Lab report environmental

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Determinat ion of Chloride and Chlorine for River Water, Lake Water, Wastewater,
Groundwater, Bottled and Tap Water Samples
1
Table of Contents
1. Abstract. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3
2. Introduction …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 3
3. Objectives …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 4
5. Experimental Methods …………………………………………………………………………………………………….4
6. Figures ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 5
7. Results …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 6
8. Discussion …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 6
9. Conclusion + Recommendation………………………………………………………………………………………… 7
10. References ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 7
11. Appendix ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………8
2
Abstract
This lab report contains information about the chlorine and chloride co nten t in six
different water samples. The six water samples include river, lake, waste, ground, tap and bottled
water samples. When conducting our chlorine test we only used the bottled water and tap water
samples because these are the only two samples that would have an actual reading of chlorine
seeing that they both have been treated, while the others have not. In the lab each water sample
was tested precisely twice to avoid error. Both trials were recorded, calculated and averaged to
get one final result. After each result was found, the data was compared and discusse d on what
was found.
We discovered that during the chlorine test, both the bottle d and tap water had a read ing
of zero milligrams per liter. For the chloride test the effluent wastewater had the highest
concentration with an average of 655.5 mg/L of chloride through both trials . It is stated that the
chemical element chlorine is a corrosive, poisonous but it is use as a water treatment to eliminate
pathogens. These pathogens are harmful to humans so they are eliminated by this chemical
before the water is used for consumption. Therefore no chlorine was found in the bottle water.
However chloride was found in each of the samples, chloride is a secondary drinking water
standard with a maximum value of 250 mg/1 Cl, in which the only sam ple that exceeded was the
effluent wastewater.
Introduction
T he chlorine and chloride content of the six water samples are chemica l characteristics of
water qua lity. Chlorine is routinely used as a disinfectant in water quality, and in other day to
day living amenities like swim ming pools. This chemical has the ability to eliminate odors,
path ogens, and infectious diseases that can cause waterborne diseases. Chloride tes t is used to
assess the suitability of the wastewater for agricultu ral reuse. Although chloride is considered the
secondary drinking water sta ndard, high concentrations can cause health problems to the
consumer. The most common cause of chlor ide concentration in water is road salts, these are
chloride and sodium elements combined to create a hydrate used for deicing roads during the
winter months. In order to find accurate data two trials will be took and averaged to get one final
result.
3
Objectives
The objective of this lab is to determine the chlorine and chloride content of the four
water samp les. The way this experiment can be executed precisely is by per forming multiple
trials on each of the water samples and taking the average of the resu lts . From here each samples
results can be compared side by side and analyzed for both sim ila ritie s and diffe rences amongst
each water source.
Experimental Methods
High Rang e, 0-400 mg/L Chloride Test
1. Fill measuring tube with the water that is going to be tested, pour it in the mixing bottle.
2. Add one Chloride 2 Indicator Powder Pillow. Swirl bottle
3. Add the Silver Nitrate Titrant drop by drop , hold the dropper in a vertical position and
swirl the bottle to mix after each drop is added, count number of drops until the water
changes from yellow to orange.
4. Continue to calcula tio ns
Low Range, 0-100 mg/L Chloride Test
1. Fill mixing bottle to the 23-mL mark with the water that is to be tested.
2. Add one Chlo ride 2 Indicator Powder Pillow. Swirl bottle
3. Add the Silver Nitrate Titrant drop by drop, hold dropper in a vertical position and swirl
the bottle to mix after each drop is added, count number of drops until water changes
from ye llo w to orange.
4. Proceed to calcu lations
Free or Total Chlorine Test, 0-3.4 mg/L
1. Fill tube to the first (5-mL) line with sample.
2. Inse rt tube into left open ing of the compara tor
3. Fill another tube to the first (5-mL) line with sample
4. If testing free chlorin e, add one DPD Free Chlorine Reagent Powder Pillow to the second
tube. Swirl tube.
5. Inse rt second tube into right opening of the comparator
6.
00 L
t-Ll ?
