I have to reply to 3 peer’s post. Please find the attachment of all 3 peers reply. Please compose reply for all 3 posts in the attached documents. I have also attached Grading Rubric and Requirement for Peer’s reply. Please compose post accordingly. We need to use Socratic Method to reply peers posts.Post should be limited to 1-2 decent size paragraph.
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Taxonomy of Socratic Questioning
Paul, Richard, Critical Thinking: How to Prepare Students for a Rapidly Changing World, 1993.
The taxonomy of Socratic questions, created by Richard Paul, is not a hierarchy in the traditional sense. The categories build upon each other,
but they do not necessarily follow a pattern or design. One question’s response will lead into another category of questioning not predetermined
by the teacher/facilitator. In keeping with the PBL philosophy, this aspect of the model is most conducive! The role of the skilled
teacher/facilitator is to keep the inquiry “train on track,” but, also, to allow the students to “travel to a viable destination” of their own design.
Questions that Probe Reasons and Evidence
Questions of Clarification
Questions that Probe
Questions that Probe Reasons
Questions about Viewpoints
What do you mean by ____?
What are you assuming?
What would be an example?
What is your main point?
What is Jenny assuming?
How do you know?
The term “imply” will require
clarification when used with
How does _____ relate to
What could we assume instead?
Why do you think that is true?
What are you implying by that?
You seem to be assuming _____. Do you have any evidence for
Could you put that another way? Do I understand you correctly?
When you say _____, are you
Questions that Probe
How can we find out?
What does this question
Would _____ ask this question
How could someone settle this
Is your basic point _____ or
All of your reasoning depends on What difference does that make?
the idea that _____. Why have
you based your reasoning on
Can we break this question
What are your reasons for saying
_____ instead of _____?
down at all?
What do you think is the main
What effect would that have?
You seem to be assuming _____. What other information do you
Is this question clear? Do we
Would that necessarily happen understand it?
Let me see if I understand you; How do you justify taking that
or only possibly/probably
do you mean _____ or _____? for granted?
Is this question easy or hard to
Could you explain your reasons to happen?
How does this relate to our
Does this question ask us to
Are these reasons adequate?
evaluate something? What?
What do you, Mike, mean by
this remark? What do you take
Why do you say that?
Mike to mean by his remark?
Do we all agree that this is the
What led you to that belief?
If we say that ____ is ethical,
Jane, can you summarize in your
how about _____?
own words what Richard said? . .
To answer this question, what
. Richard, is this what you
other questions must we
How does that apply to this case?
Could you give me an example?
What would change your mind?
Would this be an example, . . .?
But, is that good evidence for that
I’m not sure I understand how
you are interpreting this
question. Is this the same as
Is there a reason to doubt that
How would _____ state the
Who is in a position to know that
Why is this issue important?
Could you explain this further?
Would you say more about that?
Why do you say that?
What would you say to someone
who said that ____?
Can someone else give evidence
to support that view?
By what reasoning did you come
to that conclusion?
How could we find out if that is
Is this the most important
question, or is there an
underlying question that is
really the issue?
Your active participation in the discussion forums is essential to your overall success this term. Discussion questions are designed to help you make meaningful
connections between the course content and the larger concepts and goals of the course. These discussions offer you the opportunity to apply critical thinking to
your analysis and peer exchange of ideas
Requirements for Discussion Board Assignments
Students are required to post an original anchor post by Wednesday evening and then respond to 3 different peers on three separate days utilizing critical
thinking questions to enhance the dialogue. In essence you will be posting a minimum of nine posts each week.
For your initial post (1) you must:
Compose a post of one to two paragraphs
Complete the initial post by Wednesday at 11:59 PM EST of the module
week. Post needs to reflect APA formatting: Citations & references.
Take into consideration material such as course content and other
discussion boards from the current module and previous modules, when
For your response posts you must:
Reply to at least three different classmates outside of your own initial
Complete posts by Sunday at 11:59 PM EST
Demonstrate more depth and thought than simply stating I agree or
You are wrong. Apply Critical thinking methodology (Socratic
Methodology) to your questions.
