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The Essay needs to be REVISED according to my professor’s comments which are attached. The essay is too vague, please try making it more specific and concise. Exemplification Essay on the book I, Robot. (Link to book:… )How do robots currently function as human companions?The essay is attached along with a copy of the essay with the professor’s comments. Please do your best to better the essay according to the comments made by the professor. A rubric for exemplification essays is also attached. Absolutely NO PLAGIARISM.


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Matian 1
Doron Matian
English M01A
Professor Yablon
April 1, 2018
How Robots Now Function as Human Companions
The wake of the twenty-first century has faced countless technological
advancements and one of the latest inventions is the robot. Robots are machine
operated devices that can take on given tasks under a given set of instructions. In this
case, not only have robots helped to ease the problems faced by human beings but
they have also been equipped to work under harsh and intense conditions and thus
have also been a crucial part of industrial development. From the numerous supporters
of the influence of robots in society, it is evident that they have influenced the way
individuals carry out their activities on a daily basis whether it is in a positive or negative
sense. In essence, these intelligent robots have worked to ensure they have helped
man undertake crucial tasks and also provide insights on the best way to go about
them. In the field of industrial development, robots have been perceived as fast,
accurate, and proficient and as a result have become both beneficial to the individuals
owning companies but have also been perceived as detrimental in the aspect of training
the employees to work with the robots cohesively. In his assertions, LaFrance provides
some exciting concepts about the existence, functions, and the influence of robots on
human activities. The author further affirms that robots are human-like machines which

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man can improvise with the aim of making them masters, slaves, partners, or
companions. This statement implies that despite the fact that robots can work
accurately and efficiently, it is still a man’s doing which dictates the roles it will go about
in society. Therefore, this essay aims to assess ways through which robots can function
as a human companion and their effectiveness towards accomplishing given tasks. In
addition, the paper further seeks to carry out a comprehensive assessment of the
advantages of having a robot as a human companion.
In a book written by Kerstin Dautenhahn, a Research Professor of Artificial
Intelligence, she shares some comprehensive insights on how robots can function as a
human companion. In her assertions, she notes that future robots can be used as
caregivers to the old age individuals in the society (Dautenhahn et al. 43). The
statement implies that robots can be used in the provision of healthcare requirements
and this can be observed through administering strict routine for medication and also
provide them with emotional support. The author further affirms that the robots which
are being manufactured have been impacted by the ability to induce therapeutic effect
(Dautenhahn et al. 78). This statement implies that the robots are in a position to
adequately provide comfort and solace for the sick individuals and thus this can be
observed as one of the ways through which robots can be used as a human companion.
For example, Isaac Asimov, the author of the novel, I, Robot notes that Robbie is a nonvocal robot but still serves as an adequate human companion (Asimov 24). For
instance, individual suffering from dementia and depression can be provided adequate
comfort and care through the use of robots. Therefore, one can observe that such
robots are beneficial in the medicinal field because they cannot get exhausted and thus
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their caregiving practice can be carried all throughout and this can as a result heavily
improve the wellbeing of many senior citizens.
In other instances, some robots have been impacted by artificial intelligence and
thus they form reliable companions to human beings. Such robots have been tested
efficiently and proved that they could provide answers covering different fields.
Broadbent affirms that robots usually work to reveal a deeper understanding of oneself
and thus one can determine his or her level of intelligence by making use of a robot
(Broadbent 630). Considering these facts, many young children can be in a position to
learn to make use of the robots. In most instances, the condition can be observed as
fun, but in the long run, the child gains some knowledge through the interaction with the
robot. In this case, there are robots which have emotions and are essential in making
choices. For instance, Aldebaran Robotics an international firm associated with the
production of robots has been linked with the evolution of a humanoid robot which can
adequately serve the companionship role. The most resounding fact of the innovation is
the fact that the humanoid is in a position to detect the various facial expressions, assist
in the making of decisions and also can communicate with other individuals. The Robot
named Pepper is in a position to care for other individuals and can respond to questions
based on the mood. In this case, one can observe that such robots are critical in
addressing some of the issues which cannot be appropriately handled by another
individual. In addition, it is also crucial to note that the robots work to provide comfort
due to the factor they harbor and can detect the mood based on the verbal cues
presented by a given individual. Therefore, from this one can adequately note that
robots such as Pepper are unique and can be used as an efficient human companion.
