Journal Assigments

Please review the files.Include 2 Files, each of them an Assigment with several parts to be answer all of themPlease follow the instruction for each partAdditional I add another files that need to be revised by you to complete the assigmentsThanksRemember you did my last Journal, and in Assigment 1, Discussion 1 is about that.


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ANSWER the Following 2 Discussion
Scenario A
You will be interviewing a man who is a local hero because he jumped into a river and
saved two children. He doesn’t want to be interviewed because he is an undocumented
worker who is afraid of deportation. He left the scene of the heroic rescue before anyone
could identify him, but a reporter tracked him down and the man reluctantly agreed to be
interviewed if his identity is protected.
Scenario B
You will be interviewing the first place winner of the National Spelling Bee. She is
extremely shy and soft-spoken. As first place winner, she wins a $20,000 scholarship. She
is the first person in her family who will go to college.
Scenario C
You will be interviewing a political candidate who is running for office. He
mischaracterized whether he reimbursed a campaign contributor for his use of the man’s
private jet. He implied that he reimbursed the contributor but in fact he did not. This is his
first interview since the flap erupted.
Scenario D
You will be interviewing a woman who suffered a head injury and as a result has a rare
medical syndrome called “Foreign Accent Syndrome.” Since her accident, she speaks with
a Swedish accent, even though she is American and has never been to Sweden or known
anyone who was Swedish. People treat her oddly and sometimes even make fun of her. Her
life has been ruined by this affliction, and there is no cure. She wants people to understand
what she is going through.
First think and then write (5) five questions of your own.
From the previous Assigment and story
Day 1
Post a paragraph describing your news story idea and your list of interview
PART 1 —- Reporter’s Reflection 1
In this lesson, you will do some independent research in order to become better
acquainted with different types of leads, and then you will spend some time thinking about
what makes one lead successful and another one weak. While looking at daily news
articles, either online or offline, you will find examples to write about in your journal.
Why do leads matter? If a story’s beginning is boring, do you keep reading? Would
you put down the newspaper or keep reading if you came upon this lead:
“Everyone thought John Doe was a nice ordinary guy. Little did they know what
secret lurked in his past, what he hoped no one in this town would ever find out…”
Did that lead hold your attention? Why or why not? Did it build suspense?
In this activity, you will learn some criteria for evaluating leads and applying them
to your own work. Be sure to
Review the Assignment Overview: Story Structure (DOCX).
Find and read news stories as directed in this lesson’s assignment.
Record your findings in the online journal as instructed.
Review the Journalism: Reporter’s Reflection Journal Rubric (PDF) so that
you understand how your work will be graded.
Find a Lead
To complete this assignment, you will need to find an example of a successful lead
and an example of an unsuccessful lead. Where should you start?
You can choose an online site from News You Can Peruse (PDF). You may also
use other sources, such as local papers, either the print or online version. Your two
leads should come from two different newspapers or news sites.
You should look for your leads in sections of the paper or website that
have breaking news stories or hard news stories rather than arts and
entertainment stories.
You can look on the front page of a hard copy newspaper or the home page of its
online entity. You can also look in sections that carry international, national,
regional or metro news.
Identify the Type
Choose a few leads that you think you might want to examine. Then determine
what type of lead each is.
Remember that there are five types of leads:
Immediate Identification
Delayed Identification
Anecdotal or Creative
Evaluate the Lead
Next, reflect on whether you think the leads you selected meet the criteria for being
Consider the criteria and ask yourself whether the leads you have chosen are:
Remember, you are looking for one effective lead and one ineffective lead. If you
don’t have a good example of each, then go back and do some more investigating.
Record Your Findings
Once you have identified the stories with the leads that you will be discussing in
your Journal, you are ready to write down your observations in your Journal.
Your journal entry should have one paragraph for each lead that includes the
A link to the article (if available)
The lead from the article
An explanation of what kind of lead it is
An evaluation of whether the lead is effective or not based upon the criteria
given; explain why you think the lead works, or how it could be better.
