essay (History)

-Discuss the importance of alcohol in the colonial Chesapeake, and analyze how race or class or gender (just one) influenced the consumption of alcohol.-Minimum of 1000 words. single space-Cite at least three of the following readings:http://www.virtualjamestown.org/exist/cocoon/james…http://www.virtualjamestown.org/wbind1.htmlhttp://eada.lib.umd.edu/text-entries/history-of-th…http://eada.lib.umd.edu/text-entries/progress-to-t…and must cite one attached readings-Must include the introduction page, body paragraph, and conclusion
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46 Chapter 3
3.2.4 Community Life in the
Chesapeake
At least three-quarters of the English migrants to the Chesapeake came as indentured servants. In exchange for the
cost of their transportation to the New World, men and
women contracted to labor for a master for a fixed term.
Most were young, unskilled males, who served for two to
seven years, but some were skilled craftsmen, unmarried
women, or even orphan children.
African slaves were first introduced to the Chesapeake
in 1619, but slaves were more expensive than servants,
and as late as 1680 they made up less than 7 percent of the
population. In the hard-driving economy of the Chesapeake, however, masters treated servants as cruelly as they
treated slaves. Because of the high mortality resulting from
epidemics of typhus and malaria, approximately two of
every five servants died during the term of their indenture.
Indentured labor may not have been slavery, but this may
have seemed to the indentured servants like a distinction
without a difference (see Chapter 4 for a full discussion of
slavery).
Many indentured servants who survived their terms
and were able to raise the price of passage quickly returned to England. Those who remained became eligible
for “freedom dues”—clothing, tools, a gun, or a spinning wheel to help them get started on their own. They
often headed west in the hope of cutting a farm from the
forest.
Because most emigrants were men, whether free or indentured, free unmarried women often married as soon as
they arrived. Their scarcity provided women with certain
advantages. Shrewd widows bargained for a remarriage
agreement that gave them a larger share of the estate than
what was set by common law. But because of high mortality rates, family size was smaller and kinship bonds—one
of the most important components of community—were
weaker than in England.
English visitors often remarked on the crude conditions of community life. Prosperous planters, investing everything in tobacco production, lived in rough
wooden dwellings. On the western edge of the settlements, freed servants lived with their families in shacks,
huts, or even caves. Colonists spread across the countryside in search of new tobacco lands, creating dispersed
settlements with hardly any towns. Before 1650 there
were few community institutions such as schools and
churches.
Nevertheless, the Chesapeake was a growing region.
By the end of the seventeenth century, the combined population of the Maryland and Virginia colonies was nearly
90,000. In contrast to the colonists of New France, who
were developing a distinctive identity because of their
connections with native peoples, the English residents
M03_FARA8511_08_SE_C03.indd 46
of the Chesapeake maintained close emotional ties to the
mother country.
3.3 The New England
Colonies
What were the social and political values of Puritanism,
and how did religious dissent shape the history of the
New England colonies?
Both in climate and in geography, the northern coast of
North America was far different from the Chesapeake.
“Merchantable commodities” such as tobacco could not
be produced there, and thus it was far less favored for investment and settlement. Instead, the region became a haven for Protestant dissenters from England, who gave the
colonies of the north a distinctive character of their own
(see Map 3.3).
3.3.1 Puritanism
Most English men and women continued to practice
a Christianity little different from traditional Catholicism. But the English followers of John Calvin, known as
Puritans because they wished to purify and reform the
English church from within, grew increasingly influential
during the last years of Elizabeth’s reign at the end of the
sixteenth century. The Calvinist emphasis on enterprise
meant that Puritanism appealed to merchants, entrepreneurs, and commercial farmers. They argued for reviving
communities by placing reformed Christian congregations
at their core to monitor the behavior of individuals.
James I abandoned Queen Elizabeth’s policy of religious tolerance. His persecution of the Puritans, however, merely stiffened their resolve and turned them
toward open political opposition. James’s son and successor, Charles I (reigned 1625–1649), was heavily criticized by the increasingly vocal Puritan minority for
marrying a French Roman Catholic princess and supporting “High Church” policies, emphasizing the authority of the clerical hierarchy and traditional forms
of worship. In 1629, determined to rule without these
troublesome opponents, Charles dismissed Parliament
and launched a campaign of repression against the Puritans. This political turmoil provided the context for the
migration of thousands of English Protestants to New
England.
