here is 4 weeks ppt and reading, you should to help me write down 4 journals for separate and total for 4 pages. each journal need one or more reference.Week 5 Asian Colonies
February 13 The Great Divergence
February 15 Changing Homelands
Readings: Marks, Origins of the Modern World, conclusion.
Gary Okihiro, American History Unbound (University of California Press, 2015), intro.
& chap. 1.
Matt K. Matsuda, Pacific Worlds (Cambridge University Press, 2012), 176-215.Week 6 Migration, Diaspora, Work
February 20 Coolies and Cane
February 22 Gold Rushes and Gold Mountains
Readings: Okihiro, American History Unbound, chaps. 2-3.
Moon-Hu Jung, Coolies and Cane (The Johns Hopkins Press, 2008), 39-72.
Susan Johnson, Roaring Camp (Norton, 2001), 237-274.Week 7 American Empire
February 27 Ive been working on the railroad
March 1 Continental Divides / Following the flag
Readings: Okihiro, American History Unbound, chap. 4-5.
Chinese Railroad Workers in North America project, Stanford University
Robert G. Lee, Orientals (Temple University Press, 1999), 15-50.
Rudyard Kipling, The White Mans Burden, McClures, 12:4 (February 1899), 4.
Vicente Rafael, White Love (Duke University Press, 2000), 76-102.Week 8 Building, Growing
March 6 winter break
March 8 Iron Chinks and Lumberjacks
Readings: Okihiro, American History Unbound, chap. 6.
Chris Friday, Organizing Asian American Labor (Temple University Press, 1994) 48-
Unformatted Attachment Preview
A History of Seas, Peoples, and Cultures
Matt K. Matsuda
177 I The world that Canton made
THE WORLD THAT CANTON MADE
Off the coasts of Vanua Levu, Fiji, during the reign of Naulivou,
voyaging chiefs from the Bau region one day regarded a strange vessel
from beyond the coastal arrowroot and tobacco weeds. The outlanders
made shore and offered iron hoop, knives, and hatchets, and unknown
animals like geese, a monkey, and a cat. The chiefs had long traded
canoes, woven mats, and spears with Tongans, but the outsiders wanted
only croppings of heavy trees with rough, mottled bark, unsuitable for
canoes, which they cut, scored, and loaded into their vessel. The boat
would be only one of many to follow, and in a few years, the chiefs were
not only trading, but negotiating contracts for their forests and the work
gangs to cut and haul them. 1
Many of the ships then made port in a place largely unknown
to the chiefs of Bau. In April r8o5, the governor of New South Wales
wrote from Sydney, relating “the circumstances of a small Vessel
belonging to an Individual being sent in quest of the Beche-de-Mer.
That Vessel is returned, and altho’ they failed in that Object, yet they
acquired another of not less Value, namely; Sandalwood.” It had been
long known, according to the Governor, that the aromatic wood “was
a production of some of the Feejee Islands, which are a Group hitherto
not much known.” He induced an expedition to survey, barter, and
harvest some tons of the wood, pleased that “it may hereafter be an
advantageous Object of Commerce with China. ” 2
Ship crews putting in at Sydney made port and provision, but it
was not their final destination, for Australian sailors and merchants had
little local market for joss sticks, incense, and fragrant furniture: the
cargoes continued on to their final destination: the South China coast
and the famed Pearl River. Upriver from the Delta lay the entrepot of
Pacific trade for generations: Guangzhou, the port of Canton.
Sailing the channels and the wide river delta in the eighteenth
and nineteenth centuries, here were waters plowed by hundreds of
craft, sails and rigging billowing in the winds, that tied together colonies, chiefdoms, Europeans, islanders, and Asians. Tea, silk, spices,
had long moved out into the China Sea and up from the delta from
around Southeast Asia and the Indian Ocean. Now, a newer island
trade began, bringing goods and also islanders and Europeans in
Oceania directly into renewed contact on boats and in foreign trading
The port was like nowhere else. Guided upriver, captains
could observe the shoals, treacherous for craft of large draft, and
the sampans following ships offering rice, fish, and vegetables. Other
traders moved along the banks unloading heavy cargoes of wood,
calicos and silver, trepang and manufactures, chasing downriver
pilots, laborers, or supply boats among the junks and the dhows.
The river front was covered with warehouses and stations – the
famous factories of the foreign merchants – flying international flags
and surrounded by storage yards. Around them were the competing
companies and the palatial gardens of the agents, Chinese managers,
and stock account intermediaries for Asian, American, and European
The crossing of worlds was nothing new here. Foreign merchants had traded in the region for a millennium, and Arab connections
were reported from the Tang Dynasty. Centuries later, as Ming traders
expanded throughout island Southeast Asia, a thriving junk trade
carried the commerce of foreigners into Chinese waters. Zheng He’s
great treasure fleets also patrolled these sea lanes. The Portuguese were
the first Europeans to arrive by sea, establishing tight control over
(O!xternal commerce, b,ut they were expelled from the mainland and
finally settled around Macao in r 5 57· They were largely unrivaled as
1nasters of foreign trade, challenged only when Dutch carriers began to
itppear in the seventeenth century.
