY.ard
managed care pla.m
Lnrl1l11m Jnd Paul EU11ood 1m1ted healrh pohcv• experts, gO·emment olfinah. .:u,J rdorm-minded C.ccumes from health care organiZJ.ttom and large.’ health msurmce companies ro a meeting 10 Jackson
Hole \ omm~ m Febru.iry 1990. The group ant1cipared rhar govemmenr I Ould pla1 a greater rok m regulanng health care unless somfone pur forn Jrd a successful markcr-oncmcd proposal. They sought to
reform 1hl’ ~~rem \hile min1m1zing go’cmment regulanon and usmg
manag.-d compcnt1on as a tarting point.
The group mer throughour 1990 and 1991 ro refine ideas and
seek consensus. Ellwood and health polt0 consultant Lrnn Erher1dge drafted four papers that coUecnwly amculatcd che Jackson Hole
proposal Much of the Enthovt!n- Kronick framework remained. An
indcpcndi:nt health board wou ld cernfy heakh insurance plans and
e~rabltsh the basic semces those plans \ ould cover Emplovers Muid
be requm:d to provide covcragt: 10 their full-ttmt! employees Tht
would also pay a bu~iness rax to fund cowrage for part-nme employw
The public-sponsor norion e•olved into something called health msur•
ance purchasing coopcranves (HIPCs)-regionaJ orgamzauons tha1
would conrracr 11th cenificd insurance plans to purchase coverage for
the employees ofbustncsscs wuh fewer than I 00 employees and for propie not covered through work or federal entirlemenr programs. HIPCs
would subs1d1ze coverage up to the cost of the least expensive plan
People who chose more expensive plans (or businesses that pro11ded
DEVELOPING THE CLINTON PROPOSAL
Chnron rook office in January 1993, and for about thr first 8 IT'”nths
h1s adm111mratton focused pnmanlv, on d””clop
L.
~mg a budgr1 tn.tt
might grow the economy and reduce the defim; ho11 c,rr, h, Jid in w
Jdl.r early on his promise to reform health care· •••
J.
h
” ‘ th111 u.i
:,N •,
wmg office, Ira Magaziner, an old family fnend and bu, Ol\ ,l’n5Ul•
I.lilt, complered a work plan fo r an mreragencv health carr task fom·
ih.tt would O·crsee working groups charged \1th condum n~ .maJ,.
scs related to topics such as fi nancmg, cconomte 1mpa,rs. c ~ ~,h~
cos~. and delivenng preventive care. Acnng on Maganncr’ framl.’1 rk
Chnron established the President’s Task 1:-orce on Health Cau Rtfonn,
m~de up mostly of cabinet members. Magazmer would cc-…1rd111a1, t’it’
eflorr bur rhe chair would be the First Lad Hillan Rtidham Clinton
A ballooning number of working grou-~s set about defining ch,ir
respecCte• pieces
·
of the elephant. Parttopants, m,,rh e,,·cumt agtnC
cmploiecs, numbered more than 500. As the)’ 1d.:nttfird rr,•frm•d r<-1h,; opuons they then rook them to rhe cask force leadm for a prNr.1,ttd 291 • p u AnaJys15 Procrs, Evaluation of Pol1t1,al Fcasibilnv 292 I Chapter 10: Thr o " . ifJjr,1 (contmued) somenmcs da~·s-lon»~ vetting process . called "tollgates.'' The cask fiorce ro solicn input trom stakeholder groups. also he Id heJnn gs The r.1Sk fore._,·~imnal mcrnngs were not open to the public or the pre~- J t.act t hat prompted a \whmgton Post story s.iymg that the pn. thL· r(•drral Adl'!.