entrepreneurship

Basically you have to make at least 15 survey question that can be ask to interview people. The topic is on “Using Parking App”. You have to ask survey question on a scale of 1 to 5, it may also include 2 or 3 true false question. I am giving you the guidelines (sources) of how to make/ask effective survey questions.
likert_scale_examples_for_surveys.pdf

survey_fundamentals___guide_to_survey_design.pdf

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types_of_questions_to_use_in_surveys__questionnaires__and_marketing_research_1_.pdf

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Likert Scale Examples for Surveys
Sorrel Brown
ANR Program Evaluation
Iowa State University Extension
sorrel@iastate.edu
Dec 2010
AGREEMENT
•
•
•
•
•
Strongly Agree
Agree
Undecided
Disagree
Strongly Disagree
•
•
•
•
•
•
Agree Strongly
Agree Moderately
Agree Slightly
Disagree Slightly
Disagree Moderately
Disagree Strongly
•
•
•
•
•
Agree
Disagree
or
Agree
Undecided
Disagree
•
•
•
•
•
•
Agree Very Strongly
Agree Strongly
Agree
Disagree
Disagree Strongly
Disagree Very Strongly
•
•
•
•
•
•
Completely Agree
Mostly Agree
Slightly Agree
Slightly Disagree
Mostly Disagree
Completely Disagree
•
•
•
•
•
•
Disagree Strongly
Disagree
Slightly Disagree
Slightly Agree
Agree
Agree Strongly
VALUE
•
•
•
•
High
Moderate
Low
None
•
•
•
RELEVANCE
Excellent
Somewhat
Poor
FREQUENCY
•
•
•
•
•
•
Very Frequently
Frequently
Occasionally
Rarely
Very Rarely
Never
•
•
•
•
•
•
Always
Very Frequently
Occasionally
Rarely
Very Rarely
Never
•
•
•
•
•
Always
Usually
About Half
the Time
Seldom
Never
•
•
A Great Deal
Much
•
•
Often
Sometimes
•
•
Almost Always
To a Considerable Degree
•
•
•
•
•
Always
Very Often
Sometimes
Rarely
Never
•
•
•
Somewhat
Little
Never
Seldom
Never
•
•
•
•
Occasionally
Seldom
IMPORTANCE
•
•
•
•
•
Very Important
Important
Moderately Important
Slightly Important
Not Important
•
•
•
0 = Not Important At All
1 = Of Little Importance
2 = Of Average
Importance
3 = Very Important
4 = Absolutely Essential
Very Important
Moderately Important
Not Important
QUALITY
•
•
•
•
•
Very Good
Good
Acceptable
Poor
Very Poor
•
•
•
•
•
Very Poor
Below Average
Average
Above Average
Excellent
•
•
•
Good
Fair
Poor
LIKELIHOOD
•
•
Like Me
Not Like Me
•
•
•
•
To a Great Extent
Somewhat
Very Little
Not at All
•
•
•
•
•
•
Definitely
Very Probably
Probably
Possibly
Probably Not
Definitely Not
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Almost Always True
Usually True
Often True
Occasionally True
Rarely True
Usually Not True
Almost Never True
•
•
True
False
Not likely
Somewhat likely
Very likely
Dichotomous Scales:
Fair
Unfair
Three-Point Scales:
Agree
Disagree
True
False
Yes
No
More than I would like
About right
Less than I would like
Too Harsh
About right
Too Lenient
Too Strict
About right
Too Lenient
Too heavy
About Right
Too light
Too much
About right
Too little
Extremely
Moderately
Not at all
Four-Point Scales:
Most of the time
Some of the time
Seldom
Never
Strongly Agree
Agree
Disagree
Strongly Disagree
Definitely won’t
Probably won’t
Probably will
Definitely will
Five-Point Scales:
Much better
Somewhat better
Stayed the same
Somewhat worse
Much worse
Strongly Agree
Agree
Undecided
Disagree
Strongly Disagree
Very High
Above Average
Average
Below Average
Very Low
Excellent
Above Average
Average
Below Average
Very Poor
Very good
Good
Fair
Poor
Very poor
Much higher
Higher
About the same
Lower
Much lower
Almost always
Often
Sometimes
Seldom
Never
Extremely
Very
Moderately
Slightly
Not at all
Very satisfied
Satisfied
Neither
Dissatisfied
Very dissatisfied
Very important
Important
Fairly important
Slightly important
Not important
Seven-Point Scales:
very dissatisfied
moderately dissatisfied
slightly dissatisfied
neutral
slightly satisfied
moderately satisfied
very satisfied
far below
moderately below
slightly below
met expectations
slightly above
moderately above
far above
very poor
poor
fair
good
very good
excellent
exceptional
SURVEY GUIDE
SURVEY FUNDAMENTALS
A GUIDE TO DESIGNING AND IMPLEMENTING SURVEYS
1
SURVEY GUIDE
OFFICE OF QUALITY IMPROVEMENT
SURVEY FUNDAMENTALS
This guide describes in non-technical terms the underlying principles of good survey
design and implementation. Clear, simple explanations lead the reader through
methodology and logistics decisions, writing effective questions, and drawing
conclusions from the results. The guide also provides tips for maximizing the
response rate as well as an overview of human subject rules.
