Lab 2 309

Introduction Heat treatment is the act of altering the properties of a substance through the application of heat. The increase in temperatures causes the change of physical properties and at sometimes the chemical properties depending on the degree of temperature change (Wojes, 2017). It is important to note that heat treatment involves both reduction and increase of temperatures. The end results of heat treatment include hardening and softening of the experimental material. Metallic elements consist of microstructures called grains or crystallites for crystalline components (Leslie, 1972). The mechanical behavior of the grains depends on its nature such as the size and composition of the material. Heat treatment is majorly involved in the determination of the mechanical characteristic. This is because, as itcontrols the rate of diffusion and the rate of cooling, the materials microstructure is affected. Johnson Heat treatment, as used in manufacturing shops, is a way to educate students on the application of heat treatment and its applications. The heat treatment method is used for several purposes such as tempering, cooling, and quenching. The processes mentioned above affect the hardness (Lee, Katherine Bakeev, & Christos Malliakas, 2005).
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1
Introduction
Heat treatment is the act of altering the properties of a substance through the application of
heat. The increase in temperatures causes the change of physical properties and at sometimes the
chemical properties depending on the degree of temperature change (Wojes, 2017). It is important
to note that heat treatment involves both reduction and increase of temperatures. The end results
of heat treatment include hardening and softening of the experimental material. Metallic elements
consist of microstructures called grains or crystallites for crystalline components (Leslie, 1972).
The mechanical behavior of the grains depends on its nature such as the size and composition of
the material. Heat treatment is majorly involved in the determination of the mechanical
characteristic. This is because, as it controls the rate of diffusion and the rate of cooling, the
materials microstructure is affected. Johnson Heat treatment, as used in manufacturing shops, is a
way to educate students on the application of heat treatment and its applications. The heat treatment
method is used for several purposes such as tempering, cooling, and quenching. The processes
mentioned above affect the hardness (Lee, Katherine Bakeev, & Christos Malliakas, 2005).
Lab Facility and Procedure
The Students are expected to carry out the experiment in groups and submit a report of the
results and discussion. The experiment being Johnson Heat experiment, the apparatus is the
hardness measuring apparatus while the specimen is; water, brine, and oil.
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Procedure
1. Test the hardness of the test specimen; 410 Stainless Steel, ASTM-A276, ¾
2. Test the test specimen in quenching procedure.
3. Increase the temperatures of the furnace.
4. Take a piece of a metal and put it into the furnace until it is bright orange in color.
5. Measure the temperature of the metal and record as soon as it is obtained from the furnace.
6. Observe the color change of the metal surface as it cools.
7. Quench the metal using the experimental specimen; water, brine and oil and record the
temperature changes. After quenching.
8. Finally, test the hardness of the metal after the quenching process.
Data
Colour
Temperature
White
2500F
Yellow White
2300F
Yellow
2000F
Orange Red
1800F
Light Cherry Red
1400F
Dark Red
1200F
Black Red
800F
3
Purple
525F
Yellow Brown
490F
Fig 1 Original Specimen
Fig 2 Johnson Heat Experiment Apparatus (Albrecht, 2014)
4
Fig 3 Hardness Measuring Machine
Result and Discussion
The temperature of the experiment was found to be 1036 C.
The hardness results for the original specimen (410 Stainless Steel, ASTM-A276, ¾) is as
tabulated below
Trailer 1
Trailer 2
Trailer 3
Average
107
107.2
108.1
107.43
5
The hardness after the quenching process is as tabulated below;
Trailer 1
Trailer 2
Trailer 3
Average
Material
Water
113.3
120.4
121.4
118.36
Cold drawn
0.5C steel
Brine
112.2
118.6
122.4
117.73
Cold drawn
0.25C steel
Oil
117.6
118.9
116.8
117.76
Cold drawn
0.25C steel
Fig 4 Results for group 2
From the tabulated results it is evident that the hardness increased from trailer 1 to trailer
3 for the water and brine used in quenching. For oil, hardness decreased. Brine had the highest
increase in hardness compared to water. Therefore quenching is an appropriate process of cooling
metal and increasing its hardness. Quenching was a result of polymers that were dissolved in the
water and brine (Yaakoubi, Kchaou, & Dammak, 2013).
Conclusion
Hardening as a mechanical property is influenced by the application of heat. Heat transfer,
therefore, can be utilized in the manufacturing process to enhance the hardening of metals and
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alloys. The hardening agents should be chosen in accordance with the amount of polymer
dissolved. Johnson Heat experiment is, therefore, the basis of researchers to learn heat transfer.
References
Albrecht, E. B. (2014). Application and Heat Treatment of S. A. E. Carbon and Alloy Steels. In
E. Oberg, & F. D. Jones, Machinery’s Handbook. New York: Industrial Press Inc.
Lee, M., Katherine Bakeev, & Christos Malliakas. (2005). Heat treatment considerations for
water, oil, and Brine. Retrieved from www.azom.com/article.aspx?ArticleID=2445
Leslie, G. R. (1972). Tempering of steel. In Metallurgical and Material Transactions (pp. pp
1043–1054). New York: Springer. doi:10.1007/BF02642436
Wojes, R. (2017, March 17). What happens when metals undergo Heat treatment. Retrieved
from The Balance: https://www.thebalance.com/what-happens-when-metals-undergoheat-treatment-2340016
Yaakoubi, M., Kchaou, M., & Dammak, F. (2013). Simulation of Heat treatment and materials
with the use of the Abaqus Software. Springer, 55(7), 386–392. doi:10.1007/s11041-0139641-5

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