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With the increased level of intelligence and the ability to comprehensively blend with the
individuals in the surrounding then the robots can form adequate companions for human
Throughout the world, various individuals consider animals such as dogs and
cats as pets whose company they have continuously enjoyed. The concept of having
animals as pets has been surpassed by the steadily and gradually increasing levels of
technology. The statement implies that engineers have devised robots which have been
programmed to act as pets. Asimov in his novel also recognizes the importance of a pet
robot when taking of how Gloria had lost weight and credits the accomplishment to the
pet robot (Asimov 22). Many psychiatrists and people in the medical field have noted
that increased levels of isolation and loneliness are some of the health hazards which
significantly lead to the increase in the obesity levels among different people. Lin affirms
that the idea of computerized pets is impressive as they are in a position to function
based on the instructions provided by the owner contrary to the dogs and cats which
may not be the same as the robots (Lin 67). Through the exploration of human
psychology, the developers of the robots have adequate knowledge about the
requirements of the user and thus this works to provide the individual with full
entertainment value and companionship which cannot be derived from the cats and
dogs. Hence, the evolution of the new technology has helped to see that robot
companions are created which act as pets and thus assist in providing both
companionship and entertainment value to persons in the society.
It is evident that there has been increased productivity in the industrial sector
through the introduction of different aspects of technology. One of the ways through
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which technology has been incorporated is the evolution of robots which provide human
with companionship and thus aid in the total increase in the level of productivity. Lin
rules out the notion that the introduction of robots leads to the loss of jobs but instead
notes that both humans and machines can work together with the primary aim of
increasing the production level of any given institution (Lin 76). In this case, the robots
are used in heavy lifting and complete activities which require a great deal of precision.
Therefore, with such a case, the humans can reciprocate their efforts through regular
maintenance and servicing which will ensure that they both benefit symbiotically.
Considering all these elements, robots provide industrial assistance and humans work
to ensure that the welfare of the robots is addressed. This ultimately ensures that the
element of companionship is felt in the long run. As a result, it is evident that robots can
function adequately as a companion to human beings.
Despite the fact that society has begun accepting the fact that robots impact
positively on the welfare of human beings it is correct to note that the evolution of sex
robots has not been totally accepted by different cultures in different parts of the world.
According to the article in the Wall Street Journal, the evolution of sex dolls like
Samantha can be observed as a step towards reinforcing the concept of companionship
but various social groups have come forth to dispute the initiative being undertaken
(Berman). The sex doll has the ability to seduce a person and can also entertain
conversations on different topics based on the interests of the individual. Thus, even
though the practice can be observed as unethical and does not coincide with many
beliefs and values of different societies, it is essential to note that the robots still
undertake their mandate of providing sexual companionship to human beings.
Matian 6
In conclusion, it is evident that the technological advancements in the current
generation have significantly helped in ensuring that technology provides
companionship to the welfare of human beings. The different forms of robots play a
crucial role in providing companionship to individuals and this has been observed as a
proper therapeutic step as it aids in addressing some of the major challenges which
affect the health status of human beings. Furthermore, it is vital to note that with the
increased level of technology then the level of companionship between humans and the
robots can definitely be elevated. Therefore, just as LaFrance notes, there are different
ways through which the impacts of the robots can be felt in society.
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Works Cited
Asimov, Isaac. I, Robot “Robot Dreams.” Science Fiction and Philosophy, Aug. 2016, pp.