The material presented here is based on short courses presented by staff of the
University of Wisconsin Survey Center in 2008 in honor of the UWSC’s 25th
anniversary. The course materials were developed by Nora Cate Schaeffer,
Jennifer Dykema, Kelly Elver, and John Stevenson. Nancy Thayer-Hart compiled
this guide based on those courses, supplemented with additional material.
Copyright
Version 2.0, December 2010
2010 University of Wisconsin System Board of Regents
Contributors:
Nancy Thayer-Hart, Office of Quality Improvement
Jennifer Dykema, Kelly Elver, Nora Cate Schaeffer, John Stevenson, University of Wisconsin Survey Center
For additional information contact:
Office of Quality Improvement
Room 199 Bascom Hall, 500 Lincoln Drive
Madison, WI 53706-1380
608-262-6843
FAX: 608-262-9330
quality@oqi.wisc.edu
http://www.quality.wisc.edu
University of Wisconsin Survey Center
1800 University Avenue
Madison, Wisconsin 53726
608-262-9032
FAX: 608-262-8432
stevenso@ssc.wisc.edu

Home


SURVEY GUIDE
CONTENTS
Contents ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 3
Survey Basics …………………………………………………………………………………………. 4
Design the Survey Process ………………………………………………………………………. 4
What are the goals? ……………………………………………………………………………… 4
What is the target population? ……………………………………………………………….. 5
What is the timing?……………………………………………………………………………….. 5
What mode will be used? ………………………………………………………………………. 5
Develop Questions ………………………………………………………………………………….. 6
Reliability …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 6
Validity………………………………………………………………………………………………… 6
Tips for Writing Good Questions …………………………………………………………….. 7
Response Format ……………………………………………………………………………….. 10
Design of Self-Administered Questionnaires ………………………………………….. 11
Checklist for Effective Questionnaires …………………………………………………… 12
Test and Train ………………………………………………………………………………………. 12
Collect Data ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 14
Response Rate ………………………………………………………………………………….. 14
Follow-up Procedures …………………………………………………………………………. 14
Web Survey Challenges………………………………………………………………………. 15
Analyze Data ………………………………………………………………………………………… 15
Coding and Analyzing Data …………………………………………………………………. 15
Drawing Conclusions ………………………………………………………………………….. 16
Additional Considerations ……………………………………………………………………….. 16
Human Subjects Protection………………………………………………………………….. 16
A Word About Climate Surveys…………………………………………………………….. 17
Getting Help with Your Survey ………………………………………………………………… 17
Terminology ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 18
References and Additional Resources ……………………………………………………… 19
Works Cited……………………………………………………………………………………….. 19
Additional Resources ………………………………………………………………………….. 19
3
SURVEY GUIDE
SURVEY BASICS
A survey is often the best way to get information and feedback to use in
planning and program improvement. This guide is written to help you achieve
the results you need. The principles and practices described here have been
recommended by the University of Wisconsin Survey Center.
