Junk Bonds ( Discussion)

Module 4 DiscussionIf you have poor credit due to being delinquent on credit card debt or other issues, chances are the bank is going to charge you a higher interest rate on a personal loan, or it might not give you a loan at all. Corporations face the same problems. If a company takes on too much debt or is otherwise considered to be a credit risk, then it also gets low credit ratings. In this case, if it wants to take on more debt it needs to issue what is known as “junk bonds,” or as corporations prefer to call them, “high-yield bonds.”Whatever you call these types of bonds, their key feature is that they pay higher interest than bonds from a corporation that has a high credit rating. If you have a 401(k) or other retirement investment fund, chances are you have the option to make a portion of your investment in these higher risk/higher return bonds.Do some research on junk bonds. What kind of controversies do you see with them? Do you think they are a solid investment for your retirement, perhaps no riskier than most investments? Or do they deserve the derogatory term “junk”? Share the links to the articles you find with your classmates, and discuss your opinions as to whether you think the higher interest rate justifies the increased risk. Please see attached Reading Material & Student Guide to writing a high quality1-2 PageAPA Citation including In text citationUse Credible Sources for ReferenceNo Plagiarism


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Student Guide to Writing
a High-Quality Academic Paper
Follow these guidelines when writing academic papers,
including your Case and SLP assignments.
An effective academic writing style is an essential part of a
university education.
Poorly written papers detract from your ability to effectively share
your knowledge and ideas with others, including your professors.
This guide will help you prepare high-quality papers that are:
? Logically argued
? Clearly structured and formatted
? Written in a professional, academic style
The basic structure of an academic paper includes:
1. Cover page 2. Introduction 3. Body of the
paper (which may have subsections) 4.
Conclusion 5. Reference page
cover page of an academic paper should
include the:
? University name ? Student’s name ?
Assignment title ? Course number and name
? Professor’s name ? Date
Some professors recommend adding the assignment instructions
(tasks and/or questions) to the bottom of the cover page to help students
make sure they have addressed each part of the assignment.
University Name
Student’s Name
Module 1 Case Assignment
Course Number: Course Name
Professor’s Name
In the introduction, provide a brief, clear overview of:
Each problem or issue that you will discuss
The solution to the problem(s) or your response to the
How you will prove or demonstrate that your solution or
response is correct
Tip: Try writing the body of your paper first. Then come back
and write the introduction once you know what your paper is
The body of the paper is where you discuss the solution to the problem(s)
or your response to the issue(s) raised in the assignment.
After you have read the materials related to the assignment, begin by
creating a quick outline:
? What are the main points of your argument? Jot them down.
? Depending on the length of the paper, 3–6 main points should be
? If a point is complex, it may have 2 or 3 sub-points. Jot those down as
? Now arrange those points in a logical sequence.
? Which point needs to be made first because it provides a basis
for the points that follow?
? For example, “Point A leads to point B, which leads to point C, and
when A, B, and C are considered together they mean that the
solution is point D.”
Example of the structure of a Case Assignment that requires 4 pages of
(not including the cover page, and not including a reference page for assignments that require one):
Main Sections
Page #
# of Paragraphs
Point A
Point B
Cover Page
Body of Paper

Sub-point 1

Sub-point 2

Point C

Point D
Reference Page
In the body of your paper:
Use headings and subheadings to help your reader follow the points and subpoints in your discussion and to better organize sections and subsections.
Give each point and sub-point a short name that tells your reader what that section
is about. Use those names for your headings.
Here is a quick “how-to” guide to headings with links to examples and instructions:
Now you are ready to begin writing the body of your paper.
? Discuss one point at a time and explain each point clearly.
? Discuss one point or sub-point in each paragraph.
? As you advance to writing more complex papers (e.g., upper-division
undergraduate or master’s-level assignments), it may take 2 or 3 paragraphs to
fully develop and support a point.