Develops an initial post with an
organized, clear point of view or idea
using rich and significant course
detail i.e. models/theories
Submits initial post on time and is
active in the threads at least five
Provides relevant and meaningful
responses to peers that includes
(6 plus Academic posts ) Reflecting
critical thinking, modeling the
Socratic principles of Socratic
Questions supported by course
Draws insightful conclusions that are
thoroughly defended with evidence
and examples. Challenges peer ideas
in supportive ways to deepen the
dialogue and creates a virtual
Initial post and responses are easily
understood, clear, and concise using
Develops an initial post with a
point of view or idea using
appropriate detail and APA
Submits initial post by Wednesday
and remaining posts on nonconsecutive days per guidelines
Provides relevant response posts
that model conversational
(4-6) Academic posts)
Develops an initial post with a
point of view or idea but without
any supporting research
Does not develop an initial
post with an organized point
of view or idea
Submits minimum required posts
that reflect required frequency
Submits initial posts all on one
Posts are all related to individual
perspectives without engaging
(1-3 Academic posts)
Provides response posts that
are generic with little
explanation or detail
(1-3 posts conversational in
Draws informed conclusions that
are justified with evidence of some
Personal opinions without any
evidence of academic rigor
Does not draw logical
Initial post and responses are
easily understood using proper
Initial post and responses are
understandable and do not
Initial post and responses are
not understandable and no
proper citation methods where
applicable with no errors in citations
citation methods where applicable
with few errors in citations
reflect evidence of APA protocol
Grades reflect Rivier University system A (94-100), A-(90-93), B (84-89), B- (8083), C (74-79), and F (0-73)
evidence of any APA protocol
Peer 1 Response
Leadership is the art of motivating a group of people to act towards achieving a
common goal, its the essentials of being able to inspire others and being prepared to
do so (Ward, 2007).
Im currently unemployed but Id like to share what I learned about leadership from my
previous work experience as an intern. I really appreciated the leader in that
organization and I believe he has the potential to lead the organization to a higher level.
I like the way he empowered employees and always listened to employees. From my
personal experience, he assigned me a significant project, even when I never had
experience in the field. He collaborated as much as he could to help me understand the
project thoroughly. I learned everything from scratch when I first started working there
and progressed until I was able to finish the project with high satisfactory.
Based on what I frequently saw, he never denied employees who wanted to ask him
questions or give their opinions, even when he had lot of things on his plate. He held a
team meeting once a week in order to keep the team on track with their deliverable and
provide feedback. He used a democratic and laissez-fair decision-making style when we
started a new project. According to Bauer and Erdogan (2015), democratic decision
making is when employees participate in the making of the decision and Laissez-fair
decision making is leaving employees alone to make the decision, which is when the
leader provides minimum guidance and involvement in the decision.
I feel that his leadership is effective because of his satisfactory performance at
minimizing risk, managing profitability, and expertise. His strategy and planning were
good however it could have been better because a lot of timelines were inaccurate, or
project scopes were inaccurate. Due to his Laissez-fair management style, he did not
micro manage enough to know the exact details of every assignment and some
employees took advantage of his management style by doing less work or performing
their work inefficiently.
Peer 2 Response
Leadership, as stated by Bauer and Erdogan (2018) is “the act of influencing others to
work toward a goal.” A leader needs to have the motivational, communication, and
supervisory skills in order to move their group in a way that the leader wants them to act
in order to achieve a desired goal.
In my organization we have a very unusual set-up. I work for a group of five
independent individuals. They are all self-employed, but they have the backing of a
larger organization that assists them with numerous support items. They assist them in
getting business processed and paperwork to the right organizations. They offer
Marketing material, and numerous other resources, to assist the individuals in growing
their business. Does the organization profit from assisting them? Yes they do, in any
number of ways, but mostly financially. If the individuals grow and are successful, then
so is the “home office”.