Designing and implementing a survey is a systematic process of gathering
information on a specific topic by asking questions of individuals and then
generalizing the results to the groups represented by the respondents. The
process involves five distinct steps. Figure 1 depicts the process of designing
and implementing a survey:
Design Survey
Process
Develop
Questions
Test & Train
Collect Data
Analyze Data
Figure 1. Survey Process
The type of survey you use for a particular purpose will be the result of decisions
you make about:
1. Contacting potential respondents (in-person, telephone, mail, email)
2. Presenting the questions (written, interviewer)
3. Recording responses (paper, electronic)
Your choices will be influenced by your research goals and timeline, how
sensitive or complex the study topic is, the characteristics, abilities and
resources of potential respondents (e.g., their access to and experience with
technology), and of course, your budget. The choices you make will affect the
quality, cost and timeliness of your results.
DESIGN THE SURVEY PROCESS
WHAT ARE THE GOALS?
The first step in planning for your survey is to determine the goal and how you
will use the information. The usual goal of a survey is to describe a population,
for example, the group of people using your services. Another common goal that
may require a very different study design is to make comparisons between
groups, such as comparisons between those using your services and those who
do not. Often surveys are used simply to get feedback from a specific group of
people and/or learn about their wants and needs.
4
SURVEY GUIDE
WHAT IS THE TARGET POPULATION?
Who are the people you’re interested in hearing from? What criteria separate
those who should be included in the survey from those who should not?
When the target population is small and easy to contact, it is often feasible to
survey the entire population. However, when the target population is large or
widely dispersed and the survey is part of a rigorous research project, a
“sampling” process is typically used to select and survey only a subset of the
total population of interest. If a sampling process would enhance the results of
your survey, you will want to engage the services of a sampling statistician to
guide you.
One reason to survey a sample rather than an entire population is that with a smaller
sample size, you can include more follow-up contacts to encourage responses. As a
result of these efforts, participation and data quality may be improved.
In order to reach your target population, you will need current and accurate
contact information. Obtaining and verifying this information can be costly and
time-consuming, especially if your target population is highly mobile and/or
difficult to locate.
A service for mass emailing to campus audiences is available through Division
of Information Technology (DoIT). See http://www.doit.wisc.edu/lists/massemail/index.asp
for additional information. There is a fee for using this service.
WHAT IS THE TIMING?
Developing a timeline is a crucial step in planning your survey. When is the
survey data needed? When would be the best time to contact potential
participants? Do you want to survey during a break or at a time when
respondents are engaged in another activity with your unit? If your survey is
going to a campus population, you may want to avoid coinciding with one of the
periodic campus-wide surveys.
What other workload issues may affect those involved in sending the survey and
collecting and analyzing the results? How long will it take to design and obtain
approval for the survey? How much time is needed for collecting responses?
The answers to all these questions will help you develop a realistic timeline.
WHAT MODE WILL BE USED?
As noted above, there are a variety of options for how you conduct your survey.
The combination of choices you make about contacting sample members,
administering questions, and recording responses is called the “mode.” The
mode is influenced by the survey population, the study topic, and how you plan
to use the information you gather.
5
SURVEY GUIDE
DEVELOP QUESTIONS
A survey question is a measuring device for things that are not directly
observable, in the same way that a bathroom scale is a measuring instrument
for weight. In order for your survey results to be useful and meaningful, the
questions you ask must have two characteristics: reliability and validity. These
terms are defined below.
Writing good survey questions requires keeping the goal of the survey firmly in
mind and then formulating each question from the perspective of the
respondent. It may be tempting to ask questions simply because it would be
interesting to know the answers, but if they are not essential to the goal of the
survey, such questions can actually detract from your survey results.
Unnecessary questions distract respondents or cause confusion.
A useful strategy for judging whether you have the right questions is to create
the tables for the final report before finalizing the survey. Thinking about how to
array the survey results will highlight extraneous questions and perhaps point
out areas where additional questions would strengthen your survey.
Respondents’ abilities to provide accurate and useful information are enhanced
when they can immediately understand what is being asked and the purpose of
the question. Respondents can then more easily recall the situation, event, or
information they are being asked about and decide how frank to be. In the “Tips
for Writing Good Questions” section below are general rules for framing
questions in a way that shortens the path between question and answer.
The placement of a question within the survey also has an impact on the results.