3.3.2 Plymouth Colony
The first English colony in New England was founded by
a group of religious dissenters known to later generations
as the Pilgrims. One group moved to Holland in 1609, but
12/01/15 10:44 AM
Planting Colonies in North America 1588–1701
fearful that tolerant and secular Dutch society was seducing their children, they decided on emigration to North
America. Backed by the Virginia Company of London
and led by tradesman William Bradford, 102 people sailed
from England on the Mayflower in September 1620.
The little group, mostly families but including a substantial number of single men hired by the investors, arrived in Massachusetts Bay at the site of the former Indian
village of Pawtuxet, which the English renamed Plymouth. Soon the hired men began to grumble about being
excluded from decision making, and to reassure them
Bradford drafted an agreement by which all the male
members of the expedition did “covenant and combine
together into a civil body politic.” The Mayflower Compact was the first document of self-government in North
America.
Weakened by scurvy and malnutrition, nearly half
the colonists perished over the first winter. Like the earlier settlers of Roanoke and Jamestown, however, they
were rescued by Indians. Massasoit, the sachem, or chief,
of the Pokanokets, offered the newcomers food and advice in return for an alliance against his enemies, the
Narragansetts. It was the familiar pattern of Indians attempting to incorporate European colonists into their
own world (see Communities in Conflict).
The Pilgrims supported themselves by farming, but
like all colonies Plymouth needed a source of revenue, in
their case in order to pay off their English investors. The
foundation of their commercial economy was the cod fishery in the rich coastal banks of the Atlantic. With this revenue the Pilgrims were able to establish a self-sufficient
community.
3.3.3 The Massachusetts
Bay Colony
In England, the political climate of the late 1620s convinced
growing numbers of influential Puritans that the only way
to protect their congregations was by emigration. In 1629
a royal charter was granted to a group of wealthy Puritans
who called their enterprise the Massachusetts Bay Company, and an advance force of 200 settlers left for the fishing settlement of Naumkeag on Massachusetts Bay, which
they renamed Salem.
The colonists hoped to establish what John Winthrop,
their leader and first governor, called “a city on a hill,” a
New England model of reform for old England. In this
they differed from the Pilgrims, who never considered returning. Between 1629 and 1643, some 20,000 individuals
relocated to Massachusetts, establishing the port town of
Boston and ringing it with towns.
In 1629 Puritan leaders transferred company operations from England to Massachusetts, and within
a few years had transformed the company into a civil
M03_FARA8511_08_SE_C03.indd 47
47
Governor John Winthrop, a portrait painted by an unknown artist,
about 1640. Winthrop was first elected governor of Massachusetts
Bay Colony in 1629 and reelected a total of twelve times.
government. The original charter established a General
Court composed of a governor and his deputy, a board of
magistrates (or advisers), and the members of the corporation, known as freemen. In 1632, Governor Winthrop and
his advisers declared that all the male heads of households
in Massachusetts, who were also church members, were
freemen. Two years later, the freemen secured their right to
select delegates to represent the towns in drafting the laws
of the colony. These delegates and the magistrates later became the colony’s two legislative houses.
3.3.4 Dissent and New Communities
The Puritans immigrated to North America in order to
practice their variety of Christianity. But like the Pilgrims
they had little tolerance for religious difference. Doctrinal
disagreements among them often led to the establishment of new colonies. In 1636 Thomas Hooker, minister
of the congregation at Cambridge, after objecting to the
Massachusetts policy of restricting male suffrage to church
members, led his followers west to the Connecticut River,
where they founded the town of Hartford. The same year
Roger Williams, the minister at Salem, was banished from
12/01/15 10:44 AM
48 Chapter 3
Communities in Conflict
The Maypole at Merrymount
“They also set up a May-pole, drinking and
dancing about it many days together. . . .”
In 1625 a small group of English fur traders established a
small coastal outpost some thirty miles to the north of the
Pilgrims’ colony of Plymouth. The fur trade was important
to the Pilgrim economy, and the Pilgrims did not appreciate the appearance of competitors. They were even less
fond of Thomas Morton, leader of the outpost, who was
very successful at establishing good relations with local
native groups, in part by supplying them with firearms for
use in hunting. When in 1628 Morton organized a May Day
celebration, which included Indian participants, Governor
William Bradford of Plymouth ordered his arrest, his deportation to England, and the destruction of the settlement. The
following accounts, written by Bradford and Morton, emphasize the differences between the two communities. Two
centuries later, Nathaniel Hawthorne wrote a famous short
story about the conflict at Merrymount (or Ma-Re Mount), the
name Morton gave to his community.
