research method

First document is requirement, second, third, forth are need to read, and then need write “Research Design”. This paper should be write how to write the research, and research way. The second, third and forth documents that what I need to research. In the first document bottom, I have two example outline. Please read second document carefully. Please write follow this. Due US pacific time, 4/8
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Po Parks Survey Volunteer Guidelines
Description
Volunteers will be distributing and collecting park usage surveys to park and
recreational facility users within the city of Po (twenty seven parks and eleven
recreational facilities) as part of the collaboration between the City of Po’s
Neighborhood Services Department (NSD) and Mr. M, graduate student in the Public
Administration program at Cal Poly Pomona. The survey data will be used by the City
to improve park facilities based on resident needs and improve the quality of life for park
users. Volunteers will be undergoing a training session administered by the Principal
Investigator (PI), Mr. M, on survey engagement and collection. After a respondent
agrees to participates, volunteers will be given two sheets of surveys, in English and
Spanish. The volunteers are responsible for going to a park designated by a City of Po
official and approaching park users over the age of eighteen. These person will be
asked if they would like to participate in a study to improve the park and recreational
facilities. All surveys are to be delivered to the City of Po Neighborhood Services
Department, located at Po Park, XXX E. Highway, Po , CA 91XXX
Time Commitment
Training session: 15 minutes
Survey engagement/collection: Over a 3 week period (pending IRB approval)
Duties
• Attend a mandatory 15-minute training session to be conducted at Po Park
where volunteers will learn how to properly inform a survey participant of his/her
rights as a research subject including an explanation of the study and the
Informed Consent Form (ICF).
• Distribute surveys and ICFs to park and recreational facility users in the Po parks
system, as assigned by NSD officials.
• Allowing survey participants ample space while they complete surveys. There
should be no coercion in answering any or all of the questions.
• Collecting completed surveys and delivering them to the NSD at Po Park where
they will later be collected by the PI.
Prerequisites
Must be over 18.
Goals/Objectives
This study will serve to provide the volunteer with:
? Exposure to the workings of a local government agency
? Collaborating with city officials on a project that could potentially benefit the City
of Pomona’s parks system
? Increase civic engagement, especially among the young adult volunteers
Po Parks Survey Agreement Form
I understand and agree to the conditions and guidelines outlined above in the Po
Parks Survey Volunteer Guidelines
I understand the tasks and responsibilities that this volunteer opportunity entails and
will complete each one to the best of my abilities and in the timeframe given
I will communicate any issues or needs that may arise during the course of this
program to the Principal Investigator, Mr. M, or to the principal City official in this
study, M O of the Neighborhood Services Department.
Name:__________________________________________
Please Print
Signature:_______________________________________
Date: ___________________
Human Research Protections Program
Institutional Review Board (IRB)
Answer each question in the sections below adequately enough so that ethical standards and human protection
can be determined by an outside reviewer. Be sure to address all questions asked within each section, as this will
help to speed the review and approval process of your protocol.
CORE INFO – FUNDING
A. In what general discipline(s) is your proposed research with human subjects?
Biological or clinical science (biomedical) (e.g. nutrition and kinesiology), Social Science, behavioral science, or education
(SBER), a combination of biomedical and SBER. If other, please explain.
Social Science.
B. What kind of funding or support do you have for this study with human subjects?
Federal (NSF, NIH, DoD, DoE, DoEd, etc.), State agency such as CARB, California Dept. of Ed., etc., CPP program such as
McNair, Trio, Office of Research, etc., Others (private sources).
There is no funding for the study.
C. Are you collaborating with another group such as a school, community association, government
agency, etc.? If yes, please explain.
I am collaborating with the Neighborhood Services Department in the City of Po
RESEARCHER (PI) TRAINING
Both formal training and practical experience in research with human subjects are critical for the protection of the participants and
minimization of risk that might be associated with the conduct of your study. Federal regulations require that investigators
possess training. The CPP IRB adopted in 2006 the on-line CITI program as required training in human subjects research (CITI
training is valid for five years). All investigators submitting applications to the IRB must complete appropriate modules of CITI as
a condition of approval of a protocol. Other formal training will be considered by the IRB on an individual basis. See
https://www.citiprogram.org and the training section of the CPP IRB website.
