essay

Write a 500 word or more essay about the Ford Pinto engineering ethics case. For information on the subject, you are only allowed to use the pdf file posted on Moodle along with this HW assignment. Your essay should have 6 parts:Part 1. State the Ethics Case Title.Part 2. Discuss the historical events (what happened).Part 3. Discuss why it happened (what caused the accidents).Part 4. Discuss the ethical issues involved in the incidents.Part 5. What was the aftermath of this engineering disaster.Part 6. Present/discuss your personal thoughts about this case.Your essay must clearly separate the topics into Part 1, Part 2, Part 3 and Part 4. Watch out forPLAGIARISM. Plagiarism will not be tolerated. You will automatically receive an (F) grade on your assignment if you plagiarize. Your essay MUST give enough information so the reader can understand what happened, what caused the collapse, and what are the ethical issues involved in the incident.Your essay must be typed, 12-point letters, Arial font, double spaced.Minimum word length: 500 words.All pages must be stapled when they are returned for grading.Due date: Tuesday, April 10, 2018, during regular class time.
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ENGR 100 / CSCI 100 – Spring 2018
Assignment #6 – Ethics in Engineering Writing Assignment: The Ford
Pinto Case
Write a 500 word or more essay about the Ford Pinto engineering ethics case. For information on the
subject, you are only allowed to use the pdf file posted on Moodle along with this HW assignment. Your
essay should have 6 parts:
Part 1. State the Ethics Case Title.
Part 2. Discuss the historical events (what happened).
Part 3. Discuss why it happened (what caused the accidents).
Part 4. Discuss the ethical issues involved in the incidents.
Part 5. What was the aftermath of this engineering disaster.
Part 6. Present/discuss your personal thoughts about this case.
Your essay must clearly separate the topics into Part 1, Part 2, Part 3 and Part 4. Watch out for
PLAGIARISM. Plagiarism will not be tolerated. You will automatically receive an (F) grade on your
assignment if you plagiarize. Your essay MUST give enough information so the reader can understand
what happened, what caused the collapse, and what are the ethical issues involved in the incident.
•
•
•
•
Your essay must be typed, 12-point letters, Arial font, double spaced.
Minimum word length: 500 words.
All pages must be stapled when they are returned for grading.
Due date: Tuesday, April 10, 2018, during regular class time.
Note: Your work will primarily be graded on quality of content (clear description of case plus support) and
how well the source is used. Grammar and other mechanical errors will be judged on how seriously they
interfere with the presentation of your ideas. Ethical use of sources is especially important. The grading
rubric has also been posted so you can get an idea of how your work will be graded.
On the top of the page have the following info:
ENGR 100 / CSCI 100– Spring 2018
Assignment #6
Name:
Student ID:
Class Time:
Date Submitted:
Due Date: Tuesday April 10, 2018
3
4. Engineers shall act for each employer or client as faithful
agents or trustees.
a. Engineers shall disclose all known or potential conflicts
of interest that could influence or appear to influence
their judgment or the quality of their services.
b. Engineers shall not accept compensation, financial or
otherwise, from more than one party for services on
the same project, or for services pertaining to the same
project, unless the circumstances are fully disclosed and
agreed to by all interested parties.
c. Engineers shall not solicit or accept financial or other
valuable consideration, directly or indirectly, from outside
agents in connection with the work for which they are
responsible.
d. Engineers in public service as members, advisors, or
employees of a governmental or quasi-governmental
body or department shall not participate in decisions with
respect to services solicited or provided by them or their
organizations in private or public engineering practice.
e. Engineers shall not solicit or accept a contract from a
governmental body on which a principal or officer of their
organization serves as a member.
3. Engineers shall issue public statements only in an objective
and truthful manner.
a. Engineers shall be objective and truthful in professional
reports, statements, or testimony. They shall include
all relevant and pertinent information in such reports,
statements, or testimony, which should bear the date
indicating when it was current.
b. Engineers may express publicly technical opinions
that are founded upon knowledge of the facts and
competence in the subject matter.
c. Engineers shall issue no statements, criticisms, or
arguments on technical matters that are inspired or paid
for by interested parties, unless they have prefaced their
comments by explicitly identifying the interested parties
on whose behalf they are speaking, and by revealing the
existence of any interest the engineers may have in the
matters.
qualified by education or experience in the specific
technical fields involved.
b. Engineers shall not affix their signatures to any plans
or documents dealing with subject matter in which
they lack competence, nor to any plan or document not
prepared under their direction and control.
c. Engineers may accept assignments and assume
responsibility for coordination of an entire project and sign
and seal the engineering documents for the entire project,
provided that each technical segment is signed and sealed
only by the qualified engineers who prepared the segment.
