Geography 102

the name of the book: Fundamentals of World Regional Geography, 4th edition by Joseph J. Hobbs (2016).
ISBN: 978-1-305-57826-5This is the supplemental videos and reading https://news.nationalgeographic.com/2017/12/trump-… I chose chapter 11 to write an article aboutI downloaded the instructions Please note that it should be abundantly clear that you are familiar with the textbook readings, PowerPoints, and additional reading/video sources in your analysis. You should show this by citing from the textbook (p. xxx) or by making references to the lecture PowerPoints or supplemental readings/videos.
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News Article Analysis
25 points
Locate a current online news article that connects to specific geographic regions and concepts
found in lecture and textbook readings.
How recent must the article be? Use an article that is current, within the past three (3) months.
How long should the article be? The news article that you select should be at least roughly
equivalent to a Word document that is two double-spaced pages. Please do not select an article
that is too short.
Some news sources include: Al-Jazeera, BBC News, Xinhua News (China), New York Times,
salon.com, Wall Street Journal, Washington Post, National Geographic, Newsweek, etc.
Locating an article is easy, as you can always simply start out with a basic Google search and by
clicking on News. Please note that websites are not news articles. Do not write an analysis that
only focuses on an organization website.
For full credit on each Article Analysis, you must satisfy all the requirements found below:
1. Summarize the article in 3-4 sentences. (What is the main idea or argument of the article?
What are the major issues?) (5 points)
2. Analyze the article: In the larger scheme of things, what does it all mean? Connect
geographic concepts found in your textbook. Explain how it connects to your reading. As
a geographer, you need to consider the human-environmental implications and impacts,
and should always be thinking about how issues relate to culture, society, politics,
economics, and the environment. Moreover, you should be thinking about scale, or rather
thinking about how these issues connect locally, regionally, and globally. (10 points)
3. Please note that it should be abundantly clear that you are familiar with the textbook
readings, PowerPoints, and additional reading/video sources in your analysis. You
should show this by citing from the textbook (p. xxx) or by making references to the
lecture PowerPoints or supplemental readings/videos. (5 points)
4. Article analyses should be at least 400 words, double-spaced. (3 points)
5. Lastly, you are responsible for citing this article in APA format on a separate page
of your Word Document. (2 points)
6. Submission will be through eCampus. Directions to follow soon.
Chapter 11:
Economic and Environmental Geography of North America
S
Copyright © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Economic Geography
S The U.S. and Canada are very wealthy nations
S United States $52,800 GDP
S Canada $43,100 GDP
S United States:
S Built economic structure of consumption
S Economy still powerful
S World’s 2nd largest manufacturer, largest producer of oil, has
world’s leading financial markets
S Dollar is world’s leading currency
Copyright © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
S ources of the Region’s
Affluence
S Large population repres ents pool of labor and talent as
well as a market
S Peace and stability within and between these countries
S Overall sense of internal unity and track record of continuity
continuity in political, economic, and cultural institutions
Copyright © 2017 Ce ngage Le arning. All Rights Re s e rve d.
Agriculture and Forestry in the
US and Canada
S
U.S. agricultural trade surplus
S Agricultural products represent 11% of
exports; 5% imports
S Agriculture workforce: 2%
S Green Revolution and large
Agribusiness
S Subsidization – Great Depression
S Conservation Reserve Program
S Reintegrate plants and wildlife
S
Better land management practices and
genetic modification of crops have boosted
crop yields
S
Abundant forest resources
S U.S. cuts more wood, produces more
wood pulp, and produces more paper
than any other country in the world
Copyright © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
U.S.-Canadian Economic
Relations
S
Vital Trading Partners
S
S
S
Canada is much more dependent on the U.S.
Exchange of Canadian raw and intermediate materials for American
manufactured goods
1965 – FTA production, import, and export of automobiles
S
Detroit, Michigan —– Windsor, Ontario
S
Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement 1988
S
North American Free Trade Agreement 1994
S
S
Maquiladoras
Rules of origin – ½ or more of the components of any manufactured good
must originate in Canada, US, or Mexico
Copyright © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Copyright © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Manufacturing and the Great
Recession
S “American Dream” – Does it exist?
