journal analysis

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ENGR 100W: ANALYSIS OF A PROFESSIONAL JOURNAL ARTICLE
FOR READABILITY AND PSEUDOSCIENCE VERSUS REAL SCIENCE
Assignment:
Imagine that the editor of a journal has asked you to analyze an article from the journal by
evaluating the following questions:
• Is the article a well-written technical document?
• Have the authors proven their thesis using scientific methodologies?
Note that you are analyzing the article for readability and scientific methodology. You are not
providing a summary of the content. Also, note that Sections 2 and 3 in the Guidelines below
will be the main sections of your report.
MANDATORY: Due competed draft for PR: Upload draft before the start of class
Wednesday, April 4 plus MANDATORY MEETING WITH ME.
Final draft due: Monday, APRIL 11, 2018
Both the Canvas copy and the paper copy are required for a grade to be earned.
Length: 4 pages, single spaced, 12-point font, blank line between paragraphs
Format: Informational report to the journal editors (specific names). For sample layouts of an
informational report, see Markel, chapter 17. Adhere to APA format.
Your Canvas submission MUST include: (1.) your informational report, (2.) a screenshot from
Ulrich’s Web, (3.) a copy of the first page of the journal article, and (4.) the grade sheet.
Grade: 100 points or 10% of course grade
A. Find a Journal Article. This section will be completed during your visit to the MLK
Library.
Find a peer-reviewed, technical article from a high quality professional technical journal,
preferably related to your major. You are required to select an article from a professional journal
and not a magazine because this makes a difference in trusting the validity of the data. You must
check Ulrich’s Web to ensure you have a peer-reviewed article. Please take a screenshot. The
journal must be dated between 2013 and 2018.
When you have chosen your article, look at the journal and identify the editors of the journal.
Also find other details about the journal that might help in your introduction (see Part B
Guidelines Section 1 below.)
B. Guidelines:
1. Introduction
a. State the purpose of your memo and forecast your report’s content.
b. Give brief information about the journal. Discuss the following: Journal name?
Peer reviewed? Exclusively online? Available for subscription? Published
monthly, quarterly? Publisher’s name? Intended audience?
c. Provide information about the article. You could include some of the following:
Who are the authors? What universities are they from? What are their degrees?
Who is the intended audience for the article? What is the main purpose of the
article? What year was the article published?
d. Explain why you chose the article and how you found it.
ENGR 100W: ANALYSIS OF A PROFESSIONAL JOURNAL ARTICLE
FOR READABILITY AND PSEUDOSCIENCE VERSUS REAL SCIENCE
2. Readability and writing qualities
a. Establish your analysis of the article’s “readability” based on Markel’s
Characteristics of a Technical Document (pp. 7 and later chapters). Provide
several specific examples from the article to show how it follows the six
characteristics. Do not use words such as “good” or “great.” Explain “why.” How
have the authors used tables, graphs, and figures?
b. What is your conclusion concerning the writing quality of the article? Use
Markel’s Measures of Excellence in Technical Communication (pp. 7–9, and later
chapters). Provide several examples from the article.
3. Scientific methodologies
a. Briefly explain the scientific method or the design process used in the article.
Markel’s text will help with understanding scientific methods and real science.
See Markel’s Experiments showing the scientific method: p. 134. Cunningham’s
Principles of Environmental Science will also be helpful. See section 1.4
“Science helps us understand our world” and section 1.5 “Critical thinking.”
b. Briefly explain pseudoscience. Use critical thinking, and check for pseudoscience
versus real science (examples in lecture and text). Discuss why this article is not
pseudoscience. Provide examples in your report.
4. Conclusion
a. Summarize your analysis and explain whether the article contributed to your
understanding of ways to present your research. Why would this be a good journal
for you to submit to in the future?
b. What is your impression of the journal?
c. What key points did you learn for your future writing?
5. References
a. Provide references for any sources used including Markel and the journal article
reference. Use APA format. For proper documentation, please see the following:
i. Markel Technical Communication, Appendix Part B
ii. http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/
iii. APA compete in Course Documents
C. Objectives of this assignment:
• To explain, analyze, develop, and criticize ideas effectively (Area Z, SLO 2)
• To organize and develop documents (Area Z, SLO 3)
• To demonstrate an understanding of the methods and limits of scientific investigation
(Area R, SLO 1)
• To distinguish science from pseudoscience (Area R, SLO 2)
D. Policies from the Syllabus:
Late Assignments: No late work accepted. An emailed paper will not be accepted.
Plagiarism: Plagiarism will result in a grade of F in ENGR 100W. Papers with plagiarism
cannot be rewritten for credit.