In the body of your paper:
Each paragraph should be made up of approximately 3–5 sentences. (Note: A
single sentence is not a paragraph. Break long sentences into 2 or 3 shorter
ones.) ??Each paragraph should include:
? The point or focus of that paragraph in the first sentence
? Additional sentences in which you explain, elaborate, and support your point
(see section on Supporting Your Points that begins on the next slide)
? A conclusion/transition to the next point and paragraph
Each point should be supported by citing and referencing the sources that provide
the foundation for your solutions and/or responses. How to do this will be
discussed on the next slide.
Supporting Your Points
What makes an academic paper “academic”? How does an academic
paper differ from other types of writing—for example, a short story, a blog, a
newspaper article, a business letter, or an e-mail message?
In an academic paper:
You must provide support for each idea, statement, or point that you make that
is based on someone else’s ideas.
Support is provided through citations and references. (References are
discussed beginning on Slide 17.) Citations appear within the paper itself
wherever you draw upon another person’s ideas or another source of
information. References are listed on a separate page at the end of your
Each citation refers to a specific reference so that your reader can look up the
sources of your support and read them for himself or herself.
Citations are short and usually only include the author’s last name and the
date of publication of the author’s work, for example, “In a study of K–12
education, Jones (2013) found that…”
Citation Examples
You can cite at the beginning or ending of a sentence:
According to Jones (2007), a reason for poor student performance is large
classroom size.
Student performance decreases as classroom size increases (Jones, 2007).
When multiple sources support your point, cite them together in alphabetical order
at the end of the sentence:
Educators agree that large classroom size decreases student performance
(Adams, 2005; Jones, 2007; Smith, 2008).
When a source is written by more than one person, give their last names in the
citation at the end of the sentence, like this: (Smith, Adams, & Jones, 2006).
When there is no author and/or no date (e.g., a Web page), see this example:
Do not spell out the titles and publication details of your sources in the body of your
paper. Instead, provide a short citation, and add a full reference with the publication
details in your reference list. Interested readers can then find the details about the article
in your reference list at the end of your paper.
The first article that will be discussed is called “The Very Separate Worlds of Academic
and Practitioner Periodicals in Human Resource Management” written by Sara Rynes,
Giluk, and Kenneth Brown, which was published in the Academy of Management Journal
(2007) Vol 50, No.5, 987-1008. They studied the gap between academic and practitioner
? Note: Do not spell out the title and publication details of your sources in the text. Right
(two different ways):
Rynes, Giluk, and Brown (2007) found a gap between academic and practitioner
Note: The authors are the subject of the sentence. This is referred to as an “in-text citation” and
includes just the authors’ last names and year of publication.
A gap was found between academic and practitioner knowledge (Rynes, Giluk, & Brown,
Note: The citation is placed at the end of a sentence in parentheses. This is called a
“parenthetical citation.” In this type of citation, use an ampersand (&) instead of “and.”
When should you cite a source?
? When you use your own words in referring to the ideas or concepts of others
When you use the exact words that are written in one of the sources that you read
Using someone else’s exact words is called a “quotation.”
For quotes of less than 40 words, use quotation marks and follow the quote with a
parenthetical citation that includes:
? The name(s) of the author(s)
? The year of publication
? The page number the quote was taken from in the original source— for
“Academic and practitioner periodicals in human resource management are
worlds apart” (Rynes, Giluk, & Brown, 2010, p. 992).
Any phrase or quote of 40 or more words should be separated from the text of
your report by single spacing and by indenting from the both right and left margin.
This is called an “offset quote.”
Provide Support for Each of Your Points
Scholarly academic work builds on previous knowledge and recognizes the contributions that others
have made to knowledge.
Providing a citation for each source of information that you use is necessary for at least four
To help your reader understand the foundational information that you used to support your
To give credit to sources of knowledge and the work of others.
To protect the source. If you make a good point but don’t cite your sources or indicate direct
quotes with quotation marks, the reader will attribute it to you by default.
To avoid plagiarism. Incorporating material from outside sources (whether direct quotes or
paraphrasing) without proper identification or citation is a form of plagiarism. Never represent
the work of another as your own.
