I need help in mythology class

I need a help in homework of MYTH AND LITERATURE class. The homework is an online discussion and it’s 2 parts. First part, due April 19, you have to response to a question and the answer needs to be at least 3 well developed paragraphs and thoroughly address all aspects of the question. After that, will be evaluated by the instructor and comments and suggestions will be added. Second part, will post after April 21 and due in 2 days, you can add comments to to make changes to your original post if desired AND make a AT LEAST ONE REQUIRED response to another student’s discussion post. And if someone ask me a question you need to answer. Use only the attachments as a resources.———————-The discussion question:How does Odysseus use ‘wit and wisdom’ to survive the challenges he faces in the Odyssey? How would you argue that these are Heroic factors for his character in the poems; (remember his raid with Diomedes in the Iliad). Does his use of the Trojan Horse fall under the concept of Heroic in your opinion? Develop a solid case for or against his ‘hero status’***Note homework is 2 parts, and make sure it’s not same to another student because you may find others. Remember first part is due on April 19th and needs to be 3-4 paragraphs in length and you are required to post to another student’s discussion by April 26.


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Defining a Quest Hero
• Odysseus exemplifies the quest hero
• A quest is defined by
• The search for a precious object or person
• A long journey undertaken by a hero
• A hero with trials and tribulations
• Guardians who test the hero
• Helpers who offer necessary assistance
• A hero is a quest hero when his life is defined by
the quest
12.1 Odysseus listens to the Sirens.
Detail from a red-figure stamnos. Siren
Painter. Fifth century BCE. British
Museum, London, United Kingdom.
Erich Lessing / Art Resource, NY,
Odysseus’s Quest
Map 12.1 Odysseus and Other Quest Heroes
Villains and Helpers
• The categories of villains and helpers overlap in a quest story, providing
drama and suspense
• Villains in many cases are not human, they represent uncivilized or
frightening behaviors, in contrast to the idealized hero
• Villains can also be non-Greeks who don’t have the Greek requirement to
provide hospitality
• Female helpers, especially princesses, tend to embody ideal feminine
• They can be just as likely as villains to pose a threat to the hero, as in the
case of Medea
• This emphasizes the Greek fear of the uncontrolled female
• Perseus was the son of Zeus and Danae,
who was imprisoned by his grandfather
Acrisius after he received an oracle that her
son would kill him
• Acrisius tries to get rid of Perseus and
Danae by setting them afloat in a large
• They are rescued and Perseus is sent on a
quest for the head of Medusa by the king
who sheltered them, who wants to marry
• Medusa is a Gorgon, and any man who
looks at her is turned to stone
12.2 Perseus chases a monstrous
Medusa. Black-figure kyathos. Theseus
Painter. 510–500 BCE. J. Paul Getty
Museum, Malibu, California, 86.AE.146.
Digital image courtesy of the Getty’s
Open Content Program.
Medusa as Villain
• In order to kill Medusa, Perseus has to gain help
from the Graeae and three nymphs
• Perseus manages to decapitate Medusa without
looking at her
• He then uses Medusa’s head as a weapon
throughout his adventures
• Medusa is most commonly depicted as a winged
monster with snaky hair, but sometimes as a
beautiful maiden who is vulnerable to Perseus’s
12.3 Perseus beheads sleeping
Medusa. Detail from a red-figure
pelike. Polygnotus. 450 BCE. Image
copyright © The Metropolitan
Museum of Art. Image source: Art
Resource, NY, ART500333.
Medusa and the Feminine
• When Perseus decapitates her, Medusa gives
birth to Chrysaor, a man, and Pegasus, a
winged horse, from her neck
• Even though she is dead, Medusa’s fertility
still holds danger for the world
• Her head is still capable of killing, even when
detached from her body
• Her female powers of procreation and magic
threaten to transform men and the world in
ways they cannot control
12.4 Medusa, Perseus, and the birth of Chrysaor
and Pegasus. Limestone sarcophagus. 475–460
BCE. Image copyright © The Metropolitan Museum
of Art. Image source: Art Resource, NY,
• Bellerophon is best known for his taming
of the winged horse Pegasus and defeat
of the Chimera
• The Chimera was a hybrid female
• Bellerophon was a successful hero,
slaying several monsters, but he was
punished by Zeus when he tried to ride
Pegasus to Olympus
• He had far fewer adventures than
12.5 Bellerophon and Pegasus confront the Chimera.
Odysseus or Perseus, but their
Spartan black-figure kylix. Boreads Painter. 565 BCE. J.
memorable nature means that he was Paul Getty Museum, Malibu, California, 85.AE.121.