S Rust Belt
S Factories closing – less need for American-made goods
S Steel moves from Pittsburgh, PA to South Korea
S Growth in service sector –Manufacturing 10% in US, 11% in Canada
S
Outsourcing, mechanization, globalization
S Investment from China – “insourcing”
S Manufacturing – wind turbines, jet engine parts
S Cars – Mercedes, Honda, Hyundai
Copyright © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Services and Information
Technology
S
Most Americans and Canadians employed in service sector
S
S
S
S
¾ of US and Canadian workforce
2 million federal gov’t employees; 19 million state and local gov’t – 15%
Healthcare – 11%
U.S. profits from a “knowledge economy” – STEM – Science, Technology,
Engineering, Maths
S
S
Development of the Internet
Global leadership in Information Technology
S
Platform economy – innovation and design homegrown – products made
abroad
S
Tech bubble burst in 2000
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Services and Information
Technology
S
Housing bubble burst in 2007
S
Great Recession 2007 – 2009
S
S
Sub-prime loans
Credit crisis – banks foreclosed on unpaid properties, housing prices slumped
S
S
Sell-off in global stock exchanges, prices of oil and other commodities supporting housing
boom plummeted
Recovery slow – falling tax revenues, huge cuts in city, state, and federal spending
S
Canada weathers the storm
S
Productivity paradox – “mechanized and computerized ourselves into obsolescence”
S
Technology polarizes employment
Copyright © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Inequalities
S Gap between rich and poor
S In 2014, America’s top 10% owned 75% of country’s wealth; 1% holds
20% of wealth (incomes grew 113% from 1988-2008)
S Tax rates, rising stock market, dissolution of unions
S Poor – 14% of the population in 2014, 22% of children
S Spread across the country – Rust Belt, South
S Digital divide
S Canada has more equitable distribution of wealth – single-payer
healthcare
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Poverty
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S
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S
Copyright © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Copyright © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Physical Geography of North
America
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Climates and Land Uses
S
All 11 climate types, plus undifferentiated
highland
S
Megadrought – in Mediterranean climate
S 60% of US fruits, 70% vegetables
S
“Corn Belt” – eastern Dakotas and
Nebraska, through Iowa and into Illinois
S
Tobacco – south U.S.
S
Tropical climates
S Southern Florida and Hawaii
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Climates and Biomes
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Natural
Hazards
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Climate Change
World wide reduction in mountain glacier cover.
Glacier National Park:
1850: 150 glaciers
2010 25 glaciers greater than 25 acres
Lessened snow-pack (the Colorado River depends on snow
pack from the upper basin for 85% of its flow)
Copyright © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Canada: Overfished Waters
S Maritime provinces
S New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island
S 200-mile offshore jurisdiction prohibiting foreign competition in
the fishing of the Grand Banks began 1977
S Moratorium on commercial fishing remains in effect
S
Cod populations have not recovered – economic shock
Copyright © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Canada: The Race for the Arctic
S
Canada has a vast Arctic territory
S
Aims to exploit it to maximum
advantage
S
Arctic Bridge
S
Canada and Russia
S
Shipping route from
Churchill, Canada to the
Russian port of Murmansk
S
Considerations:
S
Warming Arctic Ocean
waters will mean new fishing
grounds will open
S
Estimated 1/4 of world’s
undiscovered oil and gas
reserves lie in the Arctic
Copyright © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Greenland: A Glacial
Landscape
S
Greenland is geologically part of North
America
S Site of first N. American settlements –
Vikings
S Population 55,000 – mostly Inuit
S Danish province (1814)
S 1979- self-government
S There are estimates that Greenland may
have oil reserves as great as Libya’s
S About 80% of the island is covered by an
icecap up to 10,000 feet thick
S Between 2003 and 2011, an average of
about 50 cubic miles of icecap melted
due to global warming
S Climate models – if ice sheet
completely melts, a sea level rise
20ft.