ENGR 100W: ANALYSIS OF A PROFESSIONAL JOURNAL ARTICLE
FOR READABILITY AND PSEUDOSCIENCE VERSUS REAL SCIENCE
GRADING SHEET
Name:
Submitted all parts of the assignment on time
/4
Followed format directions: layout, page numbers, single line spacing,
headings
/4
Selected a peer-reviewed journal article
/2
Introduction: Contains the purpose of the memo, provides information about
the journal (for the journal title, uses italics), editors, and publisher; provides
information about the journal article (for the article title, uses quotation marks),
author, and date; explains why the article was chosen and how it was found
/5
Analysis section: Criteria for a good report are described, including
characteristics and measures of excellence. Critique is based on specified
criteria, not a summary of the article. Relevant examples are chosen and
discussed persuasively
/35
Discussion of pseudoscience and scientific method: Explains the scientific
method and how the authors applied scientific methodologies. Explains
pseudoscience and uses examples to show why the article is or is not
pseudoscience
/25
Conclusion: Summarizes your report, and gives your overall analysis of the
quality of the article; provides key lessons learned from the analysis
References: Uses correct APA format in the text and includes all cited sources
Uses correct expression, grammar, spelling, and punctuation. Includes varied
and interesting sentence construction, with a broad range of vocabulary.
Total
/10
/5
/10
/100
Chemical Engineering Science 108 (2014) 33–46
Contents lists available at ScienceDirect
Chemical Engineering Science
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/ces
Catalytic fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass in a process
development unit with continual catalyst addition and removal
Jungho Jae a,1, Robert Coolman b, T.J. Mountziaris a, George W. Huber b,n
a
b
Department of Chemical Engineering, 159 Goessmann Laboratory, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, USA
Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, 1415 Engineering Hall, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA
H I G H L I G H T S
G R A P H I C A L
A B S T R A C T
Continuous aromatic production
from wood is achieved in ?uidized
bed reactor by CFP.
Low ?uidization ?ow, low WHSV
and high catalyst:feed ratio maximize aromatic yield.
CO and CO2 in simulated recycle do
not inhibit aromatization.
Simulated recycle of ole?ns allows
for additional aromatization.
ZSM-5 catalyst is stable throughout
repeated reaction/regeneration cycles.
art ic l e i nf o
a b s t r a c t
Article history:
Received 17 July 2013
Received in revised form
18 November 2013
Accepted 17 December 2013
Available online 6 January 2014
Catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP) of wood was studied using a spray-dried ZSM-5 catalyst in a process
development unit (PDU) consisting of a bubbling ?uidized bed reactor with on-stream particle input and
output. The PDU was capable of maintaining constant product yield of aromatics over an extended
reaction period (6 h) with continuous catalyst addition and removal. The yields and selectivity for
aromatics and ole?ns were dependent on temperature, biomass weight hourly space velocity (WHSV),
catalyst to biomass ratio, ?uidization gas velocity, and catalyst bed weight. The overall aromatic yield
increased up to 15.5 carbon% with decreasing gas velocities due to the increased vapor residence time
and the improved mass transfer from smaller bubble sizes. A simulated recycle stream of CFP product
gases consisting of CO, CO2 and ole?ns was used to test the viability of subsequent ole?n aromatization in
the presence of CO and CO2. Ole?ns were converted into additional aromatics while CO and CO2
remained inert during CFP. The spray-dried ZSM-5 catalyst was stable in a series of 30 reaction/
regeneration cycles.
& 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords:
Catalytic fast pyrolysis
Scale up
Biomass
Aromatics
Bubbling ?uidized bed reactor
Continuous operation
1. Introduction
Lignocellulosic biomass is the only economically sustainable
source of carbon for production of renewable liquid fuels or
chemicals (Huber et al., 2006). Catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP), which
involves pyrolysis of biomass in the presence of a zeolite catalyst,
n
Corresponding author. Tel.: þ 1 608 263 0346.
E-mail address: huber@engr.wisc.edu (G.W. Huber).
1
Present address: Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791,
Republic of Korea.
0009-2509/$ – see front matter & 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ces.2013.12.023
is a promising technology to convert raw solid biomass directly
into hydrocarbons (aromatics and ole?ns) (Carlson et al., 2011,
2009b, 2008; Compton et al., 2011; Fanchiang and Lin, 2012;
French and Czernik, 2010; Jeon et al., 2013; Li et al., 2012; Ma et al.,
2012; Mullen et al., 2011; Neumann and Hicks, 2012; Park et al.,
2010; Pattiya et al., 2010; Wang and Brown, 2013; Zhang et al.,
2012, 2009b). CFP has signi?cant advantages over other biomass
conversion processes due to its simplicity and low process cost.