-.orv 1·.1rc meenng.S "olatcd • · Comm1tcec Act. The ace 1•, ,, commirtee member5 ll'ho arc nor paJ t of the o11overn. t 1 meant to pro I11L undue J.J1d w1d1scloscd influence on:r government , ,. n" menc fram h.. 1 t, It c••chnica.111 applied because Hillan · Rodham Clinton po iicv makn 1 ):! • . ' did not drJII ., pal'chcck and 11 as noc a "govrm mcnr employee" On Mar,h IO. J JUJgc Llrdcn:d chat all task force mect,'.ngs be public. Cnrics of hLahh c.m: rdorm o:plo1t ed the brouhaha. le was a deft politic;! mo,<•." Hillan Clinton 11'1ot,· 111 her aurobiography "designed co disrupt our ,,·ork 011 health .:arc and tu foster Jll 1mprcss1~n with the public anJ the m•11 .., nwd1a rhar II L' 11 ar conducttng secret mcenngs" (2003. p. 15-l) • I11 Mai . che t.bl.. fc,rc.: hJndcd .1 rh1ck ~l't ot re..:ommendanons ro the Vhire Home and di~band,•d. ''ork connnued as small Whir.: Houst tl'ams bci;.111 ch.- ncxr phase, \ h1ch mcluded ra.-.ks .-.ucb as converang thr cask force output mro leg1slanvc lan~u:ige, ll'Orkmg up budget proiecnons. J.nd de,·doprng poltrtcal and commumc.:mon_ strategics. Most of dus work \,lS done bchmd the ~ccnc~ll'htle rhe president focused his effom, and the public's arrcnuon. on the budget. 'cry few dem1ons were put on papu and l11gh-lcl el mcwng!. were a1·01dcd from the ?nd ofMav through August. re 11:asn r u~nl Scprcmbcr 7 char cop1l'S of a ·'Working Group Draft" wenr ro kev member~ of Congress and from chert' leaked to rhc pu~ lie Full bil language ll'a.s not al'J.Jlabk unrd Octobl'r after Clinton s Seprember 22 tl'lmscd addrc~.-. to Congrcss. THE HEALTH SECURITY PROPOSAL Clmron·~ Hcalrh Sccumv proposal owed a lot ro rhe Jackson Hole Group, but also borrowed· f10111 cx1snng proposa Ison bot I1 si-·des of the · em plowr aisle II relied on thl' cmplo)'cr-ba.scd system by mandanng , . I I mplol'ees. coverage To help small bu~me,~cs and rho~l· wit, ow-ll'age e • _ rhe gowrnmt'nt would nffn ~11b~1d1c. It would abo prov1·d,t Pal'rncnt.) , L= 10 I 293 the poor cover the costs of premiums and f to hcIp , our-o ·pockrc The self-cmplo)'ed would be ablt- ro deduce th etpcnSes· cir prcmmm <' u ll)'· Annual premium mcreases would br capped, bur as a rnst1 1 . coses me35 urc, this was a backup to rhc core of rhe Cltnro , conrrol . .. .. n, p1anche crearion of regional healrh aH1ances, much like the Jackson Hole Group's HIPCs. Under the ov~r~1ght o( a nauon.il health board. thev would pool individual a_nd business premiums and collcrnvclv barg;u~ with insurance comp.1nie~. The proposal had ro be rcwnue neutral, and thu~ there had 10 be a way co offset the estimated SJJ I billion co~r. Some of that moncv accordmg ro the admin1~tration , could come from a cigarette tax an·d J't tax on corporations wi th morc rhan 5,000 employees rhat d,d nor 3 participate in the reg1on:1l alliances. Becausr health care coses would presumably go down , tax revenues would increase. Nearly 5200 bill,on could be trimmed from Medicare and Med1ca1d budgets bccau~c of co~c SJl'ings w d decreasing ca.-.clo:id. Cmic~ scoffed at the ~avmgs potenn.il, pointing out chat cutting Medicare and Medicaid would be polmcallv difficult and arguing char mcrea!>cd coverage would lead to greater unliwion ofhcalrh can.· services, dnvmg cosrs up, nor do1111