Here is an excellent guide to help you understand plagiarism and how to avoid it (students are
strongly encouraged to study it carefully):
University Libraries, University of Missouri (n.d.). Plagiarism Tutorial. Retrieved March 1, 2013,
at http://lib.usm.edu/legacy/plag/plagiarismtutorial.php
In your conclusion:
Summarize your argument regarding the solutions/responses that
you discussed in the body of your paper, including the most
important points you made and how they relate to your overall
Do not discuss or raise new issues in the conclusion.
Limit the conclusion to 1 or 2 paragraphs.
The reference section, found at the end of the paper, is an alphabetical list of the
sources that you used to write your paper.
Center the word “References” at the top of a new page.
Starting on the same page, enter a full reference for each citation in your paper. Provide
only one reference for each source no matter how many times you cite it in your paper.
Each reference should include the following information (so readers can find the
? Author’s last name, first initial, middle initial
? Year of publication
? Title of the article, book, or Web page
? Title of the publication where the article was found (If the article is from a
journal or newspaper, include the volume and issue number, and the pages
where the article is located.)
Reference section formats for different types of sources:
Article on a Web page with no date:
? Author last name, first initial, middle initial (publication date). Title of the article. Retrieved
X date from http://
? Example (note that the second line of the reference is indented five spaces):
Dvoretsky, D. P. (n.d.). History: Pavlov Institute of Physiology of the Russian Academy of
Sciences. Retrieved March 1, 2013, from http://www.infran.ru/history_eng.htm
Online newspaper article:
? Author name (year, month, day of publication). Article title. Newspaper Title. Retrieved X
date from http://
? Example (note that the second line of the reference is indented five spaces):
Hilts, P. J. (1999, February 16). In forecasting their emotions, most people flunk out. The New
York Times. Retrieved March 1, 2013, from http://www.nytimes.com
Academic Journal Article:
? Author name, first initial, middle initial (publication year). Article title. Journal Title, vol.
#(issue #), page numbers where the article was found.
? Example (note that the second and third lines of the reference are indented five spaces):
Shapiro, D., Kirkman, B., & Courtney, H. (2007). Perceived causes and solutions of the
translation problem in management research. Academy of Management Journal, 50(2), 249266.
Book: Author name (publication year). Book Title. Location: Publisher.
? Example: Fitzgerald, S. P. (2002). Decision Making. London: Capstone Publishing, Ltd.
Reference Page Example
Allen, G. (1998). Motivating Supervision. Retrieved March 1, 2013, from:
Chapman, A. (n.d.). Adam’s Equity Theory. Retrieved March 1, 2013, from:
Chapman, A. (n.d.). Herzberg’s Motivation Theory. Retrieved June 1, 2009, from:
Dreyfack, R. (2004, May). Personalizing productivity. Supervision, 65(5), 20-22.
Shapiro, D., Kirkman, B., & Courtney, H. (2007). Perceived causes and solutions of the
translation problem in management research. Academy of Management
50(2), 249-266.
“n.d.” = no date. Use this for the date when there is no publication date available.
First line of each reference is at the left margin, and each subsequent line in that
same reference is indented 5 spaces (one tab stop).
Arrange references alphabetically based on last name of the first author of each work.
Add an appendix after the reference page when you have supplemental
material (e.g., a chart, table, diagram, or picture) that you refer to in your
Appendices are optional and depend upon the nature of the assignment.
Appendices (if any) should be placed at the end of the paper and identified
with capital letters (e.g., Appendix A).
The title of the appendix should be placed immediately below the appendix
The appendix label and title should be centered at the top of the page, as in
the example below:
Workflow Diagram
When professors ask you to “follow APA style” or “use APA format,” they are
referring to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Sixth
APA is one of several styles that is used for writing academic papers (MLA is
another) and includes extensive details about how to format citations and references.
APA format is required for doctoral students and recommended for University
master’s and undergraduate students.
APA helps to provide a common, standard format for academic scholars to follow.
For additional information and guidance on APA style, here are two excellent
The APA Style website at http://www.apastyle.org (see the links and tutorials at the
bottom of the Web page)
The Purdue Online Writing Lab (http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/)
contains extensive, detailed guidance not only on APA format, but also on general
writing, job search writing, and research writing (see the tabs at the top of the Web
Set up your paper as follows:
Set 1-inch margins on all four sides.