117–124., doi:10.1002/9781118922590.ch12 Retrieved from
Berman, Laura. “The Future of Sex: It Gets Better.” The Wall Street Journal, Dow Jones
& Company, 27 Apr. 2015,
Broadbent, Elizabeth. “Interactions with robots: The truths we reveal about
ourselves.” Annual review of psychology 68 (2017): 627-652.
Dautenhahn, Kerstin, et al. “What is a robot companion-friend, assistant, or
butler?” Intelligent Robots, and Systems, 2005. (IROS 2005). 2005 IEEE/RSJ
International Conference on. IEEE, 2005.
LaFrance, Adrienne. “What Is a Robot?” The Atlantic, Atlantic Media Company, 22 Mar.
Lin, Patrick. “Drone-ethics briefing: What a leading robot expert told the CIA.” The
Atlantic 15 (2011).
GRADING CRITERIA for Expository Essays with Source Citations
These criteria apply to typical papers in English composition and literature courses. These standards do not consider a
student’s effort or ability; they apply only to the finished paper itself. A grade of C is considered adequate or satisfactory.
Grades of A and B represent significantly higher performances, while D and F are not passing grades. Instructor may
consider the context of the paper (type/level of the course, point in the semester, in-class preparation, focus of the
assignment) in assigning a grade.
The A paper is an outstanding performance; it may exceed the expectations of the assignment. It is thought-provoking
and well-crafted. It demonstrates excellence on all levels.
THESIS: clear, specific, original, significant, insightful.
ORGANIZATION: logical, creative organization growing naturally from thesis and content; paragraphs linked to thesis
and to each other using fluid transitions; strong introduction and conclusion. Source material is thoroughly and creatively
integrated into student’s argument.
DEVELOPMENT: paragraphs thoroughly developed and linked by unobtrusive, organic transitions; graceful use of
varied rhetorical strategies; rich variety of convincing reasons, explanations, examples, illustrations; concrete, powerful
INFORMATION LITERACY: sources are of the highest quality and are sufficient in number; thorough and creative use
of varied source material. Quotations, summary, and paraphrases are deftly analyzed or interpreted.
LANGUAGE: grace and economy of expression; conscious choice of language; vivid, precise, original word choice.
TONE/VOICE: authoritative, genuine authorial voice; awareness of audience.
SENTENCES: rich variety and complexity of sentence structure; free of basic errors such as fragments, run-ons, and
subject/verb agreement.
MECHANICS: mastery of conventions of edited standard English.
MLA: quotations correctly introduced, punctuated, and formatted (e.g., blocked, when necessary). Parenthetical
citations done correctly. Works Cited page follows most recent MLA guidelines; very minor, if any, formatting
errors. Most recent MLA guidelines are followed.
The B paper is a good, better-than-average performance. It meets the expectations of the assignment. It is interesting and
clearly written. It demonstrates competency on all levels.
THESIS: clear and purposeful.
ORGANIZATION: logical organization; paragraphs linked to thesis and to each other using effective transitions; welldeveloped introduction and conclusion. Source material is integrated into student’s own argument.
DEVELOPMENT: rhetorical strategies used as necessary; coherent paragraphs, fully developed with supporting reasons,
explanations, examples, illustrations; generalizations supported with relevant, specific details.
INFORMATION LITERACY: sources are of good quality and number; appropriately varied and thorough source
material; quotations, summary, and paraphrases are analyzed or interpreted.
LANGUAGE: concise sentences; accurate and effective word choice.
TONE/VOICE: engaging authorial voice; some awareness of audience.
SENTENCES: some variety and complexity of sentence structure; mostly free of basic
errors such as fragments, run-ons, subject/verb agreement.
MECHANICS: observes conventions of standard written English.
MLA: quotations are correctly introduced, punctuated, and formatted in most instances. Parenthetical citations and
Works Cited page are mostly correct. Minor formatting errors do not deter from comprehensibility of citations; all
significant information included. Most recent MLA guidelines are followed.
The C paper represents adequate, readable college-level writing that generally responds to the assignment.