THE BEGINNING OF THE END
On October 27, the Clinrons handed off their bramchdd to the U.S.
Congress. Ir suddenly had ro compete for anentJon with more than
20 cousins. These ind udcd a single-payer bill supporrcd by mot1· than
200 liberal Houst’ Drmocrats, anorher version of managed competmon
supported by a n mst Democrats thar scoppcd short of an employer
mandate and would not have limited premium increases, a Republic.in
proposal that would have required md1viduals to purchase msurance
and used resulting Medicaid savings ro help low-income mdi11du.tls
and families pay rheir premiums, and another Republican propoSJ.I to
1mroducc insurance industry reforms char would help chromcalh· ill
people obtain and retain health insurance and allow for th(· creation of
health savings accounts (called medisa1·c accounts).
Nor only wen.· there compenng proposal.-,, bur ther? ll’l’re comptt·
tng fiefs. Health care as an issue did not belong t’.clusi,dy ro any onr
commitree in either house. Arguably, five d1ffaenr rnmmirtees had
• . d1ct1on.
. . Each
·
·
· cba.tr hd
Juns
com1111cte.:
and its
a irs O~pmoo~~~
d
1·ts own perspective on rhe issue. The Clmcons
·
· PIan qUJ,kll·
· boggr
•
•
pl
( ,1.1,
li!Jl:•I
(con1111ued)
1unsd1monal dispute Congress \·,1, becoming tncreasmgli
d
poIan,c and parm.m · m.1km1i;· 11 d1thcul1
h w rnnl’ am kind of maJor
ur·-1-m,•
tht
.._rndlock
h,uld
J’l’ required a coordinat..l
1rut1JIIW n c.u. ::-,
c:,…,
unified approach from I h1 pam lcada,h1p. but man) Democrat~ “err
sull dr.llTI tC1 the lmplicin of J ,mglc pa 1•r Mam Republicans. mran.
whtk. h’I< draln w a ,tratcg-. ;id'Jnlr,i m1,,1 ,crongly bv rhe Proitct for a RcpulilllJn f ucurc-r1•fu~c: .lil t.:mp1;mon rn compromi~c and dcfc.it am ( lmwn propo,a.l 0umght Jt am COC DcmocratS did nor seem w ha,, a cka 1 ~trat c~· l11 r mo mg the bill through rhc va.riou commircc,·, ,11rh1~u1 R,Tubltcan ,o,Jp,·rat10n. ,b thr 1k.tlth !:,ccunn propn,aJ tliok a 11:dmu,, contmt1ous and mrm parh through (1,mmtncc hearing and markup, cxccmal rakrholdtrsuppnrt. " htCh had ,,·rmrd ,o ,oltd .11 the start began co crumble The plan , fre.itc,c ncm,·"'' pr1n, d c,, L,c tlw I kalth lmurance Assooa, oon of mm,a 1HIA. I .rnd the :-SationaJ I l·daatton of Independent Bumcs, 1 'Im 11h1Ch 1chl'ml'lltl 1lpp0 cd .1m l'mplover m2nd.1r In addicwn 10 lobb in~ pol1e1 mak..:r, :'I 18 ,·ngJ~l'd m II hat M1ch~rl \tw,koFI .1 {.1.,/,mgvn f't,it rcr ,,rur !Jbc!cJ oo" lobh1ng tar~rc 111g mhrr ,cakcho!dtr group t,, d1Jn~,· rhl·1r rmtt HIil One of the fim IMfcc, 0f cro~~ k,bb11n! 1J, tht' !I Thl' ,\1. haJ l'pre~sed Ct>ral
rcwr1Jt1l1m about rhc ( ltnrnn rlan but had rc1,’t c:d 11, d …cadn-long
opp,,sH·on co am ,·mplo1 ,:r mand.11.: .md II a!> on rl’corJ a, suppo_mng
healch SHlt:c… mbo:r – 199.” IL’ r.:cmd 11, supporc for an l’mplom
mandatl’
ll1g bu~mc,, .1lso br1.,kc r.mh !kJicaJ mflanon ,ccmcd to be sloll•