A. Describe the training possessed by you as the primary investigator. Include when it was
obtained. Provide your CITI completion report number. Will you be obtaining any additional training
related to this proposal? If you are a student, your advisor (faculty mentor) must possess training as well, which you are
to describe in the next section.
I successfully completed the CITI Intro to Human Subjects training in 2017. My report number is 183XYZZZ
B. Describe the training possessed by others involved with the study, including your coinvestigators, research associates (RAs), collaborators, students, staff, faculty members, a student’s
mentor or advisor, etc., from your university or elsewhere, working on this study. Include when it was
obtained. Provide CITI completion report number(s). Provide a copy of this report if training was
obtained from a different institution. List and identify the role of each co-investigator, e.g. Billy Bronco, RA, “research
with minors” report #012345, 13 Nov 2014; Dr. Helga Schmidt, collaborator at ABC University, ethics training from ABC
University attached
Dr. E. has CITI Certification Number 462XYZ updated November 2015
1.
RESEARCH FOCUS AND CONCEPTS
Research for IRB purposes is defined as “a systematic investigation including research development, testing and evaluation,
designed to develop or contribute to generalizable knowledge.” http://www.hhs.gov/ohrp/humansubjects/guidance/45cfr46.html
A. Purpose of this study – Why are you conducting this study? What are the goal(s), objective(s)
and outcome(s)? What hypothesis or hypotheses are you testing or what are the research questions?
Explain the rationale and impetus for your research project. Provide enough detail such that: a) the IRB member(s) reviewing
your protocol will understand your research plan and b) it supports a judgment of the risks and benefits in order to approve the
“use” of the research participants.
IRB application, version August 2017, page 1 of 12
The study will examine the level of park and recreational facilities usage in the city of Po’s twenty-seven parks and
eleven recreational facilities. Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and United Status census data of the
population within a mile radius of each facility, the study seeks to understand the percentage of residents that utilize
facilities in relation to the census blocks’ data. The other objective is to assist the City of Po’s Neighborhood Services
Department (NSD) in updating their Parks Master Plan, which has not been updated since the 1970’s. By surveying
people who use these parks, this study hopes to:
1) Ascertain the scope and scale of Po’s future park needs
2) Present insights on what the community utilize the parks for and how to improve on park amenities and/or
community programs
3) Inform residents of the correlation between parks & sustainable ecosystems and improving health.
4) Display how resident engagement, input and ownership are vital to a community’s growth while also
bridging the gap between local city officials and communities.
The main objective of the study is to provide the City of Po with a clear picture of the extent these parks & facilities
are utilized and the demographics of park users while providing an opportunity to categorize the functions that parks
can play in improving user’s health, physical activity and welfare.
B. Relevance – State specifically the relationship of your proposed research to other, previous
scientific and/or scholarly investigations in the field or to existing best practices. What literature is related to
your research? On what are you basing your own work, pertaining to the use of human subjects? What are you doing that
builds on existing research findings/best practices? What work has come before and what have you learned from it to inform
your own methods and questions? Provide full citations (APA or MLA reference styles are good).
To better provide for residents who live near park areas, the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors initiated a
plan known as the Los Angeles Countywide Comprehensive Parks and Recreation Needs Assessment. This
program authorized the revamping of county parks and recreational facilities according to four central points:
•
•
•
•
Considering parks as key infrastructure needed to maintain and improve the quality of life for all County
residents
Using a new series of metrics to determine park need
Supporting a need-based allocation of funding for parks and recreation
Emphasizing both community priorities and deferred maintenance projects.