In this single step process, biomass is thermally decomposed into
pyrolysis vapors which enter the zeolite catalyst and are converted
into desired aromatics and ole?ns along with CO, CO2, H2O, and
34
J. Jae et al. / Chemical Engineering Science 108 (2014) 33–46
coke (Cheng et al., 2012). The mechanisms for production of
aromatics by CFP of biomass have been reported in the literature
(Carlson et al., 2009a, 2010; Cheng and Huber, 2011; Lin et al.,
2009). In brief, the cellulosic portion of biomass is initially
pyrolyzed into levoglucosan and other anhydrosugars. These
anhydrosugars are further dehydrated to furan derivatives in the
presence of zeolite catalysts. Furans then diffuse into the zeolite
micropores and are converted into aromatics through a hydrocarbon pool mechanism. Monocyclic aromatics may further react
with oxygenates to form polycyclic aromatics. ZSM-5 has the
highest aromatic production for CFP of lignocellulosic biomass of
any zeolite catalyst due to its medium pore size and moderate
internal pore space (Foster et al., 2012; Jae et al., 2011; Mihalcik
et al., 2011; Perego and Bosetti, 2011).
CFP of solid biomass has been primarily studied in a variety of
?uidized bed reactors, including bubbling-?uidized-bed (Agblevor
et al., 2010; Aho et al., 2007, 2008, 2011; Carlson et al., 2011;
Mullen et al., 2011; Zhang et al., 2009a), spouted-bed (Atutxa et al.,
2005; Olazar et al., 2000), and circulating-?uidized-bed (Lappas
et al., 2002) reactors. A major obstacle in CFP operation is catalyst
deactivation due to the formation of carbon residues. The carbon
residues are formed from either pyrolysis of biomass (char) or by
heterogeneous chemistry (coke). For example, it has been reported
that the ZSM-5 catalyst deactivates during the CFP of pinewood
sawdust during 90 min time on stream (Carlson et al., 2011). Thus
for CFP of biomass, it is desirable to use a regeneration furnace
alongside the ?uidized bed to allow for steady state operation. In
such con?gurations, a regeneration furnace combusts char and
coke deposited on (and amidst) the catalyst particles reactivating
the catalyst before it is returned to the reactor.
While the coupling of reaction–regeneration reactors is wellsuited concept for biomass pyrolysis, only a few papers have been
reported using this con?guration for catalytic pyrolysis of biomass
(Lappas et al., 2009, 2002; Zhang et al., 2013a, 2013b). Lappas et al.
(2002) reported the use of a circulating ?uid bed (CFB) reactor
with continuous solid regeneration for catalytic pyrolysis of
biomass. Their unit consists of a riser reactor, ?uid bed regenerator, and a stripper. They presented 3-h steady state operation
data using either a ZSM-5 additive or a ?uid catalytic cracking
(FCC) catalyst with continuous catalyst recirculation. They
employed 400–500 1C for the reactor temperature and 700 1C for
the regenerator temperature. They obtained organic liquid product
yields of up to 21 wt% over the ZSM-5 additive. However, the
liquid product was a mixture of acids, aldehydes, ketones, furans,
and phenols with a very low hydrocarbon yield (0.58 wt%). Zhang
et al. (2013b) also reported continuous catalytic pyrolysis of rice
stalk in an internally interconnected ?uidized bed (IIFB) reactor
using a spray-dried ZSM-5 catalyst. In their reactor system, a
catalytic pyrolysis bed is internally connected with a combustion
bed so that the coke and char on the catalyst is combusted in the
combustion bed and the regenerated catalyst is sent back to the
catalytic pyrolysis bed for continuous operation. They reported
total 20% carbon yield of aromatics and ole?ns with 3 h time on
stream.
Our previous studies of CFP in ?uidized beds were conducted
for only between 30 min and 90 min before the catalyst deactivated due to coking on the catalyst surface. The objective of this
paper is to demonstrate CFP technology at steady-state conditions
by using a specially designed reactor that allows continual removal
and addition of catalyst from a bubbling ?uidized bed reactor. The
aromatic and ole?n yields are a function of temperature, biomass
weight hourly space velocity (WHSV), and catalyst-to-biomass
ratio. The effects of catalyst-bed mass and ?uidization-gas velocity
were also investigated to understand how the hydrodynamics
(e.g. bubble growth and vapor residence time) affect CFP chemistry
and reactor performance. In addition to inert ?uidizers, a simulated
recycle stream of CFP product gases consisting of CO, CO2 and
ole?ns was used to test the viability of subsequent ole?n aromatization in the presence of CO and CO2. We also studied the stability
of the spray-dried ZSM-5 catalyst by subjecting it to repeated
reaction/regeneration cycles.
