First World War Aftermath and the Production of Memory through Art

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Hanan Altamimi
History 311
Bibliography assignment
First World War Aftermath and the Production of Memory through Art
Sherman, Daniel J. “Art, commerce, and the production of memory in France after World
War I.” Commemorations: The politics of national identity 188 (1994).
In the article “Art, commerce, and the production of memory in France after World War
I.” Daniel Sharman gives a clear insight into the aftermath of the World War I in France
and the attempts that the French leaders made in the conservation of the memory through
art. Sharman describes how tensions rose during the construction of various monuments
and other works of art that were intended to store the memories of the world war.
Sharman describes how the Fine Art Ministry in Paris played a pivotal role in stabling the
art that to date store the memories of a war that took the lives of many and that which had
a significant impact on the phase of the world. Sharman describes and gives more insight
on the dichotomy that existed between commerce and art or also between that which
existed between high and popular art in the country. Sherman reveals that or the French,
most of the monuments that were made after the war were not just artwork but symbols
and illustration of the loss of lives and properties that they had incurred.
Stout, Janis P. Coming Out of War: Poetry, Grieving, and the Culture of the World Wars.
University of Alabama Press, 2016.
In the book Coming Out of War: Poetry, Grieving, and the Culture of the World Wars
Janis Stout gives a good insight on how art has helped in the preservation of the
memories of the events that transpired during the world wars including World War I.
Janis describes in his book how the first world war had a devastating effect on many
people especially in the countries that acted as the battlefields. Janis also describes the
factors that led to the war and also the potential reasons that fueled the war. According to
Janis, poetry which is a form of art has played a very significant role in the preservation
of the memories of the events that took place during the world wars. He describes artists
who have confidently captured the aftermaths of the world war I through art and also
gives a brief example and descriptions of some of the works of art that have helped in the
preservation of the memories. According to Janis cultures of various ethnic groups of the
world have also played a part in the storage and preservation of the memories of the
World War I aftermath.
Wingate, Jennifer. Sculpting Doughboys: Memory, Gender, and Taste in America’s World
War I Memorials. Routledge, 2017.
The author of the book Jenifer Wingate from St Francis College gives a clear illustration
of the how art has played an important role in the preservation of the cultural, economic
and political forces, factors, and events over the years. She examines how the political,
cultural and political forces gave rise to various monuments that that today serve as
sources of memory in the world. She goes ahead and talks about various aspects related
to art such as the groups of people who should be mandated to define the aesthetic
standards of public commemorations. Her work gives a clear understanding of how the
memories especially those that depict loses after the First World War are preserved in
monuments and other forms of art. Jennifer also gives a clear understanding of the
importance of preserving such memories because they are memories for our people, our
warriors, and soldiers who gave up their lives for the name of the country. Jennifer’s
reminds of the importance of preserving memories because they help up appreciate the
steps that we make towards growth and development in the world.
Winter, Jay. “Sites of Memory and the Shadow of War.” A companion to cultural memory
studies (2010): 61-74.
In the article sites of memory and the shadow of war, the author Jay Winter gives a clear
explanation of what sites of memory are and why people visit them. Jay reminds of the
importance of commemorating historical events and having art as a storage component
for the information. The authors give examples of major historical events that have been
commemorated in various forms of art or at least those that should be commemorated by
various forms of art. Among the examples that he gives are those of the Holocaust, the
Hiroshima atomic bombing and the aftermath of the first and the Second World War. Jay
appreciates the artistic works that have already been put in place to commemorate these
events and encourages more works of art from various genres to be established so that
they can preserve the historical events. Among other things that Jay addresses in the
article include commemoration and political power, aesthetic redemption and the rituals
that surround public commemoration.
Owen, Sebastian. “‘When there are so many we shall have to mourn’: Poetry and Memory
in the World Wars.” Ph.D. diss., University of York, 2015.
Sabastian Owen in his article gives a clear insight on the representation of both mourning
and memory in some works of different poets who have been instrumental in the
preservation of historical events such as those of the world wars. He considers the idea of
memory as it pertains to the world war one and some of the artistic work especially those
from the genre of poetry that has been instrumental in their preservation. Sebastian
explains how various poets use literary models such as remembrance, mourning, and
commemoration from the First World War to build and write about other similar events
such as the Second World War. He also analyses the literary works of various authors
especially those who have written about remembrance, mourning and the
commemoration of the world wars such as the work of Freud on Auden. In his last
chapter on the article, he analyses poetry about war memorials of people such as Douglas,
Sassoon, Lewis, Auden, and Anderson. The article inspires young writers on the
importance and needs to preserve memories through poetry and other forms of art.
Owen, Sebastian. “‘When there are so many we shall have to mourn’: Poetry and Memory in the
World Wars.” Ph.D. diss., University of York, 2015.
Sherman, Daniel J. “Art, commerce, and the production of memory in France after World War
I.” Commemorations: The politics of national identity 188 (1994).
Stout, Janis P. Coming Out of War: Poetry, Grieving, and the Culture of the World Wars.
University of Alabama Press, 2016.
Wingate, Jennifer. Sculpting Doughboys: Memory, Gender, and Taste in America’s World War I
Memorials. Routledge, 2017.
Winter, Jay. “Sites of Memory and the Shadow of War.” A companion to cultural memory
studies (2010): 61-74.
