Group Dynamics

Having defined the therapy group (psycho-edcuation) it is time to explore the background research that is available. For this Discussion, think about the population you have selected Conduct research using the and select peer-reviewed articles that relate to your topic (Some Attached). Include a review of your target population and its potential impact on your therapy group. Please be sure to rely on peer-reviewed journal articles for your literature review. The Discussion or literature review (needs to be 5-6 pages, 1.5 line spacing) with following headings and referncesHow much previous work has been done with this population, and what were the results? Did certain approaches yield the most success? What results might be realistically expected in the time given?Conduct a literature review on your topic Include what you need to know about the population you selected. Please add all references in text under all headings. Please see attached documents for assistance.
psycho_educational_literature.zip

previous_work_on_thsi_topic.docx

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Overview of the Group therapy and Type
Group therapy is one form of psychotherapy, and it involves more than one therapist
working with several persons at a time. Group therapy is widespread today, and it can be
applied in several locations including hospitals, community centres, private therapeutic
services, mental health clinics among others. It can be used solely or in combination with a
treatment plan such as medication and individual therapy. The type of group therapy that I will
be using is the structured psycho-educational group approach. In this type of group therapy
members are provided with knowledge and information on a particular issue or subject matter.
Psycho-educational groups can also teach individuals some healthy coping skills, and they are
led by a therapist who is qualified and plays the role of directing the various sessions and setting
the therapeutic goals (Barlow et al., 2016). However, the bonds between the members are less
significant in this context, because most of the content is provided through instructions, and
he/she plays the role of a teacher.
Group Population and Benefits
The group will consist of one therapist who is trained and qualified to lead a therapeutic
group. Additionally, there will be a group of seven members who will be meeting for about 23 hours a week for about six sessions; thus, the group will last for 8 weeks (Schuster et al.,
2017). Like other groups, the group will have rules including confidentiality which dictates
that all that is said or discussed in the group remains there and none of the members should
discuss it outside. Further, members are expected to treat each other with respect. The group
theme is ‘Being proficient Stress Managers.’
The group members will benefit from the group in many ways. Besides learning more
about stress management and their conditions, they will also gain some skills they can use in
their day to day life activities and experiences. They will learn on how to handle anxiety, how
to manage their time well to avoid stressful situations. The members will also learn some
relaxation techniques which they can use whenever they are stressed or anxious, for instance,
breathing exercises (Gordon & Kenny, 2018). The members will understand that they are not
the only ones with facing the challenges they have, others also have the same issues. Since the
group meetings are confidential, the group members have a safe space where they can open up.
The members will also find a safety net. Additionally, through the group therapy, the members
will learn how to relate to other persons in society and themselves in healthy ways. Also, the
group member will be able to find their voice, they will be aware of their personal feelings and
needs, and the means to effectively express them.
Group purpose and Rationale for its Formation
The purpose of this Psychoeducational therapeutic group is to assist individuals who
have problems in managing stress. With poor stress management skills, individuals may end
up suffering from depression or other health issues such as cardiovascular diseases. The group
members will learn techniques and tools for effective stress management which they can apply
in the short term and long-term stress management. Besides stress management skills the
members will learn other essential life skills, relaxation techniques, and time management
skills among others (Wong et al., 2016).
The group members will join independently through self-will and assessment, they will
discuss with the therapist on why they intend to join such group and what their targets for the
therapy are. The group therapy will also target helping the members realize that they are not
alone (Phillipsen et al., 2015). The other purpose of the group is to give the members the
essential support they require. The group’s other purposes include helping the members find
their voice and ways of expressing and handling their needs and feelings as well.
Articles and Annotated Bibliographies
Effects of Group Psychotherapy, Individual Counselling, Methylphenidate, and Placebo
in the Treatment of Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder A Randomized
Clinical Trial
Philipsen, A., Jans, T., Graf, E., Matthies, S., Borel, P., Colla, M., … & Sobanski, E. (2015).
Effects of group psychotherapy, individual counseling, methylphenidate, and placebo in the
treatment of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA
Psychiatry, 72(12), 1199-1210.
The authors of this article seek to address the effectiveness of group psychotherapy in solving
the problems faced by patients with neurodevelopmental disorders which has a higher
prevalence in the adulthood stage. The benefits that patients obtain from such groups are also
outlined and discussed in depth.
