Journal Entry/Data Mining

Listen to the NPR story below and think about what the chapter discusses concerning data mining. (attached PowerPoint & login for Chap 6/DATA: BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE)NPR – Data Mining (opens in new window)Plain text link: http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?story… UNDERLINE HEADING EACH QUESTION …THEN ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS BELOW UNDERLINED HEADING450 words/APA Format/ NO abstract or title page needed/ please include conclusion and references
Do you agree that mining physician data should be illegal? Why or why not?
As a patient how would you feel about pharmaceutical companies mining your doctor’s data?
As an employee of one of the pharmaceutical companies how would you feel about mining physician data?LOGIN INFORMATION for CLASS BOOK:https://reader.yuzu.com/#/user name: lkmeletiche0427@email.campbell.edupassword: Camp604213!BOOK NAME: Business Driven Information Systems/CHAPTER 6 DATA/BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE
chapter_6_pp.pptx

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CHAPTER SIX
DATA
Business
Intelligence
©The McGraw-Hill Companies, All Rights Reserved
2
CHAPTER OVERVIEW
? SECTION 6.1 – Data, Information, Databases
• The Business Benefits of High-Quality Information
• Storing Information Using a Relational Database
Management System
• Using a Relational Database for Business Advantages
• Driving Websites with Data
? SECTION 6.2 – Business Intelligence
• Supporting Decisions with Business Intelligence
• The Business Benefits of Data Warehousing
• The Power of Big Data Analytics
SECTION 6.1
DATA,
INFORMATION,
AND
DATABASES
©The McGraw-Hill Companies, All Rights Reserved
4
LEARNING OUTCOMES
1. Explain the four primary traits that determine
the value of information
2. Describe a database, a database management
system, and the relational database model
3. Identify the business advantages of a relational
database
4. Explain the business benefits of a data-driven
website
5
THE BUSINESS BENEFITS OF
HIGH-QUALITY INFORMATION
? Information is everywhere in an
organization
? Employees must be able to obtain and
analyze the many different levels, formats,
and granularities of organizational
information to make decisions
? Successfully collecting, compiling, sorting,
and analyzing information can provide
tremendous insight into how an
organization is performing
6
THE BUSINESS BENEFITS OF
HIGH-QUALITY INFORMATION
Levels, Formats, and Granularities of Information
7
Information Type:
Transactional and Analytical
• Transactional information –
Encompasses all of the information
contained within a single business process
or unit of work, and its primary purpose is
to support the performing of daily
operational tasks
• Analytical information – Encompasses
all organizational information, and its
primary purpose is to support the
performing of managerial analysis tasks
8
Information Type:
Transactional and Analytical
9
Information Type:
Transactional and Analytical
10
Information Timeliness
? Timeliness is an aspect of
information that depends on the
situation
• Real-time information – Immediate,
up-to-date information
• Real-time system – Provides realtime information in response to
requests
11
Information Quality
? Business decisions are only as good as the
quality of the information used to make the
decisions
? You never want to find yourself using
technology to help you make a bad decision
faster
12
Information Quality
? Characteristics of High-quality Information
•
•
•
•
•
Accurate
Complete
Consistent
Unique
Timely
13
Information Quality
Low Quality Information Example
14
Understanding the Costs of
Using Low-Quality Information
?