2. Engineers shall at all times strive to serve the public interest.
a. Engineers are encouraged to participate in civic affairs;
career guidance for youths; and work for the advancement
of the safety, health, and well-being of their community.
b. Engineers shall not complete, sign, or seal plans and/or
specifications that are not in conformity with applicable
engineering standards. If the client or employer insists
on such unprofessional conduct, they shall notify the
proper authorities and withdraw from further service on
the project.
c. Engineers are encouraged to extend public knowledge
and appreciation of engineering and its achievements.
d. Engineers are encouraged to adhere to the principles
of sustainable development1 in order to protect the
environment for future generations.
1. Engineers shall be guided in all their relations by the
highest standards of honesty and integrity.
a. Engineers shall acknowledge their errors and shall not
distort or alter the facts.
b. Engineers shall advise their clients or employers when
they believe a project will not be successful.
c. Engineers shall not accept outside employment to
the detriment of their regular work or interest. Before
accepting any outside engineering employment, they will
notify their employers.
d. Engineers shall not attempt to attract an engineer from
another employer by false or misleading pretenses.
e. Engineers shall not promote their own interest at the
expense of the dignity and integrity of the profession.
III. Professional Obligations
5. Engineers shall avoid deceptive acts.
a. Engineers shall not falsify their qualifications or
permit misrepresentation of their or their associates’
qualifications. They shall not misrepresent or exaggerate
their responsibility in or for the subject matter of prior
assignments. Brochures or other presentations incident
to the solicitation of employment shall not misrepresent
pertinent facts concerning employers, employees,
associates, joint venturers, or past accomplishments.
b. Engineers shall not offer, give, solicit, or receive, either
directly or indirectly, any contribution to influence the
award of a contract by public authority, or which may be
reasonably construed by the public as having the effect
or intent of influencing the awarding of a contract. They
shall not offer any gift or other valuable consideration in
order to secure work. They shall not pay a commission,
percentage, or brokerage fee in order to secure work,
except to a bona fide employee or bona fide established
commercial or marketing agencies retained by them.
1420 KING STREET • ALEXANDRIA, VIRGINIA 22314-2794 • 888-285-NSPE (6773) • LEGAL@NSPE.ORG • WWW.NSPE.ORG • PUBLICATION DATE AS REVISED JULY 2007 • PUBLICATION #1102
COPYRIGHT NATIONAL SOCIETY OF PROFESSIONAL ENGINEERS. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
2. Engineers shall perform services only in the areas of their
competence.
a. Engineers shall undertake assignments only when
1. Engineers shall hold paramount the safety, health, and
welfare of the public.
a. If engineers’ judgment is overruled under
circumstances that endanger life or property, they shall
notify their employer or client and such other authority
as may be appropriate.
b. Engineers shall approve only those engineering documents
that are in conformity with applicable standards.
c. Engineers shall not reveal facts, data, or information
without the prior consent of the client or employer except
as authorized or required by law or this Code.
d. Engineers shall not permit the use of their name or
associate in business ventures with any person or firm
that they believe is engaged in fraudulent or dishonest
enterprise.
e. Engineers shall not aid or abet the unlawful practice of
engineering by a person or firm.
f. Engineers having knowledge of any alleged violation of
this Code shall report thereon to appropriate professional
bodies and, when relevant, also to public authorities, and
cooperate with the proper authorities in furnishing such
information or assistance as may be required.
II. Rules of Practice
Engineers, in the fulfillment of their professional duties, shall:
1. Hold paramount the safety, health, and welfare of the public.
2. Perform services only in areas of their competence.
3. Issue public statements only in an objective and truthful
manner.
4. Act for each employer or client as faithful agents or trustees.
5. Avoid deceptive acts.
6. Conduct themselves honorably, responsibly, ethically,
and lawfully so as to enhance the honor, reputation, and
usefulness of the profession.
I. Fundamental Canons
Engineering is an important and learned profession. As members
of this profession, engineers are expected to exhibit the highest
standards of honesty and integrity. Engineering has a direct and
vital impact on the quality of life for all people. Accordingly, the
services provided by engineers require honesty, impartiality,
fairness, and equity, and must be dedicated to the protection
of the public health, safety, and welfare. Engineers must
perform under a standard of professional behavior that requires
adherence to the highest principles of ethical conduct.