How do Bradford’s and Morton’s accounts reveal the
differences between their two communities?
The Lord of Misrule
After this they fell to great licentiousness, and led a dissolute life, powering out themselves into all profaneness. And
Morton became lord of misrule, and maintained (as it were)
a school of Atheism. And after they had got some goods into
their hands, and got much by trading with the Indians, they
spent it as vainly, in quaffing and drinking both wine and
strong waters in great excess, and, as some reported, £10
worth in a morning. They also set up a May-pole, drinking
and dancing about it many days together, inviting the Indian
women, for their consorts, dancing and frisking together, (like
so many fairies, or furies rather,) and worse practices. . . .
Morton likewise (to show his poetry) composed sundry
rhymes and verses, some tending to lasciviousness, and
others to the detraction and scandal of some persons, which
he affixed to this idle or idol Maypole. They changed also
the name of their place, . . . [calling it] Merrymount, as if this
jollity would have lasted ever.
Now to maintain this riotous prodigality and profuse
excess, Morton, thinking himself lawless, and hearing what
gain the French and fisher-men made by trading of pieces,
powder, and shot to the Indians, he, as the head of this
consortship, began the practice of the same in these parts;
and first he taught them how to use them, to charge, and
discharge, and what proportion of powder to give the piece,
according to the size or bigness of the same; and what shot
to use for fowl, and what for deer. And having thus instructed them, he employed some of them to hunt and fowl
for him, so as they became far more active in that employment than any of the English, by reason of their swiftness of
foot, and nimbleness of body, being also quick sighted, and
by continual exercise well knowing the haunts of all sorts of
game.
M03_FARA8511_08_SE_C03.indd 48
. . . This Morton having thus taught them the use of
pieces, he sold them all he could spare; and he and his
consorts determined to send for many out of England, and
had by some of the ships sent for above a score. The which
being known, and his neighbors meeting the Indians in the
woods armed with guns in this way, it was a terror unto
them. . . . And other places (though more remote) saw this
mischief would quickly spread over all, if not prevented.
Besides, they saw they should keep no servants, for Morton
would entertain any, how vile so ever, and all the scum of
the country, or any discontents, would flock to him from
all places, if this nest was not broken; and they should
stand in more fear of their lives and goods (in short time)
from this wicked and debased crew than from the salvages
themselves.
. . . Upon which they saw there was no way but to take
him by force; and having so far proceeded, now to give over
would make him far more haughty and insolent. So they
mutually resolved to proceed, and obtained of the Governor
of Plymouth to send Captain Standish, and some other aide
with him, to take Morton by force. The which accordingly
was done. . . . After Morton was sent for England, . . . shortly
after came over that worthy gentleman, Mr. John Endecott,
who brought over a patent under the broad seal, for the
government of the Massachusetts, who visiting those parts
caused that Maypole to be cut down, and rebuked them for
their profanities, and admonished them . . .; so they now, or
others, changed the name of their place again, and called it
Mount-Dagon.
SOURCE: William Bradford, History of Plimoth Plantation (1620–1647).
12/01/15 10:44 AM
Planting Colonies in North America 1588–1701
49
Lasses in Beaver Coats Come Away
The Inhabitants of Pasonagessit, having translated the name
of their habitation from that ancient Salvage name to Ma-re
Mount, and being resolved to have the new name confirmed
for a memorial to after ages, did devise amongst themselves
to have it performed in a solemn manner, with Revels and
merriment after the old English custom. [They] prepared to
set up a Maypole upon the festival day of Philip and Jacob,
and therefore brewed a barrel of excellent beer and provided
a case of bottles, to be spent, with other good cheer, for all
comers of that day. And because they would have it in a complete form, they had prepared a song fitting to the time and
present occasion. And upon Mayday they brought the Maypole to the place appointed, with drums, guns, pistols and
other fitting instruments, for that purpose; and there erected
it with the help of Salvages, that came thither of purpose to
see the manner of our Revels. A goodly pine tree of 80 foot
long was reared up, with a pair of buck’s horns nailed one
somewhat near unto the top of it: where it stood, as a faire
sea mark for directions how to find out the way to mine Host
of Ma-re Mount. . . . There was likewise a merry song made,
which, (to make their Revels more fashionable,) was sung
with a Chorus, every man bearing his part; which they performed in a dance, hand in hand about the Maypole. . . .