Toward a Unified Treatment for Emotional Disorders – Republished Article
Barlow, D. H., Allen, L. B., & Choate, M. L. (2016). Toward a Unified Treatment for
Emotional Disorders–Republished Article. Behavior therapy, 47(6), 838-853.
The authors of the Article David, Laura, and Molly addressed behavioral approaches that can
be used in the treatment of emotional disorders. Also, they explain the importance of
deepening understanding on the nature of psychological diseases and how to effectively
manage them.
Exploring blended group interventions for depression: Randomised controlled
feasibility study of a blended computer- and multimedia-supported psychoeducational
group intervention for adults with depressive symptoms
Schuster, R., Leitner, I., Carlbring, P., & Laireiter, A. R. (2017). Exploring blended group
interventions for depression: randomized controlled feasibility study of a blended computerand multimedia-supported psychoeducational group intervention for adults with depressive
symptoms. Internet Interventions, 8, 63-71.
The article addresses the various blended interventions that focus on capitalizing on the
strength of both face to face therapy and computer-based therapy. With the extraordinary
nature of studies relating to this subject, the authors target addressing the effectiveness of
psychoeducational groups, in addressing the treatment of depression.
Randomized controlled trial of cognitive behavioral stress management in breast
cancer: A brief report of effects on 5-year depressive symptoms.
Stagl, J. M., Antoni, M. H., Lechner, S. C., Bouchard, L. C., Blomberg, B. B., Glück, S., … &
Carver, C. S. (2015). Randomized controlled trial of cognitive behavioral stress management
in breast cancer: A brief report of effects on 5-year depressive symptoms. Health
Psychology, 34(2), 176.
The article objective is to address the stressful experiences of breast cancer patients
who are at risk of suffering from depression. According to the article patients who suffered
from such terminal illnesses and joined therapeutic groups had less incidences of suffering
from depression because through the sessions they attended they acquired numerous stress
management skills.
Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy v. group psychoeducation for
people with generalised anxiety disorder: randomised controlled trial
SYS Wong, BHK Yip, WWS Mak, S Mercer… – The British Journal of …, 2016 – RCP
Wong, S. Y. S., Yip, B. H. K., Mak, W. W. S., Mercer, S., Cheung, E. Y. L., Ling, C. Y. M.,
… & Lee, T. M. C. (2016). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy v. group psychoeducation
for people with generalised anxiety disorder: randomised controlled trial. The British Journal
of Psychiatry, 209(1), 68-75.
The article addresses the effectiveness of psychoeducational group therapy in helping
individuals with anxiety disorders as compared to the mindfulness-based cognitive therapy.
The information used in the article is obtained from a randomised control trial.
Implementation of a Psychoeducational Program for Cancer Survivors and
Family Caregivers at a Cancer Support Community Affiliate: A Pilot Effectiveness
Study
Dockham, B., Schafenacker, A., Yoon, H., Ronis, D. L., Kershaw, T., Titler, M., &
Northouse, L. (2016). Implementation of a psychoeducational program for cancer survivors
and family caregivers at a cancer support community affiliate: a pilot effectiveness
study. Cancer Nursing, 39(3), 169-180.
The authors of this article seek to address the effectiveness of using psychoeducational group
programs in helping cancer survivors and the caregivers who support them in managing the
stressful encounters these patients undergo. The article uses a pilot effectiveness study
approach.
Group Work in Psychiatric/Mental Health Nursing: The Case for Psychoeducation as
a Means to Therapeutic Ends
Gordon, E., & Kenny, M. (2018). Group Work in Psychiatric/Mental Health Nursing: The
Case for Psychoeducation as a Means to Therapeutic Ends. In European Psychiatric/Mental
Health Nursing in the 21st Century (pp. 269-282). Springer, Cham.
The article focuses on addressing the psychotherapeutic benefits of the psychoeducational
groups in helping patients with mental health issues and their relevance to contemporary
psychiatric? Mental health nursing practice. According to the authors, nurses who use the
psychoeducational groups that are rooted within various pluralistic approaches make a
significant contribution to the postmodern paradigm shift; they also realign themselves with
their core role and functions on person-centered and therapeutic engagement. Also, the article
addresses the group dynamics, group development, and group processes in therapy.