tng 111 lace 1993. and l’rc,1dl’lll Clm con had fa1kd w dl’11wr on his
pronmc ro reduc,· doml’,c1c ,rendmg In I l·bruJn 1994. thl’ Bulnfss
Hnundcable cndor,.:d a compl’lmg plan. and thl’ t-:Jtional Associ3 non
of Manufmurm and chl’ L’ ~ ( hamb.:1 of Com mac.: f0llo11 cd quickh
bi rl.’pud1atmg thl’ Cl mcon proposal
h
Thac JOll’ month the Cong11.”,lonal Budget Office announced c at
11 cou1u.1 nc,1 ,upporr marl’ o l• t hl’ bud g<'t a,-.umpc1om rhc Chncon · 1 d er the 11ork111g )(mup, had u,cd rn ar~uc t h.tr the plan would he Pn· u 11 dthCII le 1. ould n, t ,·n-n agnl' 1hl' plan 11,1 budg.:t nwrral· Instead argued chc plan 11ould ,1Jd S74 !,,Ilion w chc Jdirn. do111 in Ill Thr ,rhm: Ho u,,·. nw:11m l11ll· 1·,1, 11,,mg ,•rnund h ,. in c e coun of II d opinion Po 111~ 1mme 1aceh ,1ft 1·r rhe pr0 1C r'1blscronglr 1"''·11 "mt pub!a • t:i'orabk , I f;u m f11)1l rnndunrd 111 M 1 , .s Jr1 l 199, found , support fo, ho1C-1am r 11Cl' con1roh r•c, l !!rt.'0 ): ctp ,,n prlm1um (82',) anJ re ., runh;i,s 1n,:w.sc (78'.,). ;Ill l'mrlO Cl m.111dac1• . . g1,1n,u , ·(l(lpcrat11l' (8h ) buc l'arh polling Jlo diclo,c t cl 1n~' ' JJC pc'up1e did 00r undasrand I hnl' concqm L1r . I' n•,pon,1• 111 thl' < 1InCon propoJ.I rtk.l)t.l !Jca I hat n:.1r 11.1, .11,o l.ll'orablr accord mg 10 chr pnll bur S(lmc of rhc ,.,me w rvr}, dcmon,tra1cd that th1· public did nni rulh IL,dmrand 1 h:H II a, brmg propot•d m rh1· h1ghh compb 1 , 42.Jngt draft lc~1slanon Th,· public :iho had some maior concern An ABC Nr11 t'.ishmgton l'ost poll conducrrd 111 carh Occolxr 1993 found rhar Sl'b supported dw Clmron plan and )9 thought th.it it 11.1.s bet1rr cl1Jn the rnrrcm \ st1·m however 57 nppocd ncl t.llc , 11 f)JI for it. Mui,· pwplc 1hough1 health c.1r1· 11011IJ gee wnN• undrr chr pbn (J.I',) than rhought hl·.1lch 1.uc would 1mp1ml' (19 ) M.im ll.trr .-omed abouc having les choice 111 prm·1dcr~ ("' 2 ) increasing COtS "O' ). a los of :iccc\ to cxpenll' ,erv1cc~ (69 1>), anJ a hose of ocher
LUUt~
Thtse conCl’fll ‘- gaw chl’ plan’s opponrms Cf” cffccme pomr~ of
111 on them wirh 1cs H.irrv .ind
l.ou1st c2mpa1gn which fearurcd a 11omed couple d1scu\1ng conctm•
uiouc chc plan T hesr campatgm made good u,r of polling mlorm.111on The first ad’l.’rmemenc focu,ed on 11ornc, chat hralch murm,,
pbns 11ould be less comprl’hcns1vr and then· 1ould be fC”wcr T~ ot
plms from ” hich ro choml’ Thr couplr concluded H com.-r-…:inon
11th che exchange. “Thcr choo,c \’c lo~c
Congrm ,1ruggleJ 1 nh chc prnposal ch rough rhc fir.c half 0f 1994
cmng d1ff.:rcnt oluc1ons and searching for ,11m, kind oi rnmpw·
i:u1t that had a chanci: of ~ucccs on chc floor, ho” C,’r nonr 0f t ht
propos;a,h appeared {() hal’ cnou~h ~urrorr IO \IT Ill’ a tiltbu,ccr Ac
ont pomr lk p11blJC:1 n Senator Phil Gramm announcrd 1ha1 ( ongr~s
at.cdtd to stop carryi ng around this corp’<' changing m dochh. .rnd ?Utrtng mor.• powda on 1rs face." i nen Congn:ss ret urned from umm.:r rec.:~, ir ia, rr 11 ' 29S 296 I Ch~~• 10' Thr ), ,Jin Anah-s,~ Pr,Xf\ b.ilua11,>n ot Pol11KJ.I I cas,b,hrv