Label your journal entry 4.1 Leads.
PART 2 —– Reporter’s Reflection 2
Remember, good journalists don’t just leave their stories hanging. They wind them
up and end with a kicker . Kickers do more than just end the story. They affect the
reader in some way.
Kickers can make you
Laugh or cry
Think about the issue at hand
Inspire you to do something
Review the types of kickers.
Find a Kicker
Use News You Can Peruse (PDF)to help you find one great kicker and one weak
one. Cut and paste these kickers into your journal.
You should choose two different publications—one for each kicker.
You should look for your kickers in sections of the paper or website that
have breaking news stories or hard news stories rather than arts and
entertainment stories.
You can look on the front page of a hard copy newspaper or the home page of its
online entity. You can also look in sections that carry international, national,
regional or metro news.
Identify Purpose
Identify what the purpose of your kicker is, based on the criteria you have learned.
Once you have determined the kicker’s purpose, reflect on how the writer achieves this
purpose or does not achieve it. Does she end with a compelling anecdote, a telling quote,
a cliffhanger revelation or a surprising fact?
Your job is to evaluate the kicker’s effectiveness.
Record Your Findings
Once you have identified the stories with kickers that you will be discussing in your
journal, you are ready to write down your observations in your journal.
Your journal entry should have one paragraph for each kicker that includes the
A link to the article (if available)
The kicker from the article
The purpose of each kicker, based on the criteria you have learned.
An evaluation of whether the kicker is effective or not based upon the
criteria given
Label your journal entry 4.2 Kickers.
THE FOLLOWING Discussion: Leads and Kickers
What is it about this lead or kicker that does or doesn’t work?
Post one lead and one kicker on the discussion board. They can be good or bad examples. Return
to the board to read examples that your peers have posted. Respond to several of your peers’
posts, explaining why you think their examples are “good” or “bad.” Include at least one tip for
writing a lead and a kicker in your response.
4.01: Organizing Parts of a Story
Every story has a beginning, middle and end as well as various elements that add
interest. Each element contributes something different to the story and helps to
shape it into the finished product that you read in the newspaper, which lands on
your doorstep every morning, or online at your favorite news website.
Print Model News Stories: Story Structure (PDF) and read through theYou will
reference these articles several times throughout this lesson.
Begin at the Beginning: Leads
After the headline , the lead is the first thing that your readers will read, so it is
very important because it entices your readers to keep reading.
A good lead has several characteristics.
Explore the characteristics of a good lead
You want everything about your story to be accurate, but you particularly want your lead to
be. If a lead has a misspelling or inaccuracy, you will lose your creadibilty and the reader’s
You want the lead to be concise so that the reader keeps moving through the story. If your
reader is looking for specific information and wants it quickly, a longwinded lead that
doesn’t get right to the point will irritate your audience.
You want your lead to be appropriate. If a story topic is serious, you want to avoid using a
lead that would seem trivial or even insensitive. The lead sets the story’s tone and helps
define the story’s purpose
You want the lead to be clear. If you are trying to build suspense but merely build
confusion, the reader will turn the page. Clarity should win out over creativity in most cases
when it comes to journalism.
In the case of stories that are not breaking news, you can include a creative lead. If you
want to build suspense, you can momentarily emphasize creativity over clarity.
The rule of thumb is that most leads for a typical news story are 35 words or fewer, but this
is not a hard and fast rule.
There are many variations and types of leads for a news story.
The Point Is…
What is the story’s significance? The nut graf or “so what” graf is not always
obvious. Different readers may value different ideas in a story.
The nut graf answers the question, “Why am I reading this story?” It tells you why it
matters and keeps readers from shrugging their shoulders and saying, “So what?”
when reading the story.
Nut grafs are in the eye of the beholder. It is important that there is at least one nut
graf for every reader. What that nut graf is isn’t always the same for every reader.