Preamble
Code of Ethics for Engineers
4
Footnote 1 “Sustainable development” is the challenge of meeting
human needs for natural resources, industrial products, energy,
food, transportation, shelter, and effective waste management while
conserving and protecting environmental quality and the natural
resource base essential for future development.
9. Engineers shall give credit for engineering work to those
to whom credit is due, and will recognize the proprietary
interests of others.
a. Engineers shall, whenever possible, name the person or
persons who may be individually responsible for designs,
inventions, writings, or other accomplishments.
b. Engineers using designs supplied by a client recognize
that the designs remain the property of the client and
may not be duplicated by the engineer for others without
express permission.
c. Engineers, before undertaking work for others in
connection with which the engineer may make
improvements, plans, designs, inventions, or other
records that may justify copyrights or patents, should
enter into a positive agreement regarding ownership.
d. Engineers’ designs, data, records, and notes referring
exclusively to an employer’s work are the employer’s
property. The employer should indemnify the engineer
for use of the information for any purpose other than the
original purpose.
e. Engineers shall continue their professional development
throughout their careers and should keep current in their
specialty fields by engaging in professional practice,
participating in continuing education courses, reading
in the technical literature, and attending professional
meetings and seminars.
8. Engineers shall accept personal responsibility for their
professional activities, provided, however, that engineers
may seek indemnification for services arising out of
their practice for other than gross negligence, where the
engineer’s interests cannot otherwise be protected.
a. Engineers shall conform with state registration laws in
the practice of engineering.
b. Engineers shall not use association with a nonengineer, a
corporation, or partnership as a “cloak” for unethical acts.
Engineers who believe others are guilty of unethical or
illegal practice shall present such information to the
proper authority for action.
a. Engineers in private practice shall not review the work
of another engineer for the same client, except with the
knowledge of such engineer, or unless the connection of
such engineer with the work has been terminated.
b. Engineers in governmental, industrial, or educational
employ are entitled to review and evaluate the work of other
engineers when so required by their employment duties.
c. Engineers in sales or industrial employ are entitled to
make engineering comparisons of represented products
with products of other suppliers.
Note: In regard to the question of application of the Code to
corporations vis-a-vis real persons, business form or type should
not negate nor influence conformance of individuals to the Code.
The Code deals with professional services, which services must
be performed by real persons. Real persons in turn establish and
implement policies within business structures. The Code is clearly
written to apply to the Engineer, and it is incumbent on members
of NSPE to endeavor to live up to its provisions. This applies to all
pertinent sections of the Code.
It is further noted that as made clear in the Supreme Court
decision:
1. Engineers and firms may individually refuse to bid for
engineering services.
2. Clients are not required to seek bids for engineering
services.
3. Federal, state, and local laws governing procedures
to procure engineering services are not affected, and
remain in full force and effect.
4. State societies and local chapters are free to actively
and aggressively seek legislation for professional
selection and negotiation procedures by public
agencies.
5. State registration board rules of professional conduct,
including rules prohibiting competitive bidding for
engineering services, are not affected and remain in
full force and effect. State registration boards with
authority to adopt rules of professional conduct may
adopt rules governing procedures to obtain engineering
services.
6. As noted by the Supreme Court, “nothing in the
judgment prevents NSPE and its members from
attempting to influence governmental action . . .”
In order to correct misunderstandings which have been
indicated in some instances since the issuance of the
Supreme Court decision and the entry of the Final Judgment,
it is noted that in its decision of April 25, 1978, the Supreme
Court of the United States declared: “The Sherman Act does
not require competitive bidding.”
Statement by NSPE Executive Committee
“By order of the United States District Court for the
District of Columbia, former Section 11(c) of the NSPE
Code of Ethics prohibiting competitive bidding, and all
policy statements, opinions, rulings or other guidelines
interpreting its scope, have been rescinded as unlawfully
interfering with the legal right of engineers, protected
under the antitrust laws, to provide price information to
prospective clients; accordingly, nothing contained in the
NSPE Code of Ethics, policy statements, opinions, rulings
or other guidelines prohibits the submission of price
quotations or competitive bids for engineering services
at any time or in any amount.”