, Foreign trade also expanded after Taiwan came under Chinese
~uthority in r683 and Qing rulers encouraged commercial exchanges.
~long with the Portuguese, the port of Canton centered the Spanish
:trade out of Manila, Muslim merchants from India, and the ships of
17B I Pacific Worlds: AHistory of Seas, Peoples, and Cultures
the French and English East Indian Companies. Dutch, Swedish, and
Danish traders also set up factories, along with Prussians, and, by the
r78os, Americans and Australians. The port was a raucous world of
Portuguese, Spanish, Mandarin, Cantonese, pidgin English, Malay, and
Indian languages, peppered with words from all of Europe and
The Spanish connection is particularly notable, for the fabled
galleons that dominated Pacific-wide crossings for centuries were largely
transshipments. Some goods originated in the Philippines or came from
the Spice Islands, but detailed ship manifests show that the ManilaAcapulco cargoes of silk and porcelain were heavily requisitioned in
China. Indeed, traders of the time often called the Spanish galleons naos
de China – China Ships – because of the textiles, glazed pottery, gold,
jade, and other riches of the Celestial Empire that made the cargoes so
The silver coins that poured into Canton from Peruvian and
Mexican mines were standard currency of trade, and the port grew into
a global marketplace. The Dutch, Portuguese, and Spanish brought the
wealth of the Indies and the Americas. In the late eighteenth century,
English, French, and American ships explored the routes established by
Captain Cook and connected the northwest coast of the Canadian and
Oregon territories to the Hawaiian Islands on a fur trading circuit. In
Polynesian ports, merchant ships anchored beside whalers, sandalwood
boats, trepang sellers, and tea-traders that had looped through Papeete
or the Bay of Islands, New Zealand, or Queensland, Australia with
cargoes for China.
The empire was accessible only through the intricate formalities
and administration of the “Canton system.” Concerned about foreign
expansion, the Qing emperor had issued a 1757 decree explicitly
limiting foreign commerce to Guangzhou – Canton – at the head of
the Pearl River estuary where it meets the South China Sea. There,
foreigners were restricted to a special zone outside of the main city
walls built on a riverbank and crowded with warehouses or “factories.”
A trading season from October to March guided their lives with contracts and deals, and summer months meant obligatory withdrawal
to the European colony at Macao.
In high season, Canton could be an extraordinary experience, a
world of global, trans-local exchanges. Hundreds of foreign ships, their
masts extending for miles downriver, crowded the outer port and the
180 I Pacific Worlds: AHistory of Seas, Peoples, and Cultures
181 I The world that Canton made
available landings. With them came the thousands of local suppliers
and workers who built their livelihoods around the ships and crews,
brandishing baskets of fish and fruit, offering labor for repairs,
hawking small trade items to captains and sailors. As ships made their
way upriver, sampans and launches crowded with chickens, vegetables,
grains, cloth, and people covered the water as floating marketplaces.
Ashore, foreign crews were hustled along waterfront lanes to tea
houses and sellers of rice wine. On the western side of the Factory
district, shopkeepers with storehouses of writing desks, lacquered
chests, elegant carvings, and artworks bargained with captains. Some
of the neighborhoods were well known, such as around Thirteen Factory
Street, where lay “a maze of narrow, winding streets crowded with
sightseers, peddlers, and porters … each street with one trade, dried
foodstuffs, edible bird’s nests and trepang, cloth, silk, painted glass;
herbal medicine.” In these neighborhoods, traders and visitors from all
over the world made deals, passed along tips, and exchanged fragments
of languages and tall tales. Both Chinese and foreign agents wrote up
signs and newsletters in major languages, publishing recommendations
and stories, and offering advice and services. 3
Out on the water, exchange and negotiation also defined everything from hiring helmsmen to simple provisioning. Foreign ships
needed pilots to navigate the shoals and sandbars of the Pearl River,
and linguists to translate documents, confirm cargoes, and arrange
meetings with inspectors. Purchasers and agents oversaw the ships
and crews coming and going and the provisions necessary for crews cattle, fowl, wine, also timber and tar, and cordage for repairs. Laborers
called tidewater men waited at the docks for the loading and unloading.