References
Barlow, D. H., Allen, L. B., & Choate, M. L. (2016). Toward a Unified Treatment for
Emotional Disorders–Republished Article. Behavior therapy, 47(6), 838-853.
Dockham, B., Schafenacker, A., Yoon, H., Ronis, D. L., Kershaw, T., Titler, M., &
Northouse, L. (2016). Implementation of a psychoeducational program for cancer
survivors and family caregivers at a cancer support community affiliate: a pilot
effectiveness study. Cancer Nursing, 39(3), 169-180.
Gordon, E., & Kenny, M. (2018). Group Work in Psychiatric/Mental Health Nursing: The
Case for Psychoeducation as a Means to Therapeutic Ends. In European
Psychiatric/Mental Health Nursing in the 21st Century (pp. 269-282). Springer,
Cham.
Philipsen, A., Jans, T., Graf, E., Matthies, S., Borel, P., Colla, M., … & Sobanski, E. (2015).
Effects of group psychotherapy, individual counseling, methylphenidate, and placebo
in the treatment of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a randomized clinical
trial. JAMA psychiatry, 72(12), 1199-1210.
Schuster, R., Leitner, I., Carlbring, P., & Laireiter, A. R. (2017). Exploring blended group
interventions for depression: randomised controlled feasibility study of a blended
computer-and multimedia-supported psychoeducational group intervention for adults
with depressive symptoms. Internet Interventions, 8, 63-71.
Stagl, J. M., Antoni, M. H., Lechner, S. C., Bouchard, L. C., Blomberg, B. B., Glück, S., … &
Carver, C.
S. (2015). Randomized controlled trial of cognitive behavioral stress
management in breast cancer: A brief report of effects on 5-year depressive
symptoms. Health psychology, 34(2), 176.
Wong, S. Y. S., Yip, B. H. K., Mak, W. W. S., Mercer, S., Cheung, E. Y. L., Ling, C. Y. M.,
… & Lee, T. M. C. (2016). Mindfulness-based
cognitive therapy
v. group
psychoeducation for people with generalised anxiety
disorder:
randomised controlled trial. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 209(1), 68-75.
Review your initial assumptions about group therapy
The first assumption made about group therapy was the assumption that group therapy
involves patients who have had similar life experiences that have affected them
psychologically. This is the main reason that these people come together as they hope to
discuss how each of them feels and talk about how to deal with other life situations.
According to the film watched, the first thing we can establish is that the people in the group
therapy have by no chance experienced similar life problems (Psycotherapy.net, 2006). Each
and every one in the group presents a different issue, and the only thing that they all have in
common is that they have enrolled in this group to be able to increase their interpersonal
relationships (Psycotherapy.net, 2006). The members of this prototypic group are complete
strangers to each other hence there is no possibility of knowing what each of their situations
is about.
While this is the case, the group does actually have a screening process as explained
by the therapist (Psycotherapy.net, 2006). This group of people has to go in for an individual
meeting in order for an assessment of whether they are the right people to be in the group.
This screening, however, is not done by evaluating the type of experiences that the patients
have heard rather by understanding their position after their psychological situation
(Psycotherapy.net, 2006; Harper & Cole, 2012). People undergo different stages when
experiencing psychologically affecting issues in their life. This group has a purpose which
involves helping patients alter their interpersonal behaviours. The assessment done therefore
is to evaluate if the patients are in a position to be able to receive this type of therapy and
whether they are ready for changes (Harper & Cole, 2012; Psycotherapy.net, 2006).
Choosing the right group members, therefore, requires the therapist to choose by
evaluating if the patient has been recently psychotic (Psycotherapy.net, 2006; Barlow, Allen
& Choate, 2016). This helps to understand that recently psychotic patients are still in the
stage of holding themselves up which means they have not progressed to a position where
they can alter interpersonal behaviour (Barlow, Allen & Choate, 2016). This is because at this
stage they are trying to hold themselves together and not trying to reach out within
themselves (Rose, 1977). There are those patients who are non-introspective which means
that these people are very un-psychologically minded (Psychotherapy.net, 2006; Wong et al,
2016). These types of patients are wrong for the group. Patients who also externalize a lot
will not be the right fit for the group. This is because these patients only look for problems
outside of their environment. Patients who are heavy somatizers are also not a fit for this
group therapy since these patients mainly associate their psychological distress to a fault in
their body functions (Barlow, Allen & Choate, 2016). All of these types of patients are unable
to fulfill the task of the group which means they cannot be put in the group.