The larger organization is overseen by/made up of two managing partners – each with
their own quirks and personality traits. They are both successful business men in their
own right, but they also concern themselves with my office.
They personally visit throughout the year. They have conversations, not only with the
five individuals, but also with the office staff. They have a genuine concern and interest
in seeing our office succeed, and not only for their own bottom line.
They fit into any number of Leadership Roles and/or Styles. They definitely fit the role
of Participative Leaders. “Participative leaders make sure that employees are involved
in the making of important decisions. Participative leadership may be more effective
when employees have high levels of ability, and when the decisions to be made are
personally relevant to them. For employees with a high internal locus of control (those
who believe that they control their own destiny), participative leadership is a way of
indirectly controlling organizational decisions, which is likely to be appreciated” (Bauer &
They seek out individuals to assist in making company-wide decisions. They put
together task-forces to help identify problems, define solutions, and help tweak their
OPM to make sure everyone is moving toward the future and the best way to continue
to be successful. They involve themselves instead of always delegating. Both are
approachable and don’t hide in their “glass” offices. They dig in the trenches, helping
where they are needed – they aren’t afraid to get their hands dirty! They don’t belittle or
talk-down to anyone in any position throughout the organization. On top of all of this,
they have shown that they haven’t forgotten where they started.
The secret to success is good leadership, and good leadership is all about making the
lives of your team members or workers better.
Read more at:
“The secret to success is good leadership, and good leadership is all about making the
lives of your team members or workers better” ~ Tony Dungy
Peer 3 Response
The United States is the second – most competitive economy in the world after
Switzerland. The modern leaders have to focus on the success of the entire
organization over focusing on personal glory in order for the organization to compete in
today’s hyper – competitive world.
According to the OPM (Organization Performance Model), manager’s job is to
ensure alignment with all the sub components of this model. Their job is not limited to
building cooperative relationships between different groups of people. They have to
consider more broad influence of the sub components, such as customers, suppliers,
contractors and so on. Of course no one lives in a perfect world and rarely does
everything go according to plan. People fail to get along with each other, other
departments are unable to fulfill their commitments, technical glitches arise, work takes
longer than expected. The leader’s job is to get the work back on track.
Leaders have to do more than “put out fires”. They also innovate and adapt to ever changing circumstances, for example, competitors release new product or customer’s
needs may change.
“Leadership involves recognizing and articulating the need to significantly alter the
direction and operation of the work, aligning people to the new direction, and motivating
them to work together to overcome hurdles produced by the change and to realize new
objectives.” (Larson, Gray; 2018).
Peer 4 Response
I believe that leadership is an important aspect of effectively leading employees not just
within my organization, but any organization, because if leaders dont effectively lead
their employees projects wont be completed, which can cause the organization to lose
money and potentially new clients. According to Bauer & Erdogan (2015), leadership is
defined as, The act of influencing others to work toward a goal. There are different
types of leaders throughout and in different levels of organizations and are more than
just CEOs or Managers.
There are two types of leaders formal leaders and informal leaders. Formal leaders
hold a position of authority and may utilize the power that comes from their position, as
well as their personal power to influence others. Informal leaders are without a formal
position of authority within the organization but demonstrate leadership by influencing
others through personal forms of power. (Bauer & Erdogan, 2015).
Bauer & Erdogan (2015), made a statement that I completely agree with and have
witnessed and dealt with first hand, Leaders do not rely on the use of force to influence
people. If a person is relying on force and punishment, the person is a dictator, not a
I observed this first hand while serving in the military and it is very difficult to deal with,
because you feel that your ideas or suggestions to these types of leaders will either fall
on deaf ears or you will be reprimanded for going against the leader. After dealing with
these types of leaders, I always told myself that I would not force or punish anyone
when I became a leader, because I feel that everyone has a right to make suggestions
and voice their ideas.
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