Digital image courtesy of the Getty’s Open Content
worshiped at a cult site in Corinth
The Voyages of Jason and the Argonauts
Jason was sent by his
uncle to retrieve the
Golden Fleece
His journeys are
typical for a questing
hero in that he found
or earned help in
many places along
the way
Map 12.2 The Voyages of Jason, the Argonauts, and Medea. Although some of
these sites (such as Iolcus) actually existed, many other places are mythical. Their
locations are speculative; this map reflects the conjectures of scholars and
commentators over the centuries.
• Jason completes all the tasks demanded of him to
earn to Golden Fleece, with the help of Medea
• Medea leaves with Jason and they have another set
of adventures
• In many places Medea’s story eclipses Jason because
her boldness and her skills make his victories possible
• Jason’s attempt to leave Medea for the Corinthian
princess Creusa results in her becoming the villain
who overcomes him
12.6 The death of Talos (detail).
Detail from a red-figure Attic krater.
420–390 BCE. Museo Archeologico
Nazionale Jatta Archaeological, Ruvo
Di Puglia, Italy. Scala / Art Resource,
NY, ART88902.
• In the Iliad, Odysseus is often
contrasted with Achilles, the best
of the Greek warriors
• Odysseus is known for his
diplomacy and his cunning
• He was a descendent of Hermes,
and his stories depict him as a
trickster figure as well as a quest
• He is a master of disguise like
Hermes, and crafty and talented
like Athena, whose favorite he is
12.7 Achilles (sitting) welcomes Odysseus, followed by
Ajax. Red-figure Attic skyphos. Macron. Circa 480 BCE.
Louvre Museum, Paris, France. © RMN-Grand Palais / Art
Resource, NY, ART150157.
Cunning Intelligence and Passive Heroics
• Odysseus’s cunning is considered deceitful in many cases by the Greeks, but h
• He devised the Trojan horse which won the war for the Greeks
• The tragedians who wrote plays about his adventures explore the ambiguity o
• Odysseus’s heroics are described as passive by modern scholars because of his
Polyphemus the Cyclops
• Odysseus and his men end up trapped in the
cave of the Cyclops Polyphemus on their
journey home from Troy
• Odysseus blinds Polyphemus and then he
and his men escape by clinging to the bellies
of sheep
• Odysseus’s actions are presented with a
certain amount of ambiguity
• The uncivilized nature of the Cyclopes is
emphasized, however, making Odysseus the
representative of civilized Greek culture
12.8 Odysseus escapes from Polyphemus’s
cave. Athenian black-figure column krater.
550–500 BCE. The J. Paul Getty Museum,
• Scylla was a hybrid female monster
who lived in the cliffs opposite
Charybdis, a female whirlpool that
swallows ships whole
• She presents a danger that is a
magnification of the dangers of all
female creatures
• Odysseus is tempted and delayed in
several places in his travels by
12.9 Scylla. Terracotta plaque. Fifth century BCE. Louvre
Museum, Paris, France. © RMN-Grand Palais / Art
Resource, NY, ART427580.
• At the end of the Odyssey, even his wife, Penelope, has the potential to
delay the end of his quest
The Odyssey
Map 12.3 The Odyssey. Although some of these sites (such as Ithaca) actually existed, many other places are mythical. Their
locations are speculative; this map reflects the conjectures of scholars and commentators over the centuries.
Classical Mythology in Context
Odysseus and Quest Heroes
The Quest Hero
• In “Ithaca”, C.P. Cavafy encourages the reader to see
life as a long adventure, like Odysseus’s journey
• The hero’s journey as metaphor for life explains the
timelessness of the quest myth
• American mythologist Joseph Campbell argues that
the hero’s quest is similar to the initiation ritual as
defined by van Gennep
• He labeled the hero’s journey as a “monomyth”-one
that occurs in all places and all times
• He used the work of Carl Jung to compare the hero’s
engagement with helpers and villains with
psychological processes
12.10 Polyphemus. Terracotta
head from Smyrna, Turkey.
Fourth century BCE. Louvre
Museum, Paris, France. Erich
Lessing / Art Resource, NY,
The Quest Hero
• We can interact with Myth on another level that is more personal.
• W. H. Auden’s definition in “The Quest Hero” is less academic, by aligning
myth to our own life’ events.
• The hero’s quest resonates with the reader’s subjective experience, rather
than the hero’s experience
• The journey reflects how individuals experience their own lives
• Some of the trials encountered are fleeting, and some are significant
• The villains and helpers encountered by heroes remind us of the people in
our own lives
Gilgamesh and Odysseus What do Share?
• A journey to the Underworld is a common
feature in the heros quest..
• Gilgamesh wanted to understand why his friend,
Enkidu had to die.
• He journeys through the waters of death in this
attempt, but fails all the tests set him, and
eventually accepts that death is inevitable
• Odysseus travels to the Underworld in order to
find out how to return home to Ithaca.
• His rejection of immortality illustrates the Greek
perception of the life lived with honor is more
12.11 Odyssey greets Teresias, rising
from the ground, in the Underworld.