OUTLINE GUIDELINES (from History Department, William and Mary College)
Begin your research, and start asking questions. Read several different works to get a sense of how
different historians have analyzed Your Topic. Take notes that will help you in formulating a thesis and
creating an outline. Record the sources of your notes as you go, so that you can properly cite them later
and wouldn’t have to do things twice.
Formulate a thesis. A thesis is the central argument of your paper, based on the evidence you have
discovered in your research. After reading several works, weigh the evidence and decide how to answer
your question(s). Your answer would be the thesis of the paper. Use the thesis as the starting point
of your outline, writing it at the top of your outline page (also, state your thesis it in the first or second
paragraph of your essay).
Find and very briefly state supporting evidence for your thesis. You should have done most of the work in
this area during your initial research. You may, however, wish to do further research to find additional
information to strengthen your argument. Some examples might include statistics, firsthand accounts of
people involved, etc. When you find evidence that contradicts your thesis, don’t ignore it! As a historian,
you should present contradictory evidence, but show that it is outweighed by the evidence that supports
your views.
Compile some contrary evidence that wholly or partially contradicts your thesis. List them in your
outline. Acknowledge and describe the evidence, and try to show how the contrary evidence does not
undermine the evidence that supports your thesis.
Complete your outline. In its simplest form, an outline need consist of nothing more than your thesis and a
list of the supporting evidence. To this you can add as much or as little detail as you need to remind
yourself of the information you will include.
In your paper, after the thesis statement, note how you will proceed: what is in the introduction, what
follows it? State that you will follow with a paragraph of background information, what would come next,
and finally what you are concluding with.
Your conclusion should not be a rephrasing of your introductory paragraph. Although you should briefly
summarize how the evidence supports your thesis and how it outweighs the contradictory evidence, you
should also use the conclusion to consider the larger implications of your topic.
Department, Hamilton College)
10. You engage in cheap, anachronistic moralizing.
9. You are sloppy with the chronology.
8. You quote excessively or improperly.
7. You have written a careless “one-draft wonder.”
6. You are vague or have empty, unsupported generalizations.
5. You write too much in the passive voice.
4. You use inappropriate sources.
3. You use evidence uncritically.
2. You are wordy.
1. You have no clear thesis and little analysis.
HISTORY PAPERS VARY IN CONTENT (from Harvard University, Writing Program)
– ‘Narrative’ (organized like a story according to chronology, or the sequence of events),
– ‘Analytical’ (organized like an essay according to the topic’s internal logic).
Either Narrative or Analytical then can be (A) ‘Concerned with history’ (not just what happened [of course], but
why and how it happened), or (B) ‘Interested in historiography’ (meaning how other historians have written
history, specifically the peculiarities of different works, scholars, or schools of thought). Also, some papers
emphasize social or cultural history, others political or military history; intellectual or economic (etc.) history.
“No one has written about my topic.” Despite this scholarly neglect, my paper explains the significance of my
research topic and offers a provisional interpretation of this new material…
A few scholars have written about my topic, but gaps and deficiencies in the literature still exist. My paper
examines new or different evidence to correct these shortcomings.
Many scholars have written about my topic. Despite this attention, my paper calls for a reassessment of the
existing literature based on recent findings, new methodologies, or original questions.
Primary sources are materials produced in the time period under study; they reflect the immediate concerns
and perspectives of participants in the historical drama. Common examples include diaries, correspondence,
dispatches, newspaper editorials, speeches, economic data, literature, art, and film.
b) Secondary sources are materials produced after the time period under study; they consider the historical
subject with a degree of hindsight and generally select, analyze, and incorporate evidence (derived from
primary sources) to make an argument. Works of scholarship are the most common secondary sources.
Paraphrase if you can, quote if you must.
*Note that many sources can serve as either primary or secondary sources, depending on your topic and
particular frame of reference. For instance, Edward Gibbon’s History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire
can represent a secondary source (if your topic is imperial Rome in the first millennium) or a primary source (if your
subject is imperial Britain in the eighteenth century, when Gibbon wrote his masterpiece). Approach every source
critically, anyway.
Starting in history, it is easy to confuse sources with evidence. Sources, at best, provide raw materials
(straw and clay) that historians make into evidence (bricks) to put together a historical argument (structure).
In order to collect this evidence, ask these critical questions (and try to answer them one by one since by
answering, you are effectively writing your paper):
Who produced this source? Is the author’s biography (i.e., viewpoints and personal background) relevant to
understanding this source? Was the author biased or dishonest? Did he or she have an agenda? When was
this source created? Where? Is it representative of other sources created at the same time? In what ways is
it a product of its particular time, place, or context?
Why did the author produce this source? For what audience and purpose? Did the author make this purpose
(or argument) explicit or implicit? Was it intended for public or private use? Is it a work of scholarship, fiction,
art, or propaganda?
How does this source compare with other sources you have analyzed for this assignment? Does it privilege
a particular point of view? Incorporate or neglect significant pieces of evidence? Structure its argument
according to similar (or different) time periods, geographies, participants, themes, or events? Mostly, your
paper will be judged by your argument’s success on the collection, organization, and presentation of its
evidence (selection is essential).
Proofread your paper, and if you can have someone else proofread before you submit.

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