?Qualitative Article Review

Qualitative Article Review Choose 1 qualitative article from your Topical Reference List, and compose a 2-page review of it. Your review must include 2 sections: (1) a summary of the article, and (2) a critical analysis of the article. The article must be from a peer reviewed journal and written in the last five years. Your summary must include: The purpose of the study; A description of participants/sample; The research design/data analysis (narrative, grounded theory, case study, phenomenology, ethnography, etc.); The method of data collection (questionnaire, document analysis, observation, open-ended or structured interview, etc.); and The results. Your analysis must include: Opportunities for further research not already stated in the article, Threats to validity or undocumented bias on the part of the researcher(s), Other original insight or criticism, and Implications of the findings. See your textbook if you need more help evaluating your article.
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Running head: TOPICAL REFERENCE LIST
Should Teachers Assign Homework?
Student Name
Liberty University
1
TOPICAL REFERENCE LIST
2
Should Teachers Assign Homework?
Abstract
This research study would the positive and negative impacts of home assignment on the
performance of students through a review of the literature of previous and current studies. The
outcome of several studies on the need for teachers to assign homework showed that students
require adequate rest to refresh their memories since the process is critical to their overall
development. Also, empirical evidence from most of the works selected from this review showed
that students of teachers that assign home assignment at least three times a week for their subject
perform less than their counterparts. When the correlation between the impacts of homework to
the success of the learner at the end of the year is extended to low-income students, the result a
substantial negative outcome is obtained. Therefore, the proposed research study should identify
the factors that are necessary for determining the necessity of home assignments and their
potential impact on the success of students in their academic endeavor.
Introduction
Learners and teachers are responsible for the investment of the appropriate effort in the
attainment of the academic performance that would ensure their progress in the educational
system. While students devise various approaches for ensuring the accomplishment of this
objective, teacher use home assignments as instruments for practicing the concepts discussed in
the classroom and increasing the knowledge of the students. Therefore, some parents allocate
after-school time for their kids to complete these assignments that could be up to seven. Others
participate in the completion of the homework to make available time for other duties in the
household thereby denying the purpose of using it as a tool for enhanced learning. However,
educational scholars and researchers contend that home assignments are counterproductive to the
cognitive development of the children and should be discouraged since it does enhance the
academic performance of the learner. On the other hand, the curriculum of the elementary and
middle-school system emphasizes the use of home work for providing additional learning
opportunities and chance to acquire further information. In spite of the series of evidence from
several research studies, home work remains part of the daily lesson plan used by teachers. The
factors surrounding the completion of homework assignment and the outcome of the studies
contained in the literature used for this study showed that teachers should devise new and
effective instruments for enhance the learning and performance that can replace the ineffective
home assignment.
Summary of General Theme
The significance homework to the academic performance of student was a common
theme that was examined by the authors of the selected articles for this research study. This
theme was combined with the psychological impact of the learning tool to determine its efficacy
both in the short- and long-term perspectives before a major of the scholars used them to
construct the theoretical frameworks that guided their studies. An additional theme that the
researcher explored in their studies was student achievement by examining its correlation with
TOPICAL REFERENCE LIST
3
the utilization of homework for the same purpose. Finally, the conduct of the literature review
showed theme of diverse population and how the concepts impacted their learning capabilities.
List of References
Bennett, C. A. (2017). ” Most Won’t Do It!” Examining homework as a structure for
learning in a diverse middle school. American Secondary Education, 45(2), 22
Abstract: Much attention is placed on helping students develop as complex and creative
thinkers, yet many classrooms continue to use learning structures without examining their
effectiveness. This is often the case with homework. Research findings on the effectiveness of
homework are mixed, and few studies have examined students’ and educators’ perspectives on
the benefits of homework as a learning structure. The study reported in this article examined the
perspectives of these two groups in a culturally and socio-economically diverse middle school.
Several differences were found between the two groups’ perceptions of the benefits and purposes
of homework. The implications of the findings for student engagement in learning are discussed
Gustafsson, J. E. (2013). Causal inference in educational effectiveness research: A
comparison of three methods to investigate effects of homework on student
achievement. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 24(3), 275-295.
