In 300 words, answer those following questions below:

Describe some potential data sources and methods for collecting data that would inform a process evaluation of a criminal justice program. You may use the criminal justice program you identified previously as an example. “In the criminal justice program, my previous paper was based my logic model in the Legal advocacy in the domestic violence program”. Answer those questions According to those attachments I send to you. You must answer the questions thoroughly and cite all relevant assigned readings for those attachments (using APA format). In a separate page send me the links I want to verify them. . DO NOT refer to or incorporate information from extremely unreliable sources (e.g., Wikipedia, TMZ, and The Onion). Posts must be well written, free of grammatical errors, relevant to the topic, and demonstrate critical thinking and analysis. Required Reading: Vito, G. F. & Higgins, G. E. (2015). Practical Program Evaluation for Criminal Justice. Waltham, MA: Elsevier. American Psychological Association. (2009). Publication Manual of the Psychological Association. (6th ed.). Washington DC: American Psychological Association. Assignments must be written and typed following the guidelines in the Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (APA manual), and must be written at college level, with good sentence structure and good syntax. Students must also adhere to the professional guidelines for the use of copyrighted literature and commercially produced materials, as well as materials generated by colleagues and friends and information collected from conferences and presentations.


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Chapter 7
Cost-Efficiency Evaluations
Copyright © 2014, Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved
Cost-Efficiency Evaluations
Program evaluations have to consider the
Evaluators should link program outcomes
to costs if the results of the evaluation are
to be useful in making decisions.
Most of the methodologies that evaluators
use come from the business and economic
Copyright © 2014, Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved
Cost-Efficiency Evaluations
Cost-effective analyses are important at
two parts of the program process:
Planning stage, projecting the costs of a
potential program and matching them to its
intended objective(s).
Evaluators must assess the quality of the
program’s implementation and impact in the
context of the program costs.
Copyright © 2014, Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved
Types of Costs
Direct versus Indirect:
The planner needs to consider the costs that
associate with providing service(s) and the
support costs that make providing the
service(s) possible.
Recurring versus Nonrecurring Costs:
Recurring costs come about at regular
Nonrecurring costs are for items that do not
require interval style purchase.
Copyright © 2014, Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved
Types of Costs
Hidden versus Obvious Costs:
The issue here is to slow planners down in
their consideration of costs.
Hidden costs require a great deal of inquiry
and research.
Opportunity Costs:
Planners have to consider the cost of the
program being considered and the cost of
other programs.
Copyright © 2014, Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved
Types of Costs
Variable versus Fixed Costs:
These costs represent the amount of money
necessary to simply open the doors of the
Incremental versus Sunk Costs:
Incremental costs reflect the amount of funds
that the organization expends on a daily
basis–salaries or repairs.
Sunk costs are those that have been
previously expended.
Copyright © 2014, Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved
Why Examine Costs?
The funds for criminal justice are almost
always limited, so informed choices are
The informed choice involves a
consideration of the types of cost in
relation to its perceived benefit or positive
impact to society.
Copyright © 2014, Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved
Outcomes to Costs
The determination of the costs is only part of
the process.
The difficult part of the process is the
determination (i.e., estimate or have precise
information) of benefits.
As it turns out, it is the easiest part of the process.
Benefits are difficult to determine because they
are complex due to the multiple ways they can be
determined, and their goals are usually not easily
or clearly presented.
Another method of determining benefits is to
think about the amount of money available if
the money has not been spent.
Copyright © 2014, Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved
The Heart of Cost-Benefit Analysis
In cost benefit-analysis, the costs and the
outcomes are measured in the same unit-usually monetary.
The division of the costs by the benefits
results in a benefit-cost ratio.
Copyright © 2014, Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved
The Heart of Cost-Effectiveness Analysis
Typologies for cost-effectiveness analyses:
If the amount to be spent is set, the planner
or evaluator can compare two alternatives to
determine which one is expected to be the