Ships had papers checked by the Chinese officials and could proceed
only if they were carrying cargo- silver alone or empty holds were signs
of likely smuggling. Political and profit disagreements were enacted
daily along moorings or in the holds of covered boats loaded with
Foreign ships anchored in the port called Macao Roads and were
required to hire a pilot for passage to a customs house at Boca Tigris,
the mouth of the river. At Boca Tigris, ships were inspected by Chinese
officials and allowed to proceed to Whampoa Roads, upriver. From
there, ships had to be measured to determine port fees and all cargoes
unloaded orito Chinese sampans called “chop boats,” then transported
through tollhouses and customs points to Canton and the Factories.
Surveying all this was the powerful customs superintendent
known as the “Hoppo.” He sailed in among the traders on a regal
junk, accompanied by a small fleet of forty or fifty other vessels.
Adorned in dignified formal costume, the Hoppo determined what
government levies ships would pay to trade and invited captains to
offer gifts to the Emperor. Foreigners saluted him, and he responded by
sounding a large gong mounted on his deck.
As his officials took to the task of measuring ships and assessing
fees, the Hoppo made speeches and shared ritual toasts of wine and
dishes of candied fruit and sweetmeats with ships’ officers. Chinese
musicians played fanfares along with sailor bands, and the crews sometimes performed plays. The official port linguists would translate both
conversations and documents. After signing a bond for fees, duties, and
guarantees of conduct, the Hoppo often received mechanical clocks or
music boxes to be turned over to his own Qing superiors in the imperial
The Hoppo was not the only authority to reckon with as trade
expanded. During the long period from 17 57 to I 842, all official
commercial activities had to go through Chinese houses licensed to
trade with Westerners. These were supervised by the Hoppo and
known as the Hong merchants. In the eighteenth century, the merchants formed a cartel which foreigners called the Co-Hong, and fixed
monopolistic prices for cargoes in and out of Canton; with trade
increasing, the imperial court, the Co-Hong merchants, and the traders
all competed for rising revenues. In the mid-eighteenth century, tea
replaced silk as the most significant export, along with items carried
from Madras, Calcutta, and Malacca. In the nineteenth century, cotton
and opium began to dominate, raising new opportunities and
Some of the powerful Hong merchants amassed stupendous
fortunes to their firms and trading accounts. Stories tell of fires at their
warehouses that melted down precious metals stocks into rivers of
silver that ran through city streets. Better verified are accounts of the
opulent banquets of bird’s nest soup with trepang and shark fins they
held for each other, attended by innumerable servants and accompanied
by per;formances of Chinese opera. Sandalwood furniture and fans
perfumed the air. Their residences were staggering compounds of
carved and tiled interlocking pavilions built around terraced gardens
and private canals serviced by boatmen in decorated gondolas. 5
182 I Pacific Worlds: AHistory of Seas, Peoples, and Cultures
183 I The world that Canton made
Of the Co-Hong merchants, one in particular had a clipper ship
christened in his name: this was Wu Bingjian, known to Westerners as
“Howqua.” The ship featured a figurehead and a design “as sharp as a
pair of Chinese shoes.” Portraits show his long, thin face, slight moustache, and courtly demeanor, “dressed luxuriously in a dragon robe and
an expensive fur-lined overrobe with insignia badges and long beads.”
Both officials and merchants derided him as “The Timid Old
Lady” for his willingness to pay ransoms and extortions to mandarins
and, later, British gunboats, but it was all the cost of doing business.
And he could easily afford it. The richest and most powerful of the
Co-Hong merchants, Wu Bingjian was the third son in a family company. A shrewd businessman, he was heavily engaged in tea and silk,
supplying both the British East India Company and American firms
He was also a leader in credit ventures, advancing capital to
weak merchants for considerable interest, and single-handedly paying
off debts – including that of the Chinese government – in impressive
displays of patronage. His wealth, invested in trading and banking
concerns around the world, was many times that of the Rothschild
family dynasty, his contemporaries in commerce and finance. In particular, he is noted for advancing American interests, creating a part
nership with Russell & Company, the major American tea and silk
trader, and donating buildings for missionaries and hospitals. Chinese
newspapers in San Francisco (I 8 55) reported on Howqua as a “master
of international trade,” and some historians claim that he was a major
stockholder in American railroad companies, the great intercontinental
transport lines built with so much immigrant Chinese labor.6
In Canton itself, such global connections would be most regularly incarnated in the single figure of the comprador. The compradors
were merchant house agents charged with contracting stewards, supc
pliers, cooks, cleaners, and laborers, and with ferrying sampans laden
with pigs, cattle, grains, fruit, cloth, wild ducks, and chickens to
anchored traders. From the eighteenth century, they were one of many
port functionaries, but when the Co-Hong system declined in the
184os, the comprador became the key Chinese collaborator of foreign
Chinese stewards had long run the daily maintenance of offices
and living quarters – hiring servants and purveyors, renting and
repairing properties, purchasing land. The comprador increasingly also
took on the role of a business manager, drafting and confirming bank
orders, maintaining a firm’s treasury, examining coinage, and being
informed about shipping schedules, local business deals, and future
prices on everything from rice to wood oil. He also guaranteed loans
and credit for business partners and arranged entertainments and
dinners for Chinese officials. In many cases, the compradors would
be charged with large sums for inland journeys, where foreigners were
not permitted, to make purchases of tea and silk.