The other assumption in group therapy is that group therapy is meant for people who
feel sorry for themselves and require others to feel better for them. The film in the discussion
has a different approach to this assumption in general. The group members in this group
hardly have the time and sense to feel sorry about each other rather they are focused on
fulfilling the group task which is opening up about themselves and having the group members
relate individually whichever way they find fit and constructive towards the situation
(Psycotherapy.net, 2006). In the second group meeting featured, we can clearly tell that the
group members in this group have no sense to pity the others. They tell each other exactly
what they feel without sugar coating it to be able to give the patients a chance to relate to
what the other person feels and not just what the patient feels (Psychotherapy.net, 2006).
When discussing the issue regarding Dan, we can see those different members of the group
express their concerns about him being late and not contributing to the group
(Psycotherapy.net, 2006). Some of them feel that he is not being committed to the group
while others feel it is rude for him to show up late and not contribute to what is being said.
This group is about expressing honest opinions and feelings and not making people happy.
We can learn from this video that confrontations in this group settings have been seen
to bring people to open up about their situations and get honest feedback from the group
members (Slavson, 1943). This helps the patient become more open-minded and view his
problem in a different light to facilitate the interpersonal behaviour change aimed at the group
(Barlow, Allen & Choate, 2016). The first group meeting warranted confrontations that
involved why people were being silent during the meeting (Pyscotherapy.net, 2006). This
confrontation led to people opening up about why they were reluctant to contribute some
saying they were afraid to be judged while others felt insecure by the fact that some members
were feeling very dominant in the group and putting others in the spotlight (Pyscotherapy.net,
2006). All these issues were not said to help any particular member feel good about
themselves rather call out on behaviours that felt unacceptable in a group setting (Rose,
1977). This was helpful as it allowed the members to be able to set basic group rule and
regulations on what was right and what wasn’t. The second meeting was about Sam as he
explained his main reason for coming to the group. This patient felt that he was not supposed
to be in this group since in his own opinion he was doing everything just about right and he
felt that his wife was the problem (Psycotherapy.net, 2006). The group members do not go
easy on him as they put themselves in his wife’s situations and begin to ask questions that
escalate to him feeling the same type of pressure he did at home (Psycotherapy.net, 2006).
Explain any changes regarding assumptions about group therapy
Some of the changes to make to the assumptions made that group therapy members
have undergone similar problems is that not all group therapies have members with similar
problems (Barlow, Allen & Chaote, 2016; Psycotherapy.net, 2006). The main issue with
group therapy is that all members have to be geared towards the same goals as they perform
the expected task (Karau & Elsaid, 2009; Yalom & Leszcz, 2005). To change this
assumption, therefore, we must change the statement to the fact that individual members in a
group therapy setting do not necessarily have to undergo similar psychological issues but
must be working towards a similar goal which helps them feel better and be able to deal with
their life issues in a better way (Karau & Elsaid, 2009; Yalom & Leszcz, 2005). We have
established from this video that it is possible for a group to have a similar target even if their
members are experiencing different situations in their lives (Psycotherapy.net, 2006). For this
reason, therefore, group therapies do not necessarily have to be characterized by members
having similar life experiences.
The changes to make to the second assumption is that this is hardly the truth. This
assumption sees group members as people feeling sorry for themselves and needing others to
make them feel better. Group therapy as shown by the video does not aim at making people
feel better rather it aims at helping people open up and be able to put their issues on the table
(Psycotherapy.net, 2006). The rest of the members of the group, therefore, evaluate the issues
being experienced by that member and give their feedback on what they think is wrong and
how things can be made better (Karau & Elsaid, 2009; Yalom & Leszcz, 2005). In giving
their feedback the rest of members have their own opinions which are not necessarily nice or
geared towards making the particular member feel better. Member feedback can be meant to
challenge the member and also to give him an outlook from the outside regarding his issue
(Harper & Cole, 2012). This way the member can realize that he is approaching the problem
from one view and it would help to look at the problem from another person’s view
(Psycotherapy.net, 2006; Yalom & Leszcz, 2005). To change the assumption of this issue,
therefore, we can say that the assumption is that group therapy is about people who have
issue …
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