Abstract: In educational effectiveness research, it frequently has proven difficult to make
credible inferences about cause and effect relations. The article first identifies the main
categories of threats to valid causal inference from observational data, and discusses designs and
analytic approaches which protect against them. With the use of data from 22 countries which
participated both in the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2003
and TIMSS 2008 with samples of Grade 8 students, 3 different methods are then applied to
investigate effects of amount of time spent on homework on mathematics achievement: (a) 2level regression, which is applied to separate student-level relations from class-level relations;
(b) instrumental variables regression, using teacher-reported homework time to instrument
student reported homework time; and (c) a difference-in-differences analysis investigating
country-level change between 2003 and 2007. All 3 methods showed that there is a positive
effect of homework time on student achievement.
Fernández-Alonso, R., Álvarez-Díaz, M., Suárez-Álvarez, J., & Muñiz, J. (2017). Students’
Achievement and Homework Assignment Strategies. Frontiers in psychology, 8, 286.
Abstract: The optimum time students should spend on homework has been widely researched
although the results are far from unanimous. The main objective of this research is to analyze
how homework assignment strategies in schools affect students’ academic performance and the
differences in students’ time spent on homework. Participants were a representative sample of
Spanish adolescents (N = 26,543) with a mean age of 14.4 (±0.75), 49.7% girls. A test battery
was used to measure academic performance in four subjects: Spanish, Mathematics, Science, and
Citizenship. A questionnaire allowed the measurement of the indicators used for the description
of homework and control variables. Two three-level hierarchical-linear models (student, school,
autonomous community) were produced for each subject being evaluated. The relationship
TOPICAL REFERENCE LIST
4
between academic results and homework time is negative at the individual level but positive at
school level. An increase in the amount of homework a school assigns is associated with an
increase in the differences in student time spent on homework. An optimum amount of
homework is proposed which schools should assign to maximize gains in achievement for
students overall
Nair, S. (2017). Demonstrating the efficacy of homework to students. Science Education
News, 66(3), 24.
Abstract: In many educational settings, homework forms an integral part of the educational
experience. However, teachers are often frustrated by their students’ lack of effort in
completing homework tasks. In countries surveyed by the OECD (OECD, 2014, 2016), the
number of hours that 15 year old students spend on doing homework varied widely, from about 3
hours per week (in South Korea and Finland) to about 14 hours per week (Shanghai and Russia).
The OECD average is approximately 5 hours of homework per week (the average homework
length in Australia is 6 hours per week).
Ndebele, M. (2015). Socio-economic factors affecting parents’ involvement in homework:
practices and perceptions from eight Johannesburg public primary schools. Perspectives in
Education, 33(3), 72-91.
Abstract: This paper examines socio-economic factors influencing parental involvement in
homework at the Foundation Phase in eight Johannesburg public primary schools. The research
was conducted among over 600 parents from schools in different geographical and socioeconomic areas such as the inner city, suburban and township. Two primary schools were chosen
from each of these settings. This research offers a form of classification of parents, with the view
to analyze the relationship between the types of parental involvement in homework and different
categories of parents. In this study, I argue that the socio-economic status of parents has a major
influence on participation in their children’s homework. Findings suggest that the higher the
income and socio-economic status, the more parents are likely to become involved, whereas
parents from a poorer socio-economic background are less likely to be involved in their
children’s homework
Núñez, J. C., Suárez, N., Rosário, P., Vallejo, G., Valle, A., & Epstein, J. L. (2015).
Relationships between perceived parental involvement in homework, student homework
behaviors, and academic achievement: differences among elementary, junior high, and
high school students. Metacognition and learning, 10(3), 375-406.
Abstract: This study aims to produce a deeper understanding of the relationship between
perceived parental homework involvement (i.e., parental homework control and parental
homework support), student homework behaviors (i.e., time spend on homework completion,
time management, and amount of homework completed), and student academic achievement.
Using Mplus5.1, a structural equation model was fit for 1683 students at different stages of
schooling (i.e., elementary school-5th and 6th grades; junior high school-7th and 8th grades; and
high school-9th and 10th grades). The data showed that student homework behaviors, perceived
parental homework involvement, and academic achievement are significantly related. However,
results vary depending on the students’ grade level: (a) in junior high and high school, perceived
TOPICAL REFERENCE LIST
5
parental homework involvement is related to students’ homework behaviors, but not in
elementary school; and (b) although students’ homework behaviors are related to academic
achievement at each school level, the direction and magnitude of the relationships vary.
Specifically, the relationship between perceived parental homework involvement and academic
achievement is stronger in junior high and high school than in elementary school; and student
homework behaviors mediate the association between perceived parental homework involvement
(control and support) and academic achievement only in junior high and high school.