2. Experimental
2.1. Materials
The feedstock used in this study was eastern pine sawdust
obtained from Cowls Building Supply (Cowls Building Supply,
Amherst, MA). Prior to experiments, the wood was ground with
a rotary cutter mill to pass a 1-mm screen. The ground wood was
air-dried to reduce its moisture content to less than 5 wt%. The
elemental analysis of the wood feed is shown in Table 1. The ash
content was determined using TGA by combustion of wood at
700 1C for 1 h. The catalyst used was a commercial spray-dried 40%
ZSM-5 catalyst with an average particle size of 98 µm (Intercat.
Inc.). Since the company did not disclose the composition of the
catalyst except the content of ZSM-5, more detailed information
on the catalyst is not possible. Typically spray-dried catalysts
contain above 40 wt% zeolite, 3–15 wt% phosphorus (P2O5), 15–45%
kaolin (Al2Si2O5(OH)4) and above 10 wt% alumina (Carlson et al.,
2011). We expect that the spray-dried 40% ZSM-5 catalyst used in
this study has similar composition to the typical spray-dried catalyst.
Zeolite crystals are typically 1 µm in diameter, so it is necessary to
bind them together to make particles suitable for ?uidization; one
such binding technique is spray-drying. All commercial ?uidized
bed processes use spray-dried catalysts that contain both the zeolite
and binders.
Prior to reactions, the catalyst was calcined in a muf?e furnace
at 580 1C for 12 h. For a typical run, 550 g of the catalyst was
loaded in the reactor. Simulated recycle stream experiments were
conducted with a Ga-promoted spray-dried ZSM-5 prepared by
incipient-wetness impregnation. A Ga(NO3)3 solution (with an
amount of 2.5 wt% Gallium with respect to the whole spraydried ZSM-5) was slowly added via dropper to calcined ZSM-5
until it became slurry. The impregnated Ga-ZSM-5 was then dried
at 110 1C overnight and calcined at 600 1C for 12 h in a muf?e
furnace.
2.2. CFP of pine wood in a process development unit (PDU)
A schematic of the PDU is shown in Fig. 1. The PDU consists of a
?uidized bed reactor, a catalyst hopper, a catalyst inlet line, a
catalyst outlet line, a biomass hopper, and a biomass inlet line. The
reactor is a 4-in. outer diameter 316 stainless-steel tube with a free
board height of 30 in. The top of the freeboard expands to a 6-in.
outer diameter to suppress entrainment of catalyst particles in the
exit gas stream. The catalyst bed was supported by a distributor
made from a 316 stainless-steel wire mesh (50 250 mesh).
The portion of reactor below the distributor plate served as a gas
preheater. This bottom section of the reactor was loosely packed
Table 1
Elemental analysis of eastern pine wood.
Elemental
analysis (wt%)b
C
H
Oa
Ash
47.2
6.4
45.9
0.5
a
b
By balance.
Sample contains moisture up to 5 wt%.
J. Jae et al. / Chemical Engineering Science 108 (2014) 33–46
35
Fig. 1. Experimental setup of the process development unit. (a) Schematic of the process development unit and (b) detailed cross-sectional drawing of the reactor.
with quartz wool to encourage gas distribution and heat transfer.
The catalyst was ?uidized with nitrogen controlled by a mass ?ow
controller (Brooks) in the range of 3.2–11 slpm. The reactor was
externally heated with a four-zone electric furnace to minimize
the temperature gradient across the reactor. All zones were
maintained at reaction temperature. The temperatures inside
the reactor were measured by K-type thermocouples inserted
to a penetration depth of 1 cm.
The pinewood feedstock was loaded into a sealed feed hopper
(Tecweigh, volumetric feeder) where a motor-controlled stainlesssteel auger conveyed it to the biomass inlet line. The auger motor
was calibrated according to mass ?ow rate. The biomass inlet
line (jacket cooled to a temperature of 0 1C) contained a second
conveyor which delivered the biomass into the reactor at a point
1 in. above the distributor. To maintain an inert environment in
the feeding system, the hopper was swept with nitrogen at a rate
of 2 slpm. This nitrogen sweep also served to prevent product
vapors from ?owing into the pinewood feeding system.
The catalyst was loaded into a separate catalyst hopper located
on the top of the reactor and added continuously to the reactor
through the catalyst inlet line by a specially designed ball valve
(Swagelok, T60M thermal series ball valve). Two wells were drilled
36
J. Jae et al. / Chemical Engineering Science 108 (2014) 33–46
into the solid valve ball to serve as a device to meter catalyst.
The valve turnover rate was used to adjust the mass ?ow rate of
the catalyst. After metering, catalyst fell onto the catalyst bed
through the catalyst inlet line which ended at a point 6 in. …
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