lab report, just the discussion part

it does not have to be perfect just fallow the instruction, and use simple word as much as you could
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Fermentation Lab Report Assignment
General Guidelines for the assignment:
• Due to D2L Assignments Folder by 11:55PM the night before your lab meets – as a .doc or .docx
file. If you don’t submit it in the proper file format, you will be asked to re-submit it and your
assignment may be counted as late if the proper file format is not submitted by the due date.
• See Appendix G of the Lab Manual for overall guidance.
• Additional advice for writing lab reports can also be found under ‘Additional Resources’ ->
‘Advice_Lab_Report_Writing’ on the course D2L page.
• Report should be no more than 3 pages (not including graphs and tables). If more, anything passed
the 3-page mark will NOT be read and considered in the overall grade. 12pt font and margins of
1”.
• Every person in the group is responsible for the entirety of the document’s content – each person
should read the whole thing before the group turns it in (you all get the same grade on the work).
o
•
•
If you decide to ‘divvy up’ the sections, this is the distribution you need to use:
? Abstract and Introduction
? Methods and Results
? Discussion
The report should be formatted like a standard scientific journal article but should be written in a
way that a high school biology student would understand
PLEASE look at the rubric and feedback from your Photosynthesis lab report in order to help you write
this report!
Components of the assignment:
Full length lab report (100 points)
Planning Worksheet (10 pts): This will be graded on thoughtfulness and completion
Introduction (25): Importance of the experiment. Hypothesis (mechanisms) of the experiment and reason the
hypothesis was chosen. How design allows for testing of hypothesis.
•
•
Requirements
o (5pts) One short intro paragraph that introduces the main topic/question and briefly talks
about its relevance:
? Introduce fermentation in a broad context (why should anyone care about this report)?
o (10pts) One to two paragraphs (possibly three – as many you need to cover all of the relevant
information) that give the background information surrounding your hypothesis, including,
but not limited to, information supporting the mechanism of your hypothesis.
o (10pts) One final paragraph that (i) briefly re-states your hypothesis (including a concise
version of the mechanism that you’ve just laid out the background for in the intro), (ii) your
predictions that stem from that hypothesis and (iii) very briefly how you’re testing these
hypotheses.
? Pull together all the ideas you’ve just explained in the preceding paragraphs to state
your hypothesis and predictions.
Loss of credit if:
o Requirements stated above not met
o Does not follow a standard scientific journal article format, not organized into paragraphs
o Missing a reasonable MECHANISTIC hypothesis (a explanation statement):
1
? If you are missing a mechanistic hypothesis you will automatically
lose 10pts
o Incorrect statements made
o Statements of fact not supported by a reference (e.g. Fermentation involves effervescence
and the giving off of heat. (Smith, 2015))
o Important background elements missing
o Ideas do not flow logically
Methods (15): Basic description of technique. In-text and full citation of lab manual where appropriate.
•
•
Requirements
o Basic description of the techniques in the format of a paragraph.
? Do NOT list your materials. Rather, incorporate them in the techniques paragraph.
? In-text citation of the lab manual where appropriate (and full reference of citations in a
‘references’ section at the end. Use MLA format).
Loss of credit if:
o Requirements stated above not met
o Incorrect format, section is not organized into paragraphs (a bulleted list is not acceptable)
o You include a LIST of materials
o Critical steps or materials not identified
o Important details left out (e.g. what is in each flask? What amounts were used? Etc)
Results (15): objective (“unbiased”) findings of the experiment. Direct observations only including a
summary comparative statement of data gathered in paragraph format with visual(s). Here is where you
present the data collected that allow you to determine whether your predictions were supported or refuted,
without presenting this conclusion. Use a table to organize your data. A figure explanation must be present
for your table.
•
•
Requirements
o (5pts) Quick summary of key results in paragraph format
? Do not interpret here, just present the data that is necessary and leave the interpretation for the
discussion.
? Report results that answer experimental question.
? The results should be short and to the point, highlighting the important results.
? Report unexpected results
? You need to synthesize your data as much as possible to make it easily accessible.
? A good rule of thumb is, if you don’t mention the result in the discussion, you don’t need to
write it in the results text
o (10pts) Visual representation of your results in the form of a table.
? Explanation (‘figure caption’) for the table is required underneath the table
• The explanation should be descriptive enough that you could tell what the
graph/table/figure shows without having the visual.
• Should only include indisputable, directly demonstrated items.
Loss of credit if:
o Requirements stated above not met
o Incorrect format, format not based on standard scientific journal article
o Subjective or extraneous material presented (i.e. Don’t make a graph or table just for the sake of
making it. If you include one, make sure that it contributes something.)
2
o
o
o
o
Not enough visuals provided or provided visuals not the most effective representation of the data
Absence of appropriate data
Data is interpreted
Absence of text summarizing key results in paragraph format
Discussion (25): Interpretations of conclusions from results in relation to hypothesis/purpose (mechanisms).
The main goal of a discussion is to interpret your results, not just restate them in terms of whether they
support or reject your hypotheses (though you should do this here in order to actually discuss them). Be
sure that each portion of the results is used to address aspects of the question(s).
•
•
Requirements
o Paragraph 1 (5pts): Briefly summarize what your question is and what your results are.
o Paragraph 2 (10pts): Interpret your results and discuss why your conclusions are valid.
? Why are your conclusions valid?
• Hint: think about the controls you used and your experimental design
o Paragraph 3 (5pts): Discuss the limitations of your experiment and/or sources of error.
? Provide the TWO largest sources of error. You should not just state contamination or human
error. Things to consider:
• How well you used your controls.
• Look back at the questions on your planning worksheet.