Detail from red-figure calyx krater. Dolon
Painter. 380 BCE. Bibliotheque Nationale,
Paris France. Erich Lessing / Art Resource,
NY, ART13902.
Odysseus in the Mediterranean World
Map 12.4 Odysseus from Mesopotamia to Rome
• Troy’s fall sends both Odysseus and Aeneas on long quests.
• Aeneas’s quest is far less fantastical than Odysseus’
• His quest is pointed at its mission: to found Rome
• The process of understanding this mission leads Aeneas o the
Underworld, Avernus. He must find his father to reveal to him his fate:
• This is where he finds out about the history of the land and the people
where he is fated to found a new kingdom
• The trip to the Underworld transforms him into Rome’s founder
African American Odysseus
• Odysseus is a trickster figure in that he
frequently relies on his wits to
overcome challenges
• He is also a sorrowful figure, burdened
by suffering
• Artists of the African diaspora have
found Odysseus as compelling as
Medea in describing their experiences
• Journeys have especially defined the
African American experience, from its
origins in the slave trade to the Great
Migration of the 20th century
12.12 The Sirens’ Song (1977). Collage of various
papers with paint and graphite in the series Black
Odysseus. Romare Bearden (1911–1988). Smithsonian
Institute, Washington, DC. The Sirens’ Song ©Romare
Bearden Foundation/Licensed by VAGA, New York, NY.
Courtesy of DC Moore Gallery, New York.
African American Odysseus
• Toni Morrison describes this as the “Ulysses theme”
• Romare Bearden’s collage series “A Black Odyssey” recasts Homer’s epic in the
landscape of Africa, America, and the Caribbean
• Odysseus is an African American hero who makes a number of journeys,
beginning with the one from Africa to America
• Sterling A. Brown’s poem, “Odyssey of Big Boy”, is narrated by Calvin “Big Boy”
Davis, and recounts his journey through the American South in search of work
• His story represents the ability to root a life in action rather than place
• Janie Crawford, the protagonist of Zora Neale Hurston’s Their Eyes Were
Watching God also embarks on a quest, and like Odysseus, is a trickster figure
• Odysseus, Big Boy, and Janie all narrate their own tales, making sense of their
experience both for themselves and their audience
The Heroine’s Quest
The Heroine’s Quest
• Carol Pearson and Katherine Pope described the
heroine’s quest as understanding, rather than
conquering, the world
• Heroines resemble heroes who are lauded for
their actions on behalf of their community
• Heroes and heroines were celebrated because
they were believed to be still powerful after death
• Some were fictional, like Homer’s heroes, but
some were historical figures
• Worship of historical heroes at their tombs
increased during the 4th century BCE, and was
eventually modified into Christian veneration of
satins and martyrs
13.1 Iphigenia in Tauris. Fresco from
the House of L. Caecilio Giocondo in
Pompeii. First century CE. Museo
Archeologico Nazionale, Naples, Italy.
Erich Lessing / Art Resource, NY,
Heroes in the Classical Period
• Harmodius and Aristogeiton are examples of the
increasing popularity of historical heroes in classical
• They killed the Athenian tyrant Hipparchus, which is
considered a foundational moment in the
establishment of democracy
• They were praised as liberators, yearly sacrifices were
offered to them, and gradually they gained the status
of heroes
• Greek soldiers who died in the Persian Wars were given
similar treatment
Aristogeiton, the tyrant slayers.
• The difference between historical and mythical heroes Roman
Archeologico Nazionale, Naples,
was that historical figures died for a cause that was
Italy. Alfredo Dagli Orti / The Art
Archive at Art Resource, NY,
recognized as good and necessary
Heroines in the Classical Period
• Historical female figures
frequently appeared in
tragedies, and several of
them were worshiped as
• Unlike epics, tragedies
were set in the home, and
therefore required female
Map 13.1 Iphigenia and Other Quest Heroines
• Tragic heroines often addressed social concerns by acting publicly and
against the wishes of their guardians to right wrongs
The New Heroine
• Classicist Christopher Jones describes historical heroes worshiped for the
social and civic acts as “new heroes”
