lab report

its about standard proctor compaction..i will attach the lab, manual and the Lab Report Guidelines to follow the procedure.


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Sixth Edition
Braja M. Das
Dean, College of Engineering and Computer Science
California State University, Sacramento
New York Oxford
10. .
Laboratory Test and Report Preparation
Determination of Water Content 5
Specific Gravity 9
Sieve Analysis
Hydrometer Analysis
Liquid Limit Test 35
Plastic Limit Test 41
Shrinkage Limit Test 45
Engineering Classification of Soils
Constant Head Permeability Test in Sand
Falling Head Permeability Test in Sand
Standard Proctor Compaction Test 81
Modified Proctor Compaction Test 89
Determination of Field Unit Weight of
Compaction by Sand Cone Method 93
Direct Shear Test on Sand 99
Unconfined Compression Test 109
Consolidation Test
I 17
Triaxial Tests in Clay
A. Weight-Volume Relationships· 147
Data Sheets for Laboratory Experiments
C. Data Sheets for Preparation of Laborat~ry Reports
Since the early 1940’s the study of soil mechanics has made great progress all over the world.
A course in soil mechanics is presently required for undergraduate students in most four- year
civil engineering and civil engineering technology programs. It usually includes some
laboratory procedures that are essential in understanding the properties of soils and their
behavior under stress and strain; the present laboratory manual is prepared for classroom use
by undergraduate students taking such a course.
The procedures and equipment described in this manual are fairly common. For a few
tests such as permeability, direct shear, and unconfined compression, the existing equipment
in a given laboratory may differ slightly. In those cases, it is necessary that the instructor
familiarize students with the operation of the equipment. Triaxial test assemblies are costly,
and the equipment varies widely. For that reason, only general outlines for triaxial tests are
For each laboratory test procedure described, sample calculation(s) and graph(s) are
inCluded. Also, blank tables for each test are provided at the end of the manual for student
use in the laboratory and in preparing the final report. The accompanying diskette contains
the Soil Mechanics LaboratoryTest Software, a stand-alone program that students can use
to collect and evaluate the data for each of the 18 labs presented in the book. For this new
edition, Microsoft Excel templates have also been provided for those students who prefer
working with this popular spreadsheet program.
Professor William Neuman of the Department of Civil Engineering at California State
University, Sacramento, took inost of the photographs used in this edition. Thanks are due
to Professor Cyrus Aryarti of the Department of Civil Engineering at Califoruia State
UnIversity, Sacramento, for his assistance in taking the photographs. Last, I would like to
thank my wife, Janice F. Das, who apparently possesses endless energy and enthusiasm. Not·
only did she type the manuscript, she also prepared all of the tables, graphs, and other line
BrajaM Das
Laboratory Test and
Preparation of Report
Proper laboratory testing of soils to detennine their physical properties is an integral part in
the design and construction of structural foundations, the placement and improvement of soil
properties, and the specification and quality control of soil compaction works. It needs to be
kept in mind that natural soil deposits often exhibit a high degree of nonhomogenity. The
physical properties of a soil deposit can change to a great extent even within a few hundred
feet. The fundamental theoretical and empirical equations that are developed in soil
mechanics can be properly used in practice if, and only if, the physical parameters used in
those equations are properly evaluated in the laboratory. So, learning to perfonn laboratory
tests of soils plays an important role in the geotechnical engineering profession.
Use of Equipment
Laboratory equipment is never cheap, but the cost may vary widely. For accurate experimental results, the equipment should be properly maintained. The calibration of certain
equipment, such as balances and proving rings, should be checked from time to time. It is
always necessary to see that all equipment is clean both before and after use. Better results
will be obtained when the equipment being used is clean, so alwa);’s maintain the equipment
as if it were your own.
Recording the Data
J ” .

In any experiment, it is always a good habit to record all data in the proper table immediately
after it has been taken. Oftentimes, scribbles on scratch paper may later be illegible or even
misplaced, which may result in having to conduct the experiment over, or in obtaining inaccurate results.
Soil Mechanics Laboratory Manual
Report Preparation
In the classroom laboratory, most experiments described herein will probably be conducted
in small groups. However, the laboratory report should be written by each. student
individually. This is one way for students to improve their technical writing skills. Each
report should contain:
1. Cover page-This page should include the title of the experiment, name, and date on
which the experiment was performed.
2. Following the cover page, the items listed below should be included in the body of
the report:
a. Purpose of the experiment
b. Equipment used
c. A schematic diagram of the main equipment used
d. A brief description of the test procedure
3. Results-This should include the data sheet(s), sample calculations(s), and the
required graph(s).
4. Conclusion-A discussion of the accuracy of the test procedure should be included
in the conclusion, along with any possible sources of error.
Figure 1-1.
(a) A poorly drawn graph for
dry unit weight of soil vs.
moisture content
80 0!;—-‘–!c-5—–:;1′;;-0–~15
Moisture content, w (%)
(b) The results’given in (a),
drawn in a more presentable
Soil Mechanics Laboratory Manual
Graphs and Tables Prepared for the Report
Graphs and tables should be prepared as neatly as possible. Always give the units. Graphs
should be made as large as possible, and they should be properly labeled. Examples of a
poorly-drawn graph and an acceptable graph are shown in Fig. 1-1. When necessary, French
curves and a straight edge should be used in preparing graphs.
Table 1-1. Conversion Factors
_1 in.
25.4 mm
0.3048 m
304.8 mm
1 mm
1 em2
1 in 3
1 ft3
16.387 em 3
0.028317 m3
28.3168 I
I em3
1 ftls
304.8 mll/s
0.3048 m/s
5.08 mm/s
0.00508 m/s
I em/s
1.969 ftlmin
1034643.6 ftlyear
x 10-2 in.
x 10-3 ft
6.4516 x 10-4 m2
6.4516 em2
645.16 mm2
929 x 1O-4m 2
929.03 em2
92903 mm 2
1 in. 2
1 m2
0.155 in 2
1.076 x 10-3 ~
1550 in 2
10.76 ft2
I m3

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