The four primary sources of low quality
information include
1. Customers intentionally enter inaccurate
information to protect their privacy
2. Different entry standards and formats
3. Operators enter abbreviated or erroneous
information by accident or to save time
4. Third party and external information
contains inconsistencies, inaccuracies, and
errors
15
Understanding the Costs of
Using Low-Quality Information
? Potential business effects resulting from
low quality information include
•
•
•
•
•
•
Inability to accurately track customers
Difficulty identifying valuable customers
Inability to identify selling opportunities
Marketing to nonexistent customers
Difficulty tracking revenue
Inability to build strong customer relationships
16
Understanding the Benefits of
Good Information
? High quality information can
significantly improve the chances of
making a good decision
? Good decisions can directly impact
an organization’s bottom line
17
STORING INFORMATION IN A
RELATIONAL DATABASE
? Information is everywhere in an
organization
? Information is stored in databases
• Database – maintains information
about various types of objects
(inventory), events (transactions),
people (employees), and places
(warehouses)
18
STORING INFORMATION IN
A RELATIONAL DATABASE
? Database management systems (DBMS) –Allows
users to create, read, update, and delete data in a
relational database
19
STORING INFORMATION IN A
RELATIONAL DATABASE
? Data element – The smallest or
basic unit of information
? Data model – Logical data
structures that detail the
relationships among data elements
using graphics or pictures
? Metadata –Details about data
? Data dictionary – Compiles all of
the metadata about the data
elements in the data model
20
Storing Data Elements in
Entities and Attributes
? Entity – A person, place, thing,
transaction, or event about which
information is stored
• The rows in a table contain entities
? Attribute (field, column) – The data
elements associated with an entity
• The columns in each table contain
the attributes
? Record – A collection of related data
elements
21
Creating Relationships
Through Keys
? Primary keys and foreign keys identify
the various entities (tables) in the
database
• Primary key – A field (or group of fields)
that uniquely identifies a given entity in a
table
• Foreign key – A primary key of one table
that appears an attribute in another table
and acts to provide a logical relationship
among the two tables
22
USING A RELATIONAL DATABASE
FOR BUSINESS ADVANTAGES
? Database advantages from a business
perspective include
23
Increased Flexibility
? A well-designed database should
• Handle changes quickly and easily
• Provide users with different views
• Have only one physical view
?Physical view – Deals with the
physical storage of information on a
storage device
• Have multiple logical views
?Logical view – Focuses on how
individual users logically access
information to meet their own particular
business needs
24
Increased Scalability and
Performance
? A database must scale to meet
increased demand, while
maintaining acceptable performance
levels
• Scalability – Refers to how well a
system can adapt to increased demands
• Performance – Measures how quickly a
system performs a certain process or
transaction
25
Reduced Information Redundancy
? Databases reduce
information redundancy
• Information redundancy –
The duplication of data or
storing the same information
in multiple places
? Inconsistency is one of the
primary problems with
redundant information
26
Increase Information
Integrity (Quality)
? Information integrity –
measures the quality of
information
? Integrity constraint – rules
that help ensure the quality of
information
• Relational integrity constraint
• Business-critical integrity
constraint
27
Increased Information Security
? Information is an organizational asset and
must be protected
? Databases offer several security features
• Password – Provides authentication of the
user
• Access level – Determines who has access
to the different types of information
• Access control – Determines types of user
access, such as read-only access
28
DRIVING WEBSITES
WITH DATA
? Data-driven websites – An interactive website
kept constantly updated and relevant to the
needs of its customers using a database
? Content creator
? Content editor
? Static information
? Dynamic information
? Dynamic catalog
29
DRIVING WEBSITES
WITH DATA
30
DRIVING WEBSITES
WITH DATA
? Data-driven website advantages
• Easy to manage content
• Easy to store large amounts of data
• Easy to eliminate human errors
31
DRIVING WEBSITES
WITH DATA
SECTION 6.2
BUSINESS
INTELLIGENCE
©The McGraw-Hill Companies, All Rights Reserved
33
LEARNING OUTCOMES
5. Identify the advantages of using business