Copyright © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
The United States: The Changing
Geography of American Settlement
S
Four major patterns
S
Agricultural heartland
depopulated – rural America
20%
S
People moving south and
west
S
Cities revitalized and attract
more people –
S
Socioeconomic divides
widened in cities
S
Sun Belt
S
Adaptive reuse of structures
S
Gentrification
S
Congress for New Urbanism
– “smart growth”
Copyright © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Water Stress Index
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Where in the world is the water?
S What percentage of the world’s available water is fresh
water?
S A. 2.5%
S B. 12.5%
S C. 22.5%
S D. 24.5%
Copyright © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Copyright © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
United States: The Thirsty West
S Environmental challenges:
S Dry climates
S Rough topography
S Lack of inland water
transportation
S Water differentiated
S Underground vs. surface
S Colorado River Compact
(1922)
Balance water between upper
and lower basin
S Several dams- Glen Canyon
(1966) and Hoover Dam (1936)
S
S
Copyright © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Hoover – 25 million people
water
S
Central Arizona Project
S Pumps water to Phoenix and
Tucson, powered by coal burning
Navajo Power Plant
S Canal network
S
Wasteful practices
•
Exotic rivers – rivers that cross the
desert but derive their flow from regions
having a water surplus (e.g., Colorado
River, US)
•
Major efforts to redirect flow and use
the stream for a power source
• 40 dams constructed
S
Copyright © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Since 1963, the only times when the
Colorado River has reached the ocean
have been during El Niño events in
the 1980s and 1990s.
Glen Canyon Dam
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Residential Community
Phoenix, Arizona…
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Commercial
Interests
mining
manufacturing and
processing
chemicals
retail services
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Agriculture
present crop irrigation systems
livestock operations
new land and water diversion
projects
Native American fishing
Copyright © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Recreational Enthusiasts
Boating and
rafting
tourism
(sightseeing,
camping,
hiking, etc.)
sport fishing
facilities
(retail, public
service, etc.)
Copyright © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Environmentalists
Copyright © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
United States: The Arctic
National Wildlife Refuge
S
Alaska’s Permanent Fund
S From oil revenues
S Oil supplies 80% of state’s
revenue
S
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge
S 12,500 square mile refuge
set aside as wilderness in
1980
S Fate of oil beneath tundra
ecosystem left for Congress
to decide at later time
S Oil interests/Inupiat
vs. environmentalists
and Gwich’in who
argue that oil drilling
disrupts caribou
calving
Copyright © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
“Within the next fifty years, the
world population will increase by
another 40-50%. This population
growth – coupled with
industrialization and urbanization –
will result in an increasing demand
for water and will have serious
consequences on the environment.”
S
Copyright © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
SOUTH AMERICA: THE AMAZON, ITS FOREST,
AND ITS PEOPLE (CONT’D.)
¡ Trans- Amazon Highway
§ Brazil began construction in
1970s on the main line of an
interoceanic highway connecting
Atlantic and Peruvian coasts
§ Regional Initiative for the
Infrastructure Integration of
South America
§ Ecological concerns about
deforestation resulting from
building this road
Copyright © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
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Copyright © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Copyright © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
CRUDE
¡ Describe the struggle between indigenous
communities and Texaco/Chevron.
¡ Describe some of the major geographic themes
present in this film, some of which include:
colonialism, capitalism, globalization,
deforestation.
¡ In your opinion, do you think Big Oil should be held
accountable for poisoning the Amazon and its
people? Why? How? Or why not?