Some readers might find the story’s significance in the last few sentences of the
model news story, “A Unique Bond.”
“This means a lot to me,” said Captain Roxanne Chambers, 27, a member of
the Seattle National Guard who was test-driving a chestnut palomino named
Dolly. “There’s something about being around these horses that puts you at
peace. It’s tough getting back into the swing of things. I can use all the friends I
can get,” she said, stroking the horse’s mane.
The Parts Make Up the Whole
The lead pulls the reader in, but as in any good and purposeful writing, the reader has to
know why she is reading. That is the job of the nut graf.
Identify the lead and the nut graf in the model news story, “Local Seniors Gone to the
Journalists include quotes in a story because, depending on the situation, quotes
can add the following:
Authority or expertise: Quotes from experts give a story an air of authority
and credibility.
Context or authenticity: Quotes from witnesses or participants give a story
details and color that only those who were present at an event can provide.
Insight and opinion: Quotes from people involved in the news can offer
opinions that reporters should not provide.
Look at the model news story, “Local Seniors Gone to the Dogs.” How many
quotes do you see? What do you think they add to the story? Information?
Select Quotes to explore the quotes in the model news story.
Do quotes help you understand how the people in the story feel and why they do
what they do? In the model news story, “Local Seniors Gone to the Dogs,” you
hear in their own words what it means to the senior citizens to be able to help the
dogs and to also help themselves by doing so. It is more moving to hear it from the
perspective of the participant. In the case of Melbourne and Winters, you can
better relate to them if you feel you know them. In this way, it is more effective to
hear the story in their own words than that of the writer.
Is it clear who says what in the model news story? It is clear because after each
person speaks, the attribution is noted by the words “Melbourne said” or
“explained Winters.” It is important to make it clear to readers who is speaking so
that they can follow the story’s meaning as well as evaluate for themselves the
value and credibility of the information.
Getting a Kick Out of Kickers
There are many ways to end a story. The most important thing to remember is to
end it with deliberateness and not allow the story to just stop or fade away.
Endings are often referred to as kickers , because they have a kick, like a spicy
You want your ending to be memorable so that readers remember your story.
Explore different types of kickers.
Types of Kickers
Linear or Cyclical
Types of Kickers
Linear or Cyclical
“We may not have reached our goal yet, but it’s events like this one that
bring hope to parents and their children with cystic fibrosis,” said Joanie
Mohler, one of the Great Strides organizers and mother of two children
with CF. “Each step each one of us takes on Saturday is one step closer
to a cure.”
You can end the story with a powerful quote or you can craft an ending in
your own words.
Linear or Cyclical
Based on donation pledges, the event organizers believe they will raise
$40,000 and have already started talking about plans for next year’s
Great Strides event.
Your kicker can refer to the future, giving the story a linear quality, or the
kicker could refer back to the lead, giving the story a cyclical quality.
Great Strides organizers say they have an A-list star with ties to the Cystic Fibrosis
community who will be attending. Mohler won’t say who the star is, just that he has
been immortalized in Hollywood’s Walk of Fame.
Your kicker can end with a cliffhanger, leaving your readers hoping for a follow-up.
Slide 1Slide 2Slide 3Slide 4
The 5 Ws and H
In this activity, you will learn that news stories have pertinent facts referred to as
the 5 Ws and H. You will learn what these facts are and where they belong in a
Have your model news stories handy. You will refer to them throughout this activity
A journalist’s job is to ask questions and get answers.
Although the stories that reporters follow differ, good reporters know there are six big
questions to ask.
They are known as the 5 Ws and H.
Explore the 5 Ws and H.
How expanded
What person in the story is emphasized, either because she is making the news or
is affected by the news?
What is the news?
Where does the news take place?
When did the news happen?
Why is this happening?
Inverted Pyramid
There are different kinds of structures for different kinds of stories. Identifying the
type of story you are writing will help you determine which story structure will work
Print the Model News Stories: Story Structure (PDF) and read “Local Seniors
Gone to the Dogs.”