Trading on their own accounts, some compradors built up
small fortunes. Somewhat like the Hong merchants, but in the service
of foreign firms, they were products of a multicultural, international
world, envied for their privileges, reviled for serving the interests of
Western companies. Many were necessarily cosmopolitan. The compradors moved in family circles of Confucian and Buddhist practice
and morals, while sending their own children to instruction in church
schools, using Western education in grammar, geography, and mathematics to maintain political and social status at the intersection of
One Wang I-t’ing was a classical Chinese calligrapher and
painter while serving a foreign firm; another comprador spent his
fortune spiritually situating his ancestors’ tombs. Others adopted
hybrid identities in names like “Robert” Ho Tung. As a profession,
the compradors managed and promoted schools and new businesses,
headed district relief campaigns, worked with regional governors on
political and policing questions, and created for themselves unique and
profitable roles at the meeting of Sino-Occidental culture. 7
Such overlapping of commercial pursuit with foreigners and
adherence to Chinese practices was present from the beginning of the
Canton system. In fact, visitors often reported business practices that
were also commentaries on culture: customs, manners, and new knowledge gained in Canton. The world of Chinese compradors, merchants,
and officials created a,dense network of exchanges, and in some cases,
those at the center were not Europeans but Pacific Islanders voyaging
into unknown worlds along with the Westerners.
From the late eighteenth century, one was Lee Boo, from
Micron.esia. He crossed from Oceanian to Asian worlds with Captain
Henry Wilson of the East India Company, whose merchant ship had
been wrecked off Palau, and whose crew was stranded while rebuilding
a schooner to reach Canton. Wilson became a friend of King Abba
184 I Pacific Worlds: AHistory of Seas, Peoples, and Cultures
185 I The world that Canton made
Thulle, who was impressed by the captain’s technology, knowledge,
and descriptions of England, and requested that his son, Lee Boo, be
taken on the continuing voyage.
The young prince impressed the foreign traders with his
manners and disposition, and demonstrated his skill at spear-throwing.
In turn, he learned about tea, European women, and the Chinese
marketplace, and was fascinated by the high-rising houses and streetlife
in Canton. In 1784, Lee Boo arrived in Portsmouth, met with the
directors of the East India Company, and was an object of curiosity
and admiration before succumbing to smallpox after just five months.
His patrons penned him an epitaph, and his story of noble and simple
generosity entered into English schoolbooks.
The Chief Ka’iana, younger brother of the king of Kauai,
Hawai’i, did not leave a sentimental legacy, but he certainly made a
strong impression in Canton. Traveling with Captain John Meares, a
fur trader crossing from the Pacific Northwest to China, Ka’iana was
by all accounts an imposing presence – tall, muscular, proud, “handsome and haughty,” with a feathered cape, helmet, and toa wood spear.
Crowds gathered around and shrank from his presence. Over several
months in Macao and Canton he demonstrated contempt for the
Chinese, whom he regarded as small and servile, and the merchants
in turn scorned him for being unable to make use of coins, instead
trying to barter with iron nails.
In Macao he followed the rituals of the Catholic mass with
great interest, and was moved by the plight of beggars in sampans;
impressed by the ships and ports, he could not comprehend the spectacle of poverty and daily hunger that he witnessed. He eventually
returned to Hawai’i bearing a cache of weapons and, finding the
islands at war, became a strong ally of Kamehameha. 8
By the first decades of the nineteenth century, such ennobled
visitors to Canton were but single faces in an increasing population of
largely anonymous islanders, not guests under the patronage of captains, but common labor kanakas, joining the lascars, the Kru-men, and
the Manila men in a Pacific circuit of ships and trade cargoes.
The clamor of markets at Canton reverberated in Pacific
worlds thousands of miles from China’s shores. Small groups and
individual islanders joined whaling and sealing crews and signed on
for fur trapping, voyaging from their homes to the Americas, around
the north and south Pacific, and across the ocean in search of goods for
the South China Sea. For them, life onboard ships was an adventure
and a brutal servitude, circumscribed by the strict hierarchies and rites
of life at sea, beatings, abuse, insults, and the tensions of different
groups working, earning, and often dying together. 9
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