Use 12-point type throughout; don’t use different type sizes.
Double-space the text throughout the paper, including the reference page.
Do not put extra spaces between paragraphs or between headings and
Use italics or bold for emphasis, but use them sparingly or it becomes too
distracting for your reader.
Before you submit your assignment:
Re-read the assignment instructions and make sure you addressed
each one in your paper.
Always run spelling and grammar check in MS Word before submitting
your assignment.
If you struggle with grammar, or have trouble with sentence and paragraph
structure, invite a classmate or colleague with strong English writing skills
to proofread your work prior to submission. This process will improve your
writing skills.
Also, consult the Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL) for writing guidance and
Don’t expect overnight miracles. Writing and editing are iterative processes
that take ongoing practice, feedback, refinement, and attention to detail—
even for the best writers. Your writing will improve as you advance through
the program!
Rubric Name: MBA/MSHRM/MSL Discussion Grading Rubric – Timeliness v1
Level 4 – Excellent Level 3 – Proficient Level 2 – Developing Level 1 – Emerging
4 points
Quality of Initial
Posting (first
discussion only)
Initial posting
reveals a clear
understanding of all
aspects of the
threaded discussion
question; uses factual
and relevant
and demonstrates full
development of
6 points
Responded to the
required number of
students and to the
professor, if
Quality of Responses
appropriate, for
to Classmates
every discussion.
analysis of others’
posts; extends
discussions by
building on previous
3 points
Initial posting
legitimate reflection
and answers most
aspects of the
threaded discussion
question; full
development of
concepts is not
5 points
Responded to
almost all of the
required students
and to the professor,
if appropriate, for
every discussion.
Provided comments
and new
information to other
posts; not all
responses promote
2 points
Initial posting
demonstrates some
reflection and
answers some aspects
of the threaded
discussion question;
Limited development
of concepts is
1 point
Initial posting was
not on topic; the
response was
unrelated to
threaded discussion
question; and post
demonstrated only
superficial thought
and poor
4 points
Responded to some
students and to the
professor, if
appropriate, for every
discussion. Little
depth in response;
agreed or
acknowledged one
other classmate’s
initial posting.
3 points
Did not respond to
any student or the
peer posts and
offering alternative
3 points
Reference to
Refers to and
properly cites either
course and/or outside
readings in both
initial posting and
responses to peers.
4 points
Critical Thinking
further discussion of
the topic.
2 points
1 point
0 points
Refers to and
properly cites
course and/or
outside reading in
initial posting only.
Makes some
reference to assigned
readings with some
citations or cites
questionable sources.
Makes no reference
to assigned readings
without citations or
cites questionable
3 points
1 point
2 points
conceptualizing the
conceptualizing the
problem; viewpoints
problem; viewpoints
and assumptions of
and assumptions of
experts are analyzed,
experts are
synthesized, and
evaluated; and
synthesized, and
conclusions are
evaluated; and
logically presented
conclusions are
with appropriate
presented with
necessary rationale.
Demonstrates partial
conceptualizing the
problem; viewpoints
and assumptions of
experts are analyzed,
synthesized, and
evaluated; and
conclusions are
somewhat consistent
with the analysis and
3 points
1 point
2 points
limited or poor
conceptualizing the
problem; viewpoints
and assumptions of
experts are
synthesized, and
evaluated; and
conclusions are
either absent or
poorly conceived
and supported.
0 points
Overall Score
Initial post occurs in
a timely manner (1 –
3 days into module)
allowing ample time
for classmates to
respond and engage.
Initial post occurs
later (4 – 5 days into
module) allowing
limited time for
classmates to
respond and engage.
Level 4
18 or more
Level 3
16 or more
Initial post occurs
Initial post occurs
substantially late (6-7 after the first week
days into module)
of the module.
allowing minimal to
no time for
classmates to respond
and engage.
Level 2
14 or more
Level 1
0 or more
Module Overview
In a corporation’s capital structure,
there are advantages and disadvantages to having debt.
Corporations receive a tax deduction from the interest paid
on debt. On …
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