For example, respondents may have difficulty recalling specific dates or times.
If this information is absolutely necessary, reserve the question for the end of
the survey, when other questions have gotten the respondent recalling and
processing.
RELIABILITY
Just as you want to be able to rely on your bathroom scale to always give the
same reading if your weight is unchanged, you want your survey questions to be
reliable. Reliability is the extent to which repeatedly measuring the same
property produces the same result. Ideally, each survey question will mean the
same thing to everyone, including those administering the survey. This takes
careful design and refinement.
VALIDITY
Validity is the extent to which a survey question measures the property it is
supposed to measure. For example, a yardstick would not produce a valid
6
SURVEY GUIDE
measure of the weight of an object. Your bathroom scale is more likely to
produce valid readings, but if it’s old and abused, the readings may be
systematically inaccurate.
TIPS FOR WRITING GOOD QUESTIONS
Whenever possible, build on what’s been done before. Somewhere, sometime,
someone has tried to get the same or similar information. Access previous
surveys conducted by your unit or elsewhere on campus or investigate online
repositories of questions so you don’t have to start from scratch.
An effective survey question provides the respondent with a context for the
question by announcing the topic and defining the timeframe for events or
behaviors that are to be included in the response. For example, “This question is
about commuting to work. When answering, please consider only events that
occurred during the fall semester.” This pre-question information or context is
known as the “preamble.”
The preamble should also explain what the respondent is being asked to do
(e.g., check one, list all) and define any concepts or terms that the respondent
needs to understand in order to answer the question. The preamble is an
important means of ensuring the reliability of the question.
The question can focus on an event or behavior that the respondent might have
observed or participated in, or it can inquire about their attitude, evaluation, or
judgment. The topic will determine the appropriate “response dimension.”
Common response dimensions for questions about events and behaviors include:
Opportunity to experience or know something
Occurrence of an event or behavior within a defined time period
Frequency (counts or rates)
Regularity (time interval)
Duration
Date or timing
Common response dimensions for questions about attitudes and judgment include:
Degree of attractiveness (like/dislike, favor/oppose)
Satisfaction
Intensity (a little, somewhat, or very much)
Certainty
Importance
Asking good questions is not as easy as it seems, and the unfortunate result of
ineffective questions is bad data. The resource list at the back of this guide
7
SURVEY GUIDE
includes several basic texts that can be very helpful in writing good questions
(see, e.g., Schaeffer and Presser (2002), Fowler and Cosenza (2008), and Aday
and Cornelius (2006)). Some general rules for writing effective survey questions
are summarized below.
Question Wording
Avoid using complex words, technical terms, jargon, and phrases that are
difficult to understand. Instead, use language that is commonly used by the
respondents. For example:
Use . . .
? Work
? Tired
? About
? People who live here
? Your answers
? Job concerns
? Providing health care
Instead of …
? Employment
? Exhausted
? Regarding
? Occupants of this household
? Your responses to this questionnaire
? Work-related employment issues
? Health care provision
Other wording practices to avoid:
? Shorthand (contractions, abbreviations, symbols, slashes,
parentheses, brackets)
? Framing questions in the negative – how frequently do you not attend
classes?
? Using double negatives – do you agree or disagree that students
should never not go to class?
? Passive voice – how often were grade reductions made by your
teachers for absences?
? Words or phrases with a strong point of view
Question Structure
Just like the words and phrases used in your questions, the structure of the
question should be simple and easy for respondents to comprehend. Questions
should have only a single subject and verb, and should not combine two
questions into one.
Questions can become “double-barreled” when the word “or” is used and also
when two different types of response options are tucked into a single question.
For example, In what year was your husband born? Check here if not currently
married, asks for both the husband’s date of birth AND for whether the
respondent is married.
8
SURVEY GUIDE
Refrain from asking questions with multiple response dimensions (e.g.,
regularity AND frequency, occurrence AND frequency). Separate these into two
separate questions.
Questions that start with a statement and ask the respondent to agree or
disagree with the statement (or answer true or false) may give the impression
that you are expecting a certain response. Instead, rephrase the question to
include the response dimension: How important is . . .? How sufficient is . . .?
How effective will . . .? The …
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