Massachusetts for advocating religious tolerance. With a
group of his followers, Williams immigrated to the country
surrounding Narragansett Bay.
Anne Hutchinson, the brilliant and outspoken wife of
a Puritan merchant, criticized a number of Boston ministers. Their concentration on good works, she argued, led
people to believe they could earn their way to heaven.
Hutchinson was called before the General Court, and in
an extraordinary hearing was reprimanded, excommunicated, and banished. She and a group of followers relocated to the Williams colony on Narragansett Bay.
To protect the dissenters in his settlement from Puritan
interference, Williams won royal charters in 1644 and 1663
establishing the independent colony of Rhode Island with
guarantees of self-government and complete religious liberty.
3.3.5 Indians and Puritans
The Indian communities of southern New England discovered soon after the arrival of the Pilgrims and the Puritans
that these colonists were quite different from the French
and Dutch traders who had preceded them. Although the
fur trade was an important part of the economy of Plymouth and Massachusetts, the principal concern of the colonists was the acquisition of Indian land for their growing
settlements.
Potential conflicts among settlers over title, however,
made it necessary to obtain original deeds from Indians,
and the English used a variety of tactics to pressure leaders
M03_FARA8511_08_SE_C03.indd 49
Make green garlands, bring bottles out
And fill sweet Nectar freely about.
Uncover thy head and fear no harm,
For here’s good liquor to keep it warm.
[Chorus] Drink and be merry, merry, merry boys;
Let all your delight be in the Hymen’s joys;
Joy to Hymen, now the day is come,
About the merry Maypole take a Room.
Give to the Nymphs that’s free from scorn
No Irish stuff nor Scotch over worn.
Lasses in beaver coats come away,
Ye shall be welcome to us night and day.
. . . The setting up of this Maypole was a lamentable spectacle
to the precise separatists, that lived at new Plymouth. They
termed it an Idol; yea, they called it the [Golden] Calf, . . . and
stood at defiance with the place, naming it Mount Dagon;
threatening to make it a woeful mount and not a merry
mount.
SOURCE: Thomas Morton, New English Canaan (1637).
into signing “quitclaims,” relinquishing all claim to specified properties. Colonists allowed livestock to graze in native fields, destroying their subsistence. They fined Indians
for violations of English law, such as working on the Sabbath, and demanded land as payment. They made deals
with corrupt Indian leaders. Meanwhile epidemic disease
continued to devastate Indian villages. Disorganized and
demoralized, many coastal native communities not only
gave up their lands but also placed themselves under the
protection of the English.
By the late 1630s only a few tribes in southern New
England retained the power to challenge Puritan expansion. The Pequots, who lived along the shores of Long
Island Sound near the mouth of the Connecticut River,
were one of the most powerful. In 1637, Puritan leaders pressured the Pequots’ traditional enemies, the Narragansetts of present-day Rhode Island, to join them in
waging war on the Pequots. Narragansett warriors and
English troops attacked the main Pequot village, burning
the houses and killing most of their slumbering residents.
The indiscriminate slaughter shocked the Narragansetts,
who condemned the English way of war. It was “too
furious and slays too many,” they declared.
3.3.6 The Economy: New England
Merchants
In England, the dispute between King Charles I and the
Puritans in Parliament escalated into armed conflict in
12/01/15 10:44 AM
50 Chapter 3
the governing body of the colony,
granted townships to a group of
proprietors, the leaders of a congregation wishing to settle new lands.
These men then distributed fields,
pasture, and woodlands in quantities proportional to the social status
of the recipient, with wealthy families receiving more than others. The
Puritans believed that social hierarchy was ordained by God and made
for well-ordered communities. Settlers typically clustered their dwellings in a central village, near the
meetinghouse that served as both
church and civic center. Clustered
settlements and strong communities
distinguished New England from
the dispersed and weak communities of the Chesapeake.
The ideal Puritan family was
also
well ordered. Parents often parThe first map printed in the English colonies, this view of New England was published in
ticipated in the choice of mates for
Boston in 1677. With north oriented to the right, it looks west from Massachusetts Bay, the two
vertical b …
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