7.
Read the results in mg/L in the scale window
8.
Record data
Figures
Figure #1. Chlorine Test Apparatus
This test helps us determine the amount of chlorine in any given sample of water
Figure #2. C hloride Test apparatus
This test helps us determine the amount of chloride th at is in a given sample of water
5
Results
Table #1. Chloride concentration
Chloride Concentration
River
Lake
PVTap
Wastewater (Effluent)
1
2
1
2
1
2
Test #1
100
160
100
160
120
120
540
450
100
80
Test #2
80
128
120
192
192
192
864
768
160
128
Average
90
144
110
176
156
156
702
609
130
104
Total
Average
117
143
156
1
2
Ground water
1
655.5
2
117
Table #2. Chlorine Test
Chlorine Concentration
Tap
1
Test #1
2
0
Average
Bottled
1
0
0
2
0
0
0
Discussion
After performing the two experiments accurately on each of the water samples, the results
from each trial was averaged and recorded. We found the effluent wastewater to have the highest
chloride concentration. Having such a high concentration of chloride this water source violates
human health, wildlife, aquatic organism, or aquatic plant guidelines. According to
Environmental services human health standard are 250 mg/L as Cl, wildli fe standards are 600
mg/L, aquatic organism standards are 860 mg/L as Cl an hour, and aquatic plant standards are
&”1
J
200 -36,400 mg/L as Cl (1). While analyzing the results it seems as if none of the other result
came close to these standards. It can be concluded that the water samples are safe when it comes
fe amount of chloride to be present in water.
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While determining the chlorine content of both the bottled water and tap water we found
1 the concentrations to be zero. The reason that we tested these two water samples is
6
because these are the only two samples that have been treated , therefore somewhere down the
process to consumption they went thmugh a chlorine test. In order for it to be consumable for the
general public that chlorine must also be removed. Chlorine acts as a disinfectant in water
quality. According to water quality and health, “A lmost all U.S. systems that disinfect their water
use a specific type of chlorine-based process, either alone or in combination with other
disinfectants. In addition to controlling disease-causing organisms, chlorination offers a number
of benefits” (2). It also helps reduce many tastes and odors, while also eliminating slime bacteria,
molds and algae, it removes chemical compounds that have unpleasant tastes and hinder
disinfection, and helps remove iron and manganese from raw water (2). Chlorine is very
beneficial to water quality treatment, but high concentration of chlorine can be poisonous and
overall harmful to whatever species is consuming it.
Conclusion & Recommendation
After discussing the results found in the lab from the chloride and chlorine content of the,
it is concluded that effluent wastewater was the only water source to violate the chloride
standards. Each water sample is safe when it comes to chlorine content that was found in the
samples. Chloride can enter water sources from road salts, agricultural runoffs, wastewater water
softening and wastewater from industries and municipa lities. This brings us to the chemicals that
are being used on a day to day basis. Chlorine is often used as a disinfectant for water quality
treatment and shouldn’t be found in drinking water. One recommendation is that a water that
contains chlorine be tested in the lab in order to analyze data. I would also recommend to find a
water source that contains chlorine so that we could understand what the next steps would be to
remove that chemical from the water source.
References
1. Environmental, Health, and Economic Impact s of Road Salts.” Water Quality Impacts Environmental , Health and Econom ic Impacts of Road Salt – Salt Reduction – Watershed
Assistance Section – NH Department of Environmental Services. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Apr.
2017
2.”Drinking Water Chlorination.” Water Quality and Health Council – Drinking Water
Chlorination, Water Disinfection, and Safe Water. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Apr. 2017.
7
Appendix
· Na+ (mg/L)
Human health
Cl- (mg/L) NaCl (mg/L)
20
l
1600
Wildlife
I1000
I DESwater quality standard
, 860 – 1-hour average
230 – 4-day average
1
Aquatic organisms
Terrestria l and emergent plants
Aquatic plants
1250
Comments
I
1 300
1800
1200 – 36,400
I
jGr oundwater source 2
8

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