Pendergast, L. L., Watkins, M. W., & Canivez, G. L. (2014). Structural and convergent
validity of the homework performance questionnaire. Educational Psychology, 34(3), 291304.
Abstract: Homework is a requirement for most school-age children, but research on the benefits
and drawbacks of homework is limited by lack of psychometrically sound measurement of
homework performance. This study examined the structural and convergent validity of scores
from the newly developed Homework Performance Questionnaire – Teacher Scale (HPQ-T).
Participants were 112 teachers of 224 students in six Illinois school districts. Common factor
analysis with principal axis extraction and promax rotation was used for data analysis. Results
revealed three salient factors: Parent support, student competence and homework completion.
Subsequently, convergent validity of HPQ-T subscale scores with subscale scores from the
Learning Behaviours Scale was examined. Findings suggest that the HPQ-T may potentially be a
useful tool for improving research on homework and identifying strengths and weaknesses in
student homework performance. However, modifications are recommended to optimise the
utility of the scores
Rudman, N. P. C. (2014). A review of homework literature as a precursor to practitionerled doctoral research in a primary school. Research in Education, 91(1), 12-29.
Abstract: Homework in the primary school is a subject much debated by teachers, parents and
pupils. This paper offers a brief critique of key issues in the current homework debate with
particular reference to research literature, theoretical perspectives, educational policy and other
professional publications. Consequently, a discourse between homework in academic literature
and classroom pedagogy emerges and a number of opportunities for further research are
identified. Ultimately, it is argued that whilst a range of work has been published around certain
aspects of homework, many complexities remain and conclusive answers are most likely to be
found only within the cultural context where the homework is actually undertaken.
Xu, J. (2016). A study of the validity and reliability of the Teacher Homework Involvement
Scale: A psychometric evaluation. Measurement, 93, 102-107.
Abstract: The aim of the present investigation is to validate the Teacher Homework
Involvement Scale (THIS) based on the data from 918 secondary school students. Using a
randomized split of the sample, we performed exploratory factor analysis (EFA) on Group 1 (n =
459) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) on Group 2 (n = 459). The results indicated that the
THIS consisted of three distinct yet related subscales: Homework Quality, Feedback Quality, and
Autonomy Support. In addition, the present investigation found an adequate level of factor
loading invariance across gender. Results further revealed that, in line with theoretical
TOPICAL REFERENCE LIST
6
expectations, the THIS were positively related to motivational belief (value belief and
expectancy belief), homework behavior (effort, management, and completion), and math
achievement
References
Bennett, C. A. (2017). ” Most Won’t Do It!” Examining Homework as a Structure for Learning in
a Diverse Middle School. American Secondary Education, 45(2), 22.
Buijs, M., & Admiraal, W. (2013). Homework assignments to enhance student engagement in
secondary education. European journal of psychology of education, 28(3), 767-779.
TOPICAL REFERENCE LIST
7
Gustafsson, J. E. (2013). Causal inference in educational effectiveness research: A comparison of
three methods to investigate effects of homework on student achievement. School
Effectiveness and School Improvement, 24(3), 275-295.
Fernández-Alonso, R., Álvarez-Díaz, M., Suárez-Álvarez, J., & Muñiz, J. (2017). Students’
Achievement and Homework Assignment Strategies. Frontiers in psychology, 8, 286.
Nair, S. (2017). Demonstrating the efficacy of homework to students. Science Education
News, 66(3), 24.
Ndebele, M. (2015). Socio-economic factors affecting parents’ involvement in homework:
practices and perceptions from eight Johannesburg public primary schools. Perspectives
in Education, 33(3), 72-91.
Núñez, J. C., Suárez, N., Rosário, P., Vallejo, G., Valle, A., & Epstein, J. L. (2015).
Relationships between perceived parental involvement in homework, student homework
behaviors, and academic achievement: differences among elementary, junior high, and
high school students. Metacognition and learning, 10(3), 375-406.
Pendergast, L. L., Watkins, M. W., & Canivez, G. L. (2014). Structural and convergent validity
of the homework performance questionnaire. Educational Psychology, 34(3), 291-304.
Rudman, N. P. C. (2014). A review of homework literature as a precursor to practitioner-led
doctoral research in a primary school. Research in Education, 91(1), 12-29.
Xu, J. (2016). A study of the validity and reliability of the Teacher Homework Involvement
Scale: A psychometric evaluation. Measurement, 93, 102-107.

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