(LACDPR 2016)
The underlying element to this study is tying park usage to the broader picture of what defines an ideal park and
neighborhood surrounding it, as properly maintained parks and good neighborhoods usually go hand-in-hand, First
task is to identify the geography associated with the parks and evaluating the neighborhood’s need and usage
of the parks and community. According to the Urban Green Spaces Task Force, “the perception that someone has
of an urban green space can significantly affect whether they use that space, contribute to the collective opinion
that a community has of such a space and shape the wider community’s image of urban green spaces. This image
can be as important as the reality of deciding whether people will make use of these areas” (Dunnet, Swanwick &
Woolley 2002). “Parks reflect a society’s values and ideals. These green spaces should be leading the way towards
a sustainable future” (Bergman 2013). By collecting data that provides a clear picture to city officials of the priorities
for improving existing park amenities, the study will send a message that the value of park usage is important to the
city because , not only it is a good investment for the community, but because it improves property values and
brings in more homebuyers. It is also in the city’s interests to update their parks master plan and amenities because
these public places are good revenue streams. In a well-known historical study of Central Park in New York, a
public administrator by the name of Frederick Law Olmstead, conducted a study between 1856 to 1873 to track
how parks help property values in order to justify the $14 million the city had spent in creating Central Park. Over a
17-year period, he discovered that there was a $209 million increase in nearby property values as a direct result of
the park (Crompton 2011). The property tax collected ensured that the city made a profit and the park paid for itself.
However, it is not just enough for the parks to just be built, as with the case of the city of Po. There must be a level
of usage in order for it to a successful investment. By analyzing foot traffic, program engagement, updating
amenities to attract more park users, this study will contribute to the overall positive impact of parks on a city, thus
ensuring residents are cared for by city representatives.
Parks are not only public spaces where people participate in passive recreation and active sports; they are also
important areas of community gatherings. According to a study done by the Rand Corporation in 2014, by
IRB application, version August 2017, page 2 of 12
“increasing the use of neighborhood parks for leisure time MVPA (moderate-to-vigorous physical activity) could
yield societal dividends that go beyond individual pleasure and well-being (Han, Cohen, Derose, Marsh,
Williamson, & Raaen 2014).The objective of this study was to compute the influence of neighborhood parks to
population-level MVPA. The researchers studied park use in 83 Los Angeles parks between 2003 and 2016
through systemic examination and surveying parks users & residents. According to their data, the average 10-acre
park with 40,000 residents in a one-mile radius amassed 5,301 hours of use in one week, with 35% hours spent in
MVPA and 12% in vigorous physical activity. The study concluded that parks contribute extensively to MVPA.
Lastly, by helping augment Po’s parks master plan, this study is essential to maximizing the city’s potential as the
Park Needs Assessment will aid local government in understanding the essential phases to warrant residents
having sufficient park access and increased community programming needed by park users. Surveying will allow
park users to be a part of the process and give them a voice in designing and implementing changes in their city.
Community coalitions and participation on the part of neighborhood residents in redesigning park areas encourages
establishing public areas that promote physical activity. As indicated in a Benton, Oregon neighborhood park study,
public health researchers suggested that residents engaged in activities associated with increased physical activity
and community strengthening (Patton-López, Muñoz, Polanco, Olson, Brown, & DeGhetto 2017). Researchers
sought to prove this by redesigning a neighborhood park through a community-based participatory practice, the
park would build on existing community strengths. Conclusions of these studies found that increased participation
in the civil process, community engagement contributed to park use, health and respect for community’s culture.
Sources
Los Angeles County Department of Parks & Recreation. (2016, May 9). Los Angeles Countywide Parks &
Recreation Needs Assessment. Retrieved from http://lacountyparkneeds.org/wpcontent/uploads/2016/06/ParksNeedsAssessmentSummary_English.pdf
Dunnett, Nigel, Carys Swanwick, and Helen Woolley. Improving urban parks play areas and green spaces. London:
Department for transport, local government and the regions, 2002.
Bergman, Brandon. “Sustainable Water Practices at Pomona’s Parks: Improving Irrigation Use and Stormwater
Runoff Retention.” (2013).