The Inverted Pyramid
You have read “Local Seniors Gone to the Dogs” by K12 Courier Staff Writer Jenny
Journalist. The journalist gathered her facts, conducted her interviews, and then tackled the
big step: She wrote the article. How?
The information that a reporter gathers for her story needs a structure. News stories are
constructed in a very straightforward way, most often employing a structure called the inverted
pyramid .
The inverted pyramid is the most popular structure for a news story because it delivers
information quickly and efficiently. It works well for simple news stories or short human interest
stories whose purpose is to disseminate the news quickly.
Get to the Point
Many people don’t have time to read the whole story and just want to know the
most critical information, which means the 5 Ws and H.
If the reader stays with the model story beyond the lead , she will also get to read
the nut graf , which is important but perhaps not the most critical information. If the
reader keeps reading she gets to the third paragraph, which goes into the
background of how the organization came into being. Interesting information
certainly, though perhaps not vital in terms of the story’s most pertinent points—
that this group recently was formed and what its achievements to date entail.
As the story goes on, we get more detail and emotion that add to the article’s
overall storytelling effectiveness.
In an inverted pyramid structure, the most important facts go on the top
and the less critical facts are stacked in order of descending importance.
Using the model news story, explore how the journalist organized her
facts and structured the story.
If you were a journalist who had gathered facts, how would you order them for an inverted
pyramid structure?
Beyond the Inverted Pyramid
The inverted pyramid is a very effective and convenient way for reporters to
organize their information, but it’s not the only structure that they can use.
Other common story structures include:
one-subject structure
multiple element structure
service journalism structure
charticle structure
news narrative structure
hourglass structure
Your material will help you determine which structure works best for any particular
set of facts. Learn about the different ways that a story might be structured in this
One-Subject Story Structure
The one-subject story works well when there is one subject or person in the story.
Presenting the facts can be delayed for the sake of making a larger point by
sharing that one subject’s story.
For instance, in the ARFF! story, the writer wrote this story focusing on Melbourne
because it was an effective way to illustrate that volunteer work can reinvigorate an
older person.
Through Melbourne’s experiences, readers learn what an older person can gain
through volunteering and discover how the community is enriched by that older
person’s contribution.
To transform the ARFF! story from an inverted pyramid to that of a one-subject structure,
you just need to rearrange the information and emphasize different parts of the story.
Multiple-Element Structure
The multiple-element structure structure works well when there are many
important but not necessarily related pieces of information that need to be
The multiple-element story introduces the various pieces in the lead, even if they
are unrelated. The order in which the information is conveyed in the story is
determined by the order the information is introduced in the lead.
Select Multiple-Element Story Opens in modal popup windowto see how the
facts in the story are introduced in the same order they are introduced in the
The order the information is delivered is determined by the importance of the information.
If there is one piece of information that is deemed more important than the rest, that can
come first, or even that should make up most of the lead, with the other elements briefly
alluded to in the lead and then tackled in the next few paragraphs.
This sort of structure works well for stories about events such as community meetings or
legislative hearings that deal with unrelated topics at one point in time.
This structure wouldn’t work well for the “AARF!” story because there is one major piece of
information that the story is delivering—that senior citizens have formed a group to rescue
stray dogs. While the local high school has gotten involved, the story’s focus is on the
senior citizens.
Service Journalism
Another form your story can take is the service journalism structure , used with
stories that supply information that is particularly useful to readers and that
improves the quality of their own lives or those around them. The model story “Find
a Pet, Find a Cause” is an example of a service journalism piece.
This structure is often told in a non-linear storytelling fashion, with an emphasis on
its “news you can use” element. This type of story has an easy-to-read format, and
makes good use of charts, graphs and sidebarswith pertinent information such as
phone numbers, website addresses and other practical information.
The charticle is a structure that relies heavi …
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