Lab – engineering

draw graph in 3 point there is example in files bellow.follow all instruction and do not copy.
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laboratory_report_format.pdf

lab_4_handout_with_datasheet_2.pdf

lab_guide_325.pdf

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Laboratory Report Format
Cover Page: include the title of the experiment, name, group number, and the date on
which the experiment was performed
Introduction: The “Introduction” of a laboratory report identifies the experiment to be
undertaken, the objectives of the experiment, the importance of the experiment, and overall
background for understanding the experiment.
Material and Methods: The lab report should include all materials used in the lab experiment.
The “Methods” explains what you did in the lab adding details (step-by-step) of your procedure
in such a way that anyone else could repeat the experiment. The Materials and Methods and
results section should be written in the past tense, since your experiments are completed at the
time you are writing your paper.
Results: The key of a laboratory report is the presentation of the results and the discussion of
those results. The “Results” section should
• Present your data using text AND figures/tables.
• Describes your major findings in the data presented in the figures and tables.
• Don’t interpret the data. It could be done in the Discussion section of the lab report.
• All figures and tables are properly formatted with numbers, titles and legends that are
easy to the reader to follow.
Discussion: In discussing the results, you should not only explain and interpret the results, but
also discuss the implications of those results. Moreover, pay attention to the errors that existed in
the experiment.
Reference: All list of citations
Appendices: If your data is too long or detail to be placed into result, those could be placed into
appendices.
Lab 4. Liquid Limit & Plastic Limit Test
(Liquid Limit : Lab 6 in 8th, 9th edition, Plastic Limit: Lab 8 in 9th, Lab 7 in 8th )
– Atterberg Limit
– Basic measure of the critical water contents of a fine-grained soil,
such as its shrinkage limit, plastic limit and liquid limit.
? Liquid Limit(LL) :
? The moisture content, in percent, at which the cohesive soil will pass
from a liquid state to a plastic state.
? The moisture content at which it takes 25 drops of the cup to cause the
groove to close over a distance of 13.5 millimetres (0.53 in)
? Plastic Limit(PL) :
? The moisture content, in percent, at which the cohesive soil will pass
from a plastic state to a semisolid state.
? The moisture content at which a thread of soil will just crumble when
rolled to a diameter of 1/8 in (3.2mm)
– Notes for Liquid Limit Test
– Take 3 trials for
? Drop count N = 25 to 35
? N = 20 to 25
? N = 15 to 20
– Add small amount of water to soil mixture. DON’T POUR WATER
Beginning of test
End of test
Count the number of blows N until a soil groove
closes to 1/2 inch.
– Notes for Plastic Limit Test
? Roiling should be stopped when the thread is just starts crumbling.
? Diameter of rolled thread should be of 3.2 mm diameter.
? Weights of container, wet soil and dry soil should be taken accurately.
– Lab Report (see section 6.7 and 8.6 in your textbook)
– Results section should include data table, sample calculations for both
LL and PL test, graph of moisture content vs. N, and liquid
limit(LL) obtained from the graph.
– Calculate Flow Index FI , the magnitude of the slope of the flow line
in your graph.
– Estimate the LL using Eq (6.3) with N-value between 20 and 30 in
your results.
? 0.121
? ?? = ?? (%) ( )
25
(6.3)
– Compare the values of liquid limit obtained using Eq.(6.3) with those
obtained from the graph.(Consider Table 6-2)
– Report the plastic index (PI) and the liquidity index (LI)
– Report the activity(A) of the soil (see Eq.(8.3)) in your textbook in
the lab report.
Lab Report Guidelines
You should consider the last section of each lab experiment as well as 1.5 Report Preparation part when
writing a lab report.
The Materials and Methods and results section should be written in the past tense, since your
experiments are completed at the time you are writing your paper.
Your lab report should include the following sections:
Cover Page (0.5 pt)
Include the title of the experiment, name, group number, and the date on which the experiment
was performed
Introduction(1 pt)
Purpose of experiment
Background Information
Materials and Methods(2 pt)
Equipment Used
Schematic diagram of main equipment used (if required )
Test procedure generally contains information on the physical nature of the experiment, such as
the type of instrumentation used, the variables controlled and those that are not controlled, and
any unusual conditions. Here is an example of a section of that type.
The experiment was carried out with a Nicolet Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer.
The resolution of the spectrometer was set at 1 cm-1 for all spectra. The experiment involved the
accumulation of a background spectrum which were subtracted from the spectrum of the sample
to provide the response of the sample. The detector was a nitrogen-cooled cadmium-telluride
detector. Each experiment resulted from the average 64 transient responses coadded, with the
background spectrum being the accumulation of 64 spectra without the sample present. The
data were analyzed by Fourier transformation using the software of the instrument. The data
were saved to disk, and were subsequently analyzed with a spreadsheet program, in this case,
Microsoft EXCEL. Theoretical values of the parameters were predicted by computation with the
program GAUSSIAN.
The section need not be long, but it should include everything about the experimental setup that
the author thinks is important.
retrieved from”https://www1.udel.edu/pchem/C446/example.pdf”
Results(4 pt)
Present your data using text AND figures/tables.
Describes your major findings in the data presented in the figures and tables.
Don’t interpret the data. It could be done in the Discussion section of the lab report.
All figures and tables are properly formatted with numbers, titles and legends that are easy to the
reader to follow.
DO NOT ATTACH YOUR LAB DATA SHEET to show your results.
Discussion(2 pt)
Summarize what you found.
Explain and interpret your results. It may involve comparison of the test results with existing
empirical relationship
Source of errors if any
Other details not included in the report
References(0.5 pt)
Sufficient and appropriate sources cited. All references are formatted appropriately

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