• Heroines like Clytemnestra, Medea, and Hecuba took actions that were
cruel and violent, but each acts out of a sense of betrayal, either of a
person or a principle
• Antigone fits more neatly into the category of new heroine because she
saw it as her duty to defy King Creon to bury her brother
• Her choice of suicide highlights Creon’s abuse of power
• In Euripides’s Hecuba, her daughter Polyxena chooses to die willingly,
providing a contrast to the Greeks who have sunk to the level of human
sacrifice in their pride
• Euripides used the story of Iphigenia to
question Athenian leadership and actions
during the Peloponnesian War
• She was sacrificed by her father, Agamemnon,
to appease Artemis so that the Greek fleet
could sail to Troy
• Iphigenia chooses to die willingly
• In one version of Euripides’s Iphigenia at
Aulis, Artemis swapped Iphigenia for a deer,
and then sent her to be a priestess at Tauris
• Despite their social powerlessness, the new
heroines embodied the willingness to act on
behalf of others
13.3 Artemis saves Iphigenia at the altar.
“Diana of Versailles,” Roman marble copy after
the original from the end of the fourth century
to the early third century BCE. Artemis and
Ifigenia, IN 0482. Courtesy of Ny Carsberg
Classical Mythology in Context
Iphigenia and Quest Heroines
A Paradigm for the New Heroine
• Classicist Edith Hall defines Iphigenia as a quest heroine
• A quest heroine must
• Be the protagonist of a story that does not revolve around romance,
sex, marriage, or parenthood
• Travel far
• Have a relationship with a god or goddess
• Have moral and intellectual authority
• Be courageous and lead others
• Be a role model
• Very few ancient Greek heroines fit this model other than Iphigenia
Amor and Psyche
• Feminist scholar Lee R. Edwards develops a definition of
the heroine that emphasizes love and connection as
• Psyche was the daughter of a king, and so beautiful that
Venus sent Amor to punish her
• Amor falls in love with her instead, and takes her away to
a palace to be his wife in secret
• Psyche breaks a promise not to look on her husband, and
goes on a journey to find him when he leaves her
13.4 Amor and Psyche embrace.
• She the has to perform tasks to win him back
• She easily fits the definition of a quest heroine
Myrina. First century BCE.
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston,
Defining the New Heroine
• Edwards’s definition of a heroine is derived from the work of van Gennep
and Turner
• Turner expanded van Gennep’s liminal stage to include non-initiates who
occupy an in between position
• Their outsider status is temporary, and so while they usually challenge
society, they also seek to return to it
• Marginals live on the outskirts of society permanently, and do not seek to
accept its values
• Edwards defines heroes as liminal, but heroines as marginal
• Women in patriarchal societies will never gain the same status as men, so
they are uniquely suited to challenge its beliefs
• Heroines are better suited to finding strength in love and connection than in
opposition or conquest, thereby making those connections the defining
factor in their heroism
Classical Mythology in Context
Iphigenia and Quest Heroines
• Thecla was a young
woman who lived in
Turkey during the 2nd
• She rejected her fiancé
to become a Christian
and a missionary
• She may or may not
have been historical, but
there are parallels
between her stories and
those of the new
Map 13.2 Thecla from Iconium to Rome
Saints and Martyrs
• Christians who were martyred by the Romans and
those who pursued lives of virtue were often
worshiped after their deaths
• Their miraculous powers remained with their
bodies after death
• In contrast to heroes, they were thought to have a
close connection with God
• Greek heroes were celebrated for their power in
life, Christian saints were celebrated for their
• Their worship was also increasingly controlled by
the Christian church as it grew more centralized
13.5 Thecla with two wild beasts.
Terracotta ampulla (flask). Sixth to
seventh century CE. Louvre
Museum, Paris, France. © RMNGrand Palais / Art Resource, NY,
New Heroines and Martyrs
• Martyrs served as witnesses to their beliefs during their deaths, which
were frequently public spectacles
• Martyrs became empowered by their public deaths, which criticized the
power of the Roman state
• This was similar to the deaths of new heroines like Iphigenia, Polyxena, and
• Stories of Thecla most likely come from oral stories told at her tomb
• They were carried home by pilgrims and retold and reshaped in the process
• Tales of Thecla and other saints therefore came to resemble early
romances, full of harrowing adventures in search of true love-in the case of
saints, the true love of Jesus
Paul and Thecla
The African church father Tertullian (160-230)
complained that some Christians were using the
example of Thecla to legitimate women’s roles
of teaching and baptizing in the church (On
Baptism 17). Acts of Paul and Thecla are
considered to be Apocryphal (not a part of
approved church doctrine/text)
Ten Years of Iphigenia in New York City
• Euripides’s plays about Iphigenia have been reinterpreted by scholars and artists alike
• Iphigenia at Aulis is more popular, especially in times
of war because of the questions it asks
• Iphigenia among the Taurians has provoked less
• Both deal with the issue of human sacrifice, not a
contemporary issue
• Charles L. Mee’s Iphigenia 2.0 uses human sacrifice as
a key plot device
13.6 Playbill from the premier of Michi
• Mee follows Euripides’s plot, but adds modern
Limited Rebellion, Courtesy of the Ma Yi
Theater Company.
Ten Years of Iphigenia in New York City
• Mee’s Iphigenia has the Greek soldiers rather than Artemis demand the
death, using the event to question morality and leadership in times of war
• It also questions Iphigenia’s status as heroine: is she delude …
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