Crompton, J. L. (2017). The impact of parks on property values: A review of the empirical evidence. Journal of
Leisure Research, 33(1), 1.
Han, B., Cohen, D. A., Derose, K. P., Marsh, T., Williamson, S., & Raaen, L. (2014). How much neighborhood
parks contribute to local residents’ physical activity in the City of Los Angeles: A meta-analysis. Preventive
medicine, 69, S106-S110.
Patton-López, M. M., Muñoz, R., Polanco, K., Olson, B., Brown, G., & DeGhetto, S. (2015). Redesigning a
neighborhood park to increase physical activity: a community-based participatory approach. Journal of Public
Health Management and Practice, 21, S101-S105.
2.
METHODS
It is important that the procedures to be applied – some might call these treatments – to the human subjects are thoroughly
explained and outlined. Those who will review and approve your study must fully understand what will take place during its
conduct. Once approved, it is necessary that the procedures be carried out in the way they are officially described in this protocol.
A. Summarize the overall design of your proposed study. Is it qualitative, Quantitative? Will you use an
experimental, quasi-experimental, or correlational design? Will you be modeling after the Delphi Study, Snowball Sampling,
etc. What are the independent variables, interventions, treatments, etc.?
The design of the study will be quantitative. The population of interest is park users in the city of Po. Surveys will be
anonymous and distributed by any of the thirty to fifty volunteers that the City of Po will provide. Volunteers will
have a training session conducted by the student Principal Investigator that will inform them of their roles and
participant engagement. Surveys that will be passed to the park users will have questions about the level of usage
participants have with their respective parks, safety concerns and, if applicable, how often their children visit the
parks and what activities they use at the park.
IRB application, version August 2017, page 3 of 12
The descriptive results would inform city officials not only of park usage but provide an overview of the
demographics of the nearby communities, enabling them to ascertain future park needs, revamping and future
programs to specific parks as well as understanding how the parks are being used. The proposed study will have
the following independent variables: demographic characteristics of park users (ethnicity, economic status, age and
sex), awareness of a park nearby and the distance to the nearest park. The dependent variable will the number of
times they utilize park grounds and amenities over a one-week period. The demographic information requested by
the survey will be gender, age, racial group, primary language spoken at home, education level, total household
income, number of people in the household and length of residence in Pomona.
Surveys are strictly anonymous to the Principle Investigator. Though volunteers will be handing out surveys and will
be in the presence of survey participants as they are completing, they are required to provide the participant ample
space to complete the survey, cannot engage them during completion and are required to provide the participant
with an envelope to insert their completed survey. Study assistants are instructed to deliver the envelopes to the
office of Mr M.O., the City of Po collaborator, where he and the student PI are the only ones who will have access
to the raw data. The data will be inputted in my personal computer which is password protected. Inputted data will
be accessible by my chair and my other committee member, Dr. K from the URP, who provided the introduction to
this study and has experience in collaborating with the City of Po.
B. Provide a step-by step outline of the activities included in this study.
what order? How will the information about the study be presented to the participants?
describe the specific measures and data to be collected in Section 4 below.
What events will occur and in
Please note you are asked to
The City of Po is providing approximately thirty to fifty volunteers to do survey implementation in all the parks and
recreational facilities. Information about the study will be written at the top of each survey in order to provide
participants with as much knowledge as possible on the study, as well as the Informed Consent Form (ICF). The first
step for me as the Principal Investigator will be to have a fifteen-minute training session with volunteers on: what the
study hopes to collect, study assistants responsibilities. These include providing contact information, not coercing
participants to answer any or all of the questions, to provide ample space for participants to complete the survey and
to protect the participant’s privacy with regard to responses during and completing the survey. Participants will be
given an unmarked envelope by the volunteers to insert their completed survey, and enveloped will be delivered to
the office of the city collaborator, Mr, M.O. at the city of PO.
The next step will be the actual survey implementation over a three-week period in order to sufficiently cover all the
parks in the city. Following that, I would input data in …
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