1420 KING STREET • ALEXANDRIA, VIRGINIA 22314-2794 • 888-285-NSPE (6773) • LEGAL@NSPE.ORG • WWW.NSPE.ORG • PUBLICATION DATE AS REVISED JULY 2007 • PUBLICATION #1102
COPYRIGHT NATIONAL SOCIETY OF PROFESSIONAL ENGINEERS. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
7. Engineers shall not attempt to injure, maliciously or
falsely, directly or indirectly, the professional reputation,
prospects, practice, or employment of other engineers.
6. Engineers shall not attempt to obtain employment or
advancement or professional engagements by untruthfully
criticizing other engineers, or by other improper or
questionable methods.
a. Engineers shall not request, propose, or accept a
commission on a contingent basis under circumstances
in which their judgment may be compromised.
b. Engineers in salaried positions shall accept part-time
engineering work only to the extent consistent with
policies of the employer and in accordance with ethical
considerations.
c. Engineers shall not, without consent, use equipment,
supplies, laboratory, or office facilities of an employer
to carry on outside private practice.
5. Engineers shall not be influenced in their professional
duties by conflicting interests.
a. Engineers shall not accept financial or other
considerations, including free engineering designs,
from material or equipment suppliers for specifying
their product.
b. Engineers shall not accept commissions or allowances,
directly or indirectly, from contractors or other parties
dealing with clients or employers of the engineer
in connection with work for which the engineer is
responsible.
4. Engineers shall not disclose, without consent, confidential
information concerning the business affairs or technical
processes of any present or former client or employer, or
public body on which they serve.
a. Engineers shall not, without the consent of all
interested parties, promote or arrange for new
employment or practice in connection with a specific
project for which the engineer has gained particular
and specialized knowledge.
b. Engineers shall not, without the consent of all
interested parties, participate in or represent an
adversary interest in connection with a specific project
or proceeding in which the engineer has gained
particular specialized knowledge on behalf of a former
client or employer.
3. Engineers shall avoid all conduct or practice that
deceives the public.
a. Engineers shall avoid the use of statements containing
a material misrepresentation of fact or omitting a
material fact.
b. Consistent with the foregoing, engineers may advertise
for recruitment of personnel.
c. Consistent with the foregoing, engineers may prepare
articles for the lay or technical press, but such articles
shall not imply credit to the author for work performed
by others.
Navigate Your Future Writing Rubric
Content
Indicator
Excellent
Good
Fair
Needs Improvement
Not Demonstrated
Excellent
Good
Fair
Needs Improvement
Not Demonstrated
Excellent
Good
Fair
Needs Improvement
Not Demonstrated
Grasp of subject matter
Applies key concepts and terminology
appropriate to discipline
Supported with effective and appropriate
examples, research, or evidence
Content Subtotal (12)
Audience/Style
Indicator
Reflects keen awareness of intended
audience/purpose
Format highly appropriate to purpose and
disciplinary conventions
Succinct and easy to understand
Audience/Style Subtotal (12)
Structure/Mechanics
Indicator
Applies standard grammar and mechanics
Develops effective sentence structure
Consistently applies organizational
structure
Reflects careful proofreading and editing
Structure/Mechanics Subtotal (16)
Total (40)
Comments:
THE FORD PINTO CASE:
3/26/18, 9*40 PM
THE FORD PINTO CASE:
THE VALUATION OF LIFE AS IT APPLIES
TO THE NEGLIGENCE-EFFICIENCY ARGUMENT
Christopher Leggett
Law & Valuation
Professor Palmiter
Spring, 1999
Abstract
Text of Paper
Abstract
The cases involving the explosion of Ford Pinto’s due to a defective fuel system design led to the debate
of many issues, most centering around the use by Ford of a cost-benefit analysis and the ethics
surrounding its decision not to upgrade the fuel system based on this analysis.
ISSUE
Should a risk/benefit analysis be used in situations where a defect in design or manufacturing could lead
to death or seriously bodily harm, such as in the Ford Pinto situation?
RULE
There are arguments both for and against such an analysis. It is an economically efficient method which
has been accepted by courts for numerous years, however, juries may not always agree, so companies
should take this into account.
ANALYSIS
Although Ford had access to a new design which would decrease the possibility of the Ford Pinto from
exploding, the company chose not to implement the design, which would have cost $11 per car, even
though it had done an analysis showing that the new design would result in 180 less deaths. The
company defended itself on the grounds that it used the acc …
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