? If your results differ from your predictions, you must discuss this. You should propose one of
the following:
• Alternate biological hypotheses OR
• Explain the limitations of your experimental design and how you would design
future experiments to address (fix) these limitations.
o Paragraph 4 (5pts): Wrap up what your study shows and explain how it fits into a bigger picture.
? Hint: refer back to your introduction and make sure you address why any of what you found
out matters to a broader audience.
Loss of credit if:
o Requirements stated above not met
o Incorrect format. Format not based on standard scientific journal article
o Important ideas not included/addressed
o No discussion for why conclusions or experiment is valid
o Incorrect statements
o Inclusion of ideas/material not arising from the work
o More than two sources of error discussed
o No sources of error/limitations discussed
Citations: This is not worth points, but if you don’t include a citation to the lab manual you receive a 20%
reduction in your assignment grade.
•
•
Requirements
o You need to use MLA formatting in order to cite the lab manual. (The citation does not count
toward the four-page limit).
o Cite any references or citations in-text, i.e. (Dykstra, 2017).
o You must in-text cite and provide a full citation in the reference page for any statements of fact or
information that is not common knowledge.
Loss of credit
3
o No citation of lab manual = plagiarism and a 20% reduction on the assignment grade
o Not including in-text citations for references in your references/citations section will result in a
10% grade reduction
o Provide information or facts that are not common knowledge without citations = 10% reduction
Cohesiveness (10): Effectively and equitably worked in a group and the work turned in read well, and was
seamless.
•
•
Requirements:
o Everyone in the group should contribute equally and respond to efforts to contact (via email or
phone) in a timely manner. Using a Google Doc is a very effective way to do this.
o The paper must read seamlessly, with no major differences in style or voice.
o Turn in one evaluation per person via the D2L quiz called ‘Evaluation of Contributions for
Fermentation Lab Report’.
Loss of credit:
o When reading the paper, it is apparent more than one person wrote the paper, meaning that it
is choppy blocks of writing that do not flow well together
o Group evaluation not turned in
Grading Rubric
You get this grade per
section
If your work shows me that you
90-100% of points
Outstanding, exemplary work Includes all elements specified and makes none of
the errors indicated in ‘loss of credit’. Work demonstrates superior understanding of
the material and concepts relevant to that section of the report. No errors in
grammar, punctuation or spelling.
High quality work Includes the majority of elements specified and makes at most
one of the errors indicated in ‘loss of credit’. Work demonstrates understanding of
the material and concepts relevant to that section of the report. Very few errors in
grammar, punctuation or spelling
80-89 % of points
70-79 % of points
Good quality work, performing at expected level for this assignment. Includes most
of the elements specified and makes 2 or more of the errors indicated in ‘loss of
credit’. Work demonstrates superficial understanding of the material and concepts
relevant to that section of the report. Few errors in grammar, punctuation or spelling
60-69 % of points
Work below expected level of quality for this assignment. Includes only a few of
the elements specified and makes 3 or more of the errors indicated in ‘loss of credit’.
Work demonstrates multiple misunderstandings of the material and concepts relevant
to that section of the report. Many errors in grammar, punctuation or spelling.
Below 60%
Significantly below expected level of quality Missing most of the elements
specified and makes 4 or more of the errors indicated in ‘loss of credit’. Work
demonstrates almost a complete lack of understanding of the material and concepts
relevant to that section of the report. Many errors in grammar, punctuation or
spelling.
4
Fermentation: Planning Worksheet (worth 10% of Fermentation Write-Up)
Most textbooks talk about glucose being the input for fermentation. However, have you ever
wondered if a sweetener besides glucose could be used? That is your challenge for part 2 of the
fermentation lab: pick one sweetener that you hypothesize CAN be used for fermentation, and one
sweetener that you hypothesize CANNOT be used for fermentation.
Generating Hypotheses
Fructose
By NEUROtiker (talk · contribs) – Own work, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=1798437
Maltose
By NEUROtiker – Own work, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=3508034
Sucrose
By NEUROtiker – Own work, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=2951918
Sucralose
By Vaccinationist (Own work, based on PubChem) [Public domain or Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
Stevia
By Yikrazuul – Own work; ISBN 3-540-40291-8, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=9149312
1.) Which sweetener do you hypothesize yeast will be able to use in fermentation?
Sucrose
2.) Explain why. Make sure your explanation is at the molecular level. You will need to use outside
sources in order to justify your hypothesis/explanation, so be sure to include citations here.
Sucrase is the enzyme that breaks down the disaccharide and produces a fructose and glucose
which we know goes through fermentation since we already experimented that glucose works
https://healthyliving.azcentral.com/breakdown-sucrose-16741.html
3.) Which sweetener do you hypothesize yeast will NOT be able to use in fermentation?
Stevia
4.) Explain why. Make sure your explanation is at the molecular level. You will need to use outside
sources in order to justify your hypothesis/explanation, so be sure to include citations here.
Because stevia’s molecular structure is too large to be broken down and there is no enzyme that can
break it down.
https://www.dansukker.co.uk/uk/products/steviasugar/frequently-asked-questions-aboutsteviasugar.aspx
Designing Your Experiment
1.) What controls will you need? Be sure you can answer the following two questions with your
controls: How will you verify that the yeast ‘works’ – can do fermentation? How will you verify that
yeast needs ‘food’ in order to carry out fermentation – that the products of fermentation don’t just
spontaneously arise?
The controls we are using is the yeast with the water mixture and glucose with the yeast. We will
verify that it can do fermentation by seeing if it produced ethanol and CO2. We will verify that it
needs food by seeing that water does not undergo fermentation by not producing ethanol and CO2.
2.) How many flasks will you need?
We will need 4 flasks- two controls and two variables
3.) What will you measure in order to test for fermentation?
We will measure the CO2 and ethanol

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