Copyright © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
BERTA
CACERES
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COLONIAL LEGACIES,
INDIGENOUS PEOPLES,
AND IMMIGRATION
Chapter 11:
North America
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NORTH DAKOTA ACCESS PIPELINE
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AREA AND POPULATION
¡ Population
§ United States – 320
million
§ Canada – 35 million
§ Together, the
countries have 5%
of the world’s
population on 13%
of its land surface
¡ Megalopolis
§ Long, narrow urban
belt from Virginia to
Maine
§ Includes 5 of the 20
largest cities
§ Washington, Baltimore,
Philadelphia, New York,
and Boston
Copyright © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
CULTURAL AND HISTORICAL
GEOGRAPHIES
¡ Origins
§ Began their migrations
as Asians
§ Started crossing what
was then a land bridge
between Alaska and
Siberia 23,000 years ago
§ Paleo-Indians
§ Heavily modified the
landscape for their own
benefit
§ Geographic, linguistic,
cultural traits
§ Animism and reverence
for natural world
Copyright © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
NATIVE AMERICAN CIVILIZATIONS
¡ No extensive urban civilizations
¡ Ancestral Pueblo – 4 Corners Region
§ Pueblos – dwellings built into cliffsides
§ Known as the Anasazi
§ 550 CE – early 14 th century
¡ Mound Builders – Cohokia, Illinois – Mississippian culture
§ Year 1200- home to 20,000 people
Copyright © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
EUROPEAN IMPACTS ON NATIVE
CULTURES
¡ Native Americans (US), First Nations (Canada)
¡ North America after 1492
§ Native cultures devastated (by 1890: 250,000)
§ Hernando de Soto led a 500-man expedition wrecking everything its
path from 1539 to 1542 – “razorbacks”
§ Brought pigs that spread disease, famine, and conflict
Copyright © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
CENTURIES OF CONFLICT
¡ “Trail of Tears” – Indian Removal Act 1830-(Cherokees, Creeks,
Seminoles)
¡ Indian wars – Battle of Little Big Horn (1876)
¡ Massacre at Wounded Knee (1890)
§ Sioux tribes of the northern plains
§ Tribes resettled to reservations
¡ Reservations still among poorest communities in the U.S.
§ Gaming industry revenues
¡ Canada – First Nations also placed on reservations – Apologized
§ Extirpation of bison
§ Nunavut – 1/5 land
§ Inuit
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INDIAN LAND (1784)
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INDIAN LAND – PRESENT
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EUROPEAN SETTLERS AND SETTLEMENTS
¡ Early exploration – “Northwest Passage” – link between
Atlantic and Asia
¡ Spanish
§ First to establish permanent presence
¡ French
§ Acadia 1605 – Maritime Provinces
¡ Dutch
¡ England
§ Jamestown 1607
Copyright © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
TERRITORIAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE
UNITED STATES
¡ Louisiana Purchase
§ From France, 1803
¡ Manifest Destiny
§ U.S. fated to expand
across the continent

¡ Homestead Acts 1862
§ Allowed pioneer family
to claim up to 160 acres
of land for $10
¡ Acquisition of Alaska
1867
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ETHNIC MINORITIES
¡ 1988 Multiculturalism Act in Canada
§ Encouragement and recognition of numerous cultures
¡ Mainstream European American culture
¡ Urban ethnic enclaves dominated by non-European peoples
§ “white flight”
§ 80% of Little Italy in NY now Chinese
¡ Québec – “Quebecois” – descendants of French settlers – 75%
of Quebec
§ Conservative French Catholocism
§ Ribbon farming – discourages industrialization
¡ Amish in U.S. – Indiana, Pennsylvania, Ohio
§ Mennonites of Swiss-German origin – 1700s
§ 200,000
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WHITE FLIGHT
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HISPANIC AMERICANS
¡ Hispanic – ethnolinguistic term
§ Spanish-derived cultures
§ 17% of the population in the U.S.
¡ Bracero Program (1942)
§ WWII – Mexicans filled labor shortages
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MIGRATION INTO NORTH AMERICA
¡ U.S. is the only MDC in the world that is experiencing
significant population growth
§ Immigration rates varied through history
§ 1845 – 1860 Britain, Ireland, Germany
§ 1880s – 1930 Germans, Italians, Poles, Jews, Irish
§ 1924 quota system gave preference to immigrants from northwestern
European countries
§ 1965 nationalist quota system lifted; nature of immigration changed
greatly
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WHAT TO DO ABOUT ILLEGAL
IMMIGRATION?
¡ Fear of immigrants taking jobs and bleeding social services
§ 5% U.S. workforce classified as illegal
§ Number of successful illegal entries to U.S. dropping steadily
¡ Sanctuary cities
¡ Birth tourism
§ Wealthy Chinese, Taiwanese, South Korean
¡ Secure Fence Act of 2006
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OPERATION WETBACK – 1954
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Copyright © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

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