best outcome for the money.
The cost of achieving a specified outcome
can be compared for various approaches to
a problem.
Examine the different intensities of a
Copyright © 2014, Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved
Units of Understanding are Important
Planners and evaluators are often asked to
choose between programs that have been
designed to achieve different goals or
Cost-utility analysis is a process where the
stakeholders (i.e., those with some interest
in a potential program) examine and
compare the possible benefits with the
costs of the potential program.
Copyright © 2014, Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved
Issues of Cost Analyses
Unit of Analysis:
The unit of analysis is an important feature to keep in
mind. Babbie (2002) discusses unit of analysis as the
thing used to create summary descriptions of all such
units and explain differences among them.
What Future Costs and Benefits Hold:
The future brings about changes in program clients,
missions, goals, or objectives.
The difficulty in estimating these long-term benefits
becomes complex when considering the externality
The externality effect is known as a spill-over. A spillover occurs when more benefits are realized from a
program than those that are initially intended.
Copyright © 2014, Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved
Issues of Cost Analyses
Paying Costs and Reaping Benefits:
An immediate view is that those that pay the
cost will reap the benefits.
Using cost benefit and cost-effectiveness
A cost-benefit analysis that shows a program
is worthy of funds, but exceeds the
organization’s budget is not feasible; it pushes
the organization to make decisions using
available resources.
Copyright © 2014, Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved
Limits of Cost Analyses
Value of Life:
One of the methods of placing a value on life
is through earning potential.
The earning potential focus has some limits.
Earning potential does not take into account the
amount of money spent on children as they
Earning potential will not properly estimate the
value of an elderly individual.
Copyright © 2014, Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved
Limits of Cost Analyses
Assumptions and Cost Analysis:
Evaluators have to be open and honest about
their assumptions and approximations.
An important issue for evaluators is to provide
multiple estimates for cost-benefit and cost
effective analyses.
Copyright © 2014, Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved
Running Head: A logic model for planning an evaluation of a criminal justice program
A logic model for planning an evaluation of a criminal justice program
A logical model is comprised of the inputs, activities, outputs, the outcomes (short or
long tern-term) and the impact. In the criminal justice program, I will base my logic model in the
Legal advocacy in the domestic violence program.
A typical Logic model (from Inputs to Outcome)
? Trained parttime legal
advocates in
? An office for
the legal
advocates with
an updated
? An attorney
Available 10
hours a week.
? Crisis
counselor for
? Providing legal
information on
matters affecting the
? Help victims to
finish the paperwork
by the staff.
? Upon the arrest of
the assailant, the
staff discusses the
process involved and
informs the victims
of their rights,
responsibilities and
the expectations for
the justice system.
? Advocates to
organize safety
planning with the
? Provision of
counseling sessions
to the victims.
? Victims to be
debriefed once a
week by the
legal advocates.
? Paperwork of
at least three
victims finished
each week.
? Victims to be
reminded of
their rights and
twice a week.
? Advocates to
meet the victims
twice a week on
safety planning.
? Counselors to
meet victims for
two hours
session after
every two days.
? Survivors can
now foster their
safety through
new strategies.
? The victims
will have an
increased legal
which helps
them in making
? The survivors
know well of the
? Victims will
have basic needs
met, like shelter.
? Community’s
response to
victims will
? Victims will
be peaceful as
they will get
justice from the
? The victim
will experience
a better life and
will be safe.
? Victims will
identify goals
which will
enable them to
attain selfsufficiency.
? Abusive
incidences will
? Homicide will
decline in the
? The measure of the
short-term outcome
was facilitated
through conducting a
paper-pencil survey
and open-ended
? Most now survivors
indicated to have their
life status improved,
felt safe and had their
legal knowledge
? Most loved that they
had their basic needs
provided for and
found the community
much more
? Projecting this
overtime, this
program has a lasting
impact on the people.
Kellogg Foundation, W. K. (2004). Using logic models to bring together planning, evaluation,
and action: Logic model development guide. Battle Creek, Mich: WK Kellogg
Higgins, G. E., & Vito, G. F. (2014). Practical program evaluation for criminal justice.
Routledge, pg. 22-23, 32-36.
Payne, B. P., & Gainey, R. R. (2014). Family violence and criminal justice: A life-course
approach. Routledge.

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