Ffol••• (continued)
w,, nsk b,· dm pc,rnr bccJu,t’ cht’v could Sl’rw as .!>rcalth vch1Cb for
rnmp1< hcmill' n•t~1rm~. expJndrng ac c~c last mrnurc rnto .!>Orne kind
,,f unicr~.11cowragc kg1s!Jc1on In l.1ll’ Si>prcmucr congres.!>ional lead
t’ I Jdicrt’<.i ,1 J,·mand 10 Pn•s1dl'l1r Cltnc on - 1f the president CXpt'cicd a.:11,,n ,,11 th<' t,cna.il T.rnff, and Trade Trl'at) thl'n' rnuld be no mort d1'tu~11,n ofh,·Jh h cJ1 ,. lc1_!1~!Jmm On Scptl'mba 26, J l.'J r after Clmr,,n ,Jid h,· ll>ulJ h a [,ro~cn .!,r.!,~~111: Sm:irc ~laJomy Leadl’r George
~lirchdl wok h,·.il th care rdorm oll ltll’ ,upporr Tho? “corp.!>l'” 1as no11
ot1iculh d,•Jd

~———-~~Chapt t r
11
The Policy Analysis Process:
Evaluation of Economic
Viability
Discussion Questions
Thtda S~ocpol ( 1996) de sen bed two approache~ rhar critics argue B,11
Clinton should ha1 e used to develop his proposa I ( 1) ask a small group
10 de, t’lop broad outlines for reform and then ask Congress to work ou1
1he details and ( 2) establish a prest1g1ous blue-ribbon comm1ss1on that
m,ghr ha,e ach,e-.ed buy-in from business groups, congressional lead•
er.!, and other policy makers. and stakeholders. What might be some of
the pros and cons of che three d,fferent approaches? (The third was 1hr
Clinton approach
2 What “ould a map ofB,11 Cl1ncon’s authorizing environment for health
care reform look like’
3 Discuss hov. the three screams of policy making ,dennfied by John Krng·
don- polrc1es polmcs, and problems-opened a window of opportun.t)’
for health care reform in 1993 and what had changed in those screams
by the nme that window had closed ,n 1994
4- Whar would a force field analysis of the Health Security plan look l,ke’
5 Where v.ould the Health Security proposal fall on Oliver’s framework .
for analysis of policy design and pol1c1cal feas,hility? What were some or
the concentrated coses and benefits and to whom did they accrue’ No,,
answer the same quesuon of diffuse costs and benefits.
6 Who would you have survered 1f you were using the Delphi technique to
Polin analy~1s rnvolws thr allocan on of ,,arcl’ rc,our,._., Th~ ,bpccr
f~s on cconomJC and financ1.il aspccc.) or th.- Jllocanon pn-..:…,, S..’th
affm the cconom,c v1abiltty ot a propo,rJ poli0 aJc,mJtlt’ “hi.:-h lrhh
rum1 on the following qucsnom.:
How much will it cost?
l’har value will l’I.’ be gl·ttrng for thc rn,mc ‘
Hm1 dot’ that value compare 11ch orh.-r J.!c,·manw.) undt·r
cons1derat1on,
lf1t 1s somechrng Wl’ \’Jilt co do. ho11 \11l 11t’ pa1 for 1t;
To address these qurst1ons. the analv 1) tt’arn need:, t0 underc.11.e t.~,
•,1,1k5 ourImed rn Figure
.
11 -1 The ream a.ho ri…-eJ t<.J, ,v1,1der ch... F",. •>
of 1ew or 1nrert’sts o f whoever comm1ss1oncd thr sruJ1 H,,,H…,rr J rne
·
~nee.1.i sts between pleasing thl’ “customa· and rnJJnramrn~ J b-rour ‘rr~'”
rcssional tntegmv One wav to addre)S this 1s b1 ·chJn:,..TJn,: ha~ Thl .11U·