THESIS: controlling idea may be overly general or not closely linked to content of essay.
ORGANIZATION: some evidence of organization or rhetorical framework; clear beginning, middle, and end. Source
material relates to student’s argument but is not smoothly integrated.
DEVELOPMENT: uses paragraphs and topic sentences; gives supporting reasons and examples, but may not be logically
reasoned or fully developed.
INFORMATION LITERACY: sources are of acceptable quality and number; may not be the most relevant or current
sources; quotations, summary, and paraphrases are commented upon simplistically.
LANGUAGE: clear writing, mostly accurate word choice.
TONE/VOICE: inconsistent authorial voice; basic awareness of audience.
SENTENCES: complete, mostly correct sentences; may contain occasional grammatical or syntactical errors.
MECHANICS: free of distracting errors of spelling and punctuation.
MLA: some errors in quotation formatting (dropped quotations, failure to block long quotes, errors in punctuation).
Some content and formatting errors exist in parenthetical references and Works Cited page. Parenthetical references
may not coordinate well with Works Cited entries. Most recent MLA guidelines are used primarily, though some
inconsistency may occur.
The D paper is confusing, difficult to read, unfocused. It does not demonstrate competent college-level writing. It may
fail to address all parts of the assignment.
THESIS: unclear or vague, poorly linked to content of essay.
ORGANIZATION: poorly structured or disordered. Source material is irrelevant, awkwardly placed, or not coherently
integrated into paper.
DEVELOPMENT: underdeveloped; paragraphs overly long or short, arbitrarily or illogically ordered; incoherent or not
unified; lack of support for ideas; lack of or errors in concrete detail; irrelevancies, redundancies, oversimplifications,
filler. May not meet length requirement.
INFORMATION LITERACY: insufficient number of sources or insufficient amount of source material used. Sources are
inappropriate for college-level research (dubious web page quality, lack of Library sources, outdated or irrelevant
sources). Some source material is plagiarized (quotations marks not used, insufficient paraphrases, summaries of others’
ideas not attributed to sources); source material does not adequately support student’s argument; source material is not
sufficiently reflected upon or interpreted.
LANGUAGE: unclear or incoherent writing.
TONE/VOICE: little awareness of audience.
SENTENCES: wordy, confusing, or incomplete sentences; frequent grammatical or syntactical errors.
MECHANICS: distracting mechanical errors.
MLA: frequent, significant errors in quotation formatting. Parenthetical citations are frequently absent or inaccurate.
Many errors or omissions in content and formatting of Works Cited entries. Outdated MLA formatting guidelines
may be used.
The F paper is weak in several areas. It fails to communicate its ideas effectively. It may not address the assigned
question. It may be late without instructor approval. Plagiarized papers merit an automatic F.
THESIS: lacks a thesis or controlling idea; does not address assigned topic.
ORGANIZATION: lacks organizing principle; lacks clear beginning, middle, and end; lacks clear paragraphing; lacks
clear transitions. Source material is irrelevant and illogically placed.
DEVELOPMENT: severely underdeveloped; seriously and consistently illogical and/or predicated on false premises;
absence of or severe errors in concrete detail.
INFORMATION LITERACY: unacceptable number and/or quality of sources. Inadequate amount of source material
used in essay. Much source material is plagiarized (quotations marks not used, insufficient paraphrases, summaries of
others’ ideas not attributed to sources, essay has been written by someone other than the student who claims authorship).
Source material is irrelevant or contradicts student’s argument; source material is not reflected upon or interpreted.
LANGUAGE: obscure, vague writing; inaccurate word choice.
TONE/VOICE: little or no awareness of audience.
SENTENCES: numerous grammatical or syntactical errors.
MECHANICS: numerous distracting mechanical errors.
MLA: severe deficiencies in quotation formatting, parenthetical citations, and Works Cited entries; lack of
parenthetical citations; missing Works Cited list. Outdated MLA formatting guidelines may be used.

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