intelligence to support managerial decision
making
6. Define data warehousing and data marts and
explain how they support business decisions
7. Describe the three organizational methods for
analyzing big data
34
SUPPORTING DECISIONS WITH
BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE
? Organizational data is difficult to
access
? Organizational data contains
structured data in database
? Organizational data contains
unstructured data such as voice
mail, phone calls, text messages,
and video clips
35
The Problem: Data Rich,
Information Poor
? Businesses face a data explosion as
digital images, email in-boxes, and
broadband connections doubles by
2010
? The amount of data generated is
doubling every year
? Some believe it will soon double
monthly
36
The Solution: Business
Intelligence
? Improving the quality of business decisions has
a direct impact on costs and revenue
? BI enables business users to receive data for analysis
that is:
•
•
•
•
Reliable
Consistent
Understandable
Easily manipulated
37
The Solution: Business
Intelligence
BI Can Answer Tough Questions
38
THE BUSINESS BENEFITS OF
DATA WAREHOUSING
? Data warehouses extend the
transformation of data into information
? In the 1990’s executives became less
concerned with the day-to-day business
operations and more concerned with
overall business functions
? The data warehouse provided the ability
to support decision making without
disrupting the day-to-day operations
39
THE BUSINESS BENEFITS OF
DATA WAREHOUSING
? Data warehouse – A logical collection of
information – gathered from many different
operational databases – that supports
business analysis activities and decisionmaking tasks
? The primary purpose of a data warehouse is to
aggregate information throughout an
organization into a single repository for
decision-making purposes
40
THE BUSINESS BENEFITS OF
DATA WAREHOUSING
41
THE BUSINESS BENEFITS OF
DATA WAREHOUSING
42
PERFORMING BUSINESS ANALYSIS
WITH DATA MARTS
? Extraction, transformation, and
loading (ETL) – A process that extracts
information from internal and external
databases, transforms the information
using a common set of enterprise
definitions, and loads the information
into a data warehouse
? Data mart – Contains a subset of data
warehouse information
43
PERFORMING BUSINESS ANALYSIS
WITH DATA MARTS
44
Multidimensional Analysis
? Databases contain information in a series of
two-dimensional tables
? In a data warehouse and data mart, information
is multidimensional, it contains layers of
columns and rows
• Dimension – A particular attribute of information
• Cube – Common term for the representation of
multidimensional information
45
Multidimensional Analysis
Cubes of Information
46
Information Cleansing
or Scrubbing
? An organization must maintain high-quality data
in the data warehouse
? Information cleansing or scrubbing – A
process that weeds out and fixes or discards
inconsistent, incorrect, or incomplete
information
47
Information Cleansing
or Scrubbing
Contact Information in an Operational System
48
Information Cleansing
or Scrubbing
Standardizing Customer Name from Operational Systems
49
Information Cleansing
or Scrubbing
Information Cleansing Example
50
Information Cleansing
or Scrubbing
Cost of Accurate and Complete Information
51
THE POWER OF BIG DATA
ANALYTICS
?
Three organizational
methods for
analyzing big data
•
Data mining
•
Big data analytics
•
Data visualization
52
Data Mining
? Data mining – The process of analyzing data to extract
information not offered by the raw data alone
? Data-mining tools – use a variety of techniques to find
patterns and relationships in large volumes of
information
53
Data Mining
? Data mining analysis methods
• Prediction
• Optimization
• Forecasting
• Regression
54
Data Mining
? Data Mining Techniques
• Classification
• Estimation
• Affinity grouping
• Clustering
55
Big Data Analytics
? Structured data – Contains a defined length, type,
and format and includes numbers, dates, or strings
• Machine-generated data
• Human-generated data
? Unstructured data – Not defined, does not follow a
specified format, and is typically freeform text such as
emails, Twitter tweets, text messages
56
Big Data Analytics
? Big data – A collection of large, complex
data sets, including structured and
unstructured data, which cannot be
analyzed using traditional database
methods and tools and includes the
following four common characteristics
•
•
•
•
Variety
Veracity
Volume
Velocity
57
Data Visualization
? Infographics
? Analysis paralysis
? Data visualization
? Data visualization tools
? Business intelligence dashboards
? Data artist
58
LEARNING OUTCOME REVIEW
? Now that you have finished the chapter
please review the learning outcomes in
your text

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