hlts cau sa~ .. ~’hen we pu~ on Hat A. 1w S::<'t X. !:iut ,1 h~n :1 ~ rur ''" HJt 8 ie gee ,1. .. . II ' . , of us I ear rnanv hats rn health cJrt'. rndudrnf pwenr f'Jllr paunt , 'spouse, professional. ..ind C1t1Lcn. analyze the pol1t1cal feas1b1l1ty of the Clinton proposal at the nme? 197 288 I Chapter 10: Th,• p.,h" ,n.1h-s1 Proc~~, fa·aluarn,n c,f Pol111cal I C.i.'i1b1l1ty 18' On rprcmbrr 22. 1993. before Congre~s and a nanon:il TV audicnct he ourhncd hi plan to ·•fi, a health care svstcm thac 1s badly broken. A hrrk ml,rc rhan a war later howcwr anorhcr unexpected deach occurrrJ. The deceased was President Cl111wn's plan for "Health Sccu. nn· ,. The plan's collapse doomed anr hopes ad vol arcs had of p.usin sign,lica.nr h,•alrh care rt'fom1s 111 chc I 990!> and \’a~ crrdited bpom!
\ith mducm~ rhe electoral rsunam1 char !!ave Republicans control of
borh hou~es ofCongre s m chc 199-1 decnom.
BUILDING TOWARD REFORM
A confluencl’ of even cs pur health reform on thl’ rop of rhe agenda rn
chr carh 1990,. nor JUSt rhe bellwether Senate race The Clrnron-m
reform i:ffort \ as nor a unique ewnr bur rather pare ofa chain of dTorrs
char spanned much of rhe ccncury. Whar seemed to :.er the I 990s aparc
hm C er \ .l!> the• ‘anccy ofsrakcholdc1:, prepared ro support some k,nd
of rl’form ~losLca.me ro rill’ cable because ofrhc ~p1ral111g cosr ofhealch
rnsuranc,· and chl· !!rowrng number of unrnsurrd:
Husrnl’~ <'~ rha1 cm t'red their worker!> were spendmg as much as
25°, of rhc1r carnrng · on heal …
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All papers are always delivered on time. In case we need more time to master your paper, we may contact you regarding the deadline extension. In case you cannot provide us with more time, a 100% refund is guaranteed.

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We use several writing tools checks to ensure that all documents you receive are free from plagiarism. Our editors carefully review all quotations in the text. We also promise maximum confidentiality in all of our services.

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No need to work on your paper at night. Sleep tight, we will cover your back. We offer all kinds of writing services.

Essays

Essay Writing Service

No matter what kind of academic paper you need and how urgent you need it, you are welcome to choose your academic level and the type of your paper at an affordable price. We take care of all your paper needs and give a 24/7 customer care support system.

Admissions

Admission Essays & Business Writing Help

An admission essay is an essay or other written statement by a candidate, often a potential student enrolling in a college, university, or graduate school. You can be rest assurred that through our service we will write the best admission essay for you.

Reviews

Editing Support

Our academic writers and editors make the necessary changes to your paper so that it is polished. We also format your document by correctly quoting the sources and creating reference lists in the formats APA, Harvard, MLA, Chicago / Turabian.

Reviews

Revision Support

If you think your paper could be improved, you can request a review. In this case, your paper will be checked by the writer or assigned to an editor. You can use this option as many times as you see fit. This is free because